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Volume 3938

 Clues to Barsoomian locations in the Chronicles

Larger  |  Largest (300 dpi)
by Oberon Zell
The Books:
1. A Princess of Mars (1912) PM
2. The Gods of Mars (1912) GM
3. The Warlord of Mars (1913) WM
4. Thuvia, Maid of Mars (1920) TMM
5. The Chessmen of Mars (1922) CM
6. The Master Mind of Mars (1928) MMM
7. A Fighting Man of Mars (1931) FMM
8. Swords of Mars (1936) SM
9. Synthetic Men of Mars (1940) SMM
10. Llana of Gathol (1941) LG
11. John Carter of Mars (1940) JCM containing:
John Carter and the Giant of Mars (1940) JCGM
Skeleton Men of Jupiter (1942) (unfinished…) SMJ

Planets:

Mercury = Rasoom
Venus = Cosoom
Earth = Jasoom
Mars = Barsoom
Jupiter = Sasoom
Saturn = Xasoom
Uranus = ??soom
Neptune = ??soom
Distances & traveling speeds:
Barsoomian units of measurement and Earth equivalents: 

1 sof = 1.17 Earth inches
1 sofad = 10 sofs = 11.694 in.
1 ad = 10 sofads = 116.94 in. = 9.75 ft.
1 haad = 200 ads = 1,949 ft. = .37 mi.
1 karad (degree longitude at equator) = 100 haads = 36.84 mi.
360 karads = circumference of Mars at equator = 13,263 mi.

1 mile = 5,280 feet = 2.71 haads

Thoats can cover about 80 miles per day (14 hrs @ 5.7 mph)
Fit human walking speed about 3.5 mph.
Red men can run/walk about 50 miles per day (12 hrs @ 4 mph)
John Carter can run up to 100 miles per day (14 hrs @ 7 mph)
Malagors fly at about 60 mph.
Most fliers average 60-75 mph.
Max speed of fliers: old 166 mph. New—twice that.
Hadron’s one-man flier goes 300 mph.

(Although walking speeds can vary greatly depending on factors such as height, weight, age, terrain, surface, load, culture, effort, and fitness, the average human walking speed is about 3.1 mph. Specific studies have found walking speeds ranging from 2.8-3 mph for older individuals to 3.3-3.4 mph for younger individuals, although a brisk walking speed can be around 4.3 mph and champion racewalkers can average up to 8 mph over a distance of 10 miles.) 

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AREOGRAPHY: MAPPING BARSOOM 
 In the first volume of what would eventually become a 11-book series, Edgar Rice Burroughs states that John Carter was first transported to the planet Mars on March 3, 1866. He spent the next nine years on Mars—called “Barsoom” by the Martians. After returning to Earth precipitously, he sought for ten years a way to return to Barsoom and his beloved Dejah Thoris. He eventually “died” on a bluff on the Hudson River in New York on March 4, 1886—and returned to Mars. His manuscript—titled A Princess of Mars -- was published by Burroughs in 1912. 

 Describing Dejah Thoris’ drawing of a map of Barsoom, the reference to “long straight lines, sometimes running parallel and sometimes converging toward some great circle” indicates that the map referenced by Burroughs for his Barsoomian aerography is Giovanni Schiaparelli’s final map of Mars, compiled from his observations during oppositions of the red planet from 1877-1886. Schiaparelli was the first and primary astronomer to record parallel "canalli" on Mars:

Taking a great diamond from her hair [Dejah Thoris] drew upon the marble floor the first map of Barsoomian territory I had ever seen. It was crisscrossed in every direction with long straight lines, sometimes running parallel and sometimes converging toward some great circle. The lines, she said, were waterways; the circles, cities; and one far to the northwest of us she pointed out as Helium. (Princess of Mars, Chap. 16, p. 80)
Waterways go to Helium from the southeast. One passes 50 miles south of Thark, another passes 200 miles north of Thark. There is another unnamed waterway north of Thark moving roughly east-west but probably to the unnamed city east of Helium. 

Roughly northwest of Helium is a large unnamed city with smaller cities between. Hastor is about 185 mi. due south of Greater Helium, and Zor lies about 380 miles southeast of Helium. We have little to no information on the north and south-west areas.

Ruins of Barsoom’s ancient dead cities may be found at the original edges of former seacoasts, with successive re-settlements following the retreating seas out into the deserts, where their last remnants lie at the intersections of canals:

Upon the edges of plateaus that once had marked the shore-line of a noble continent I passed above the lonely monuments of that ancient prosperity, the sad, deserted cities of old Barsoom. Even in their ruins there is a grandeur and magnificence that still have power to awe a modern man. Down towards the lowest sea bottoms other ruins mark the tragic trail that that ancient civilization had followed in pursuit of the receding waters of its ocean to where the last city finally succumbed, bereft of commerce, shorn of power, to fall at last an easy victim to the marauding hordes of fierce, green tribesmen, whose descendants now are the sole rulers of many of those deserted sea bottoms. (Fighting Man, chap. 2, p. 164)


Regarding translating terms:
 In several footnotes, Burroughs states that he has translated Barsoomian terms into their English equivalents. This is a crucial clue to the first step in unraveling the cartographic puzzle Burroughs imbeds throughout the series as to the locations of Barsoomian cities and other features:

 I have used the word radium in describing this powder because in the light of recent discoveries on Earth I believe it to be a mixture of which radium is the base. In Captain Carter’s manuscript it is mentioned always by the name used in the written language of Helium and is spelled in hieroglyphics which it would be difficult and useless to reproduce. (Princess of Mars, chap. 13, p. 60: footnote)

Wherever Captain Carter has used Martian measurements of time, distance, weight, and the like I have translated them into as nearly their equivalent in Earthly values as possible. (Gods of Mars, chap.  17, p. 144: footnote)


Magnetic Field: 
Several times in the Chronicles, reference is made to the Magnetic field of Barsoom:

It was this type of motor with which my scout flier was equipped—a seemingly fuelless motor, since it derived its invisible and imponderable energy from the inexhaustible and illimitable magnetic field of the planet. (Fighting Man, chap. 2, p. 163)

I afterward learned that the shaft rests directly over the magnetic pole of Mars, but whether this adds in any way to its incalculable power of attraction I do not know. (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 277)

Unfortunately for these narratives, Mars has virtually no magnetic field whatsoever, and thus no magnetic pole. This lack of a magnetic field also means Mars has no radiation belt like the Earth's Van Allen Belts, nor any polar auroras. This, however, was not known in Burroughs' time, but was only discovered by the Viking missions in the early 1970s.

Ancient History:
A million years ago, shallow oceans covered much of the planet, and a great seafaring civilization of white-skinned, yellow-haired people called the Orovars ruled the world and plied the seas in great ships. Three of the novels (PM, FMM, LG) provide specific referencess: 

“It is sad, Sola, that you were not born a million years ago,” snapped Sarkoja, “when all the hollows of the land were filled with water, and the peoples were as soft as the stuff they sailed upon.” (Princess of Mars, chap. 9, p. 39)

[Dejah Thoris] told me that these people had presumably flourished over a hundred thousand years ago. [an apparent contradiction!] They were the early progenitors of her race, but had mixed with the other great race of early Martians, who were very dark, almost black, and also with the reddish yellow race which had flourished at the same time.

These three great divisions of the higher Martians had been forced into a mighty alliance as the drying up of the Martian seas had compelled them to seek the comparatively few and always diminishing fertile areas, and to defend themselves, under new conditions of life, against the wild hordes of green men.

Ages of close relationship and intermarrying had resulted in the race of red men, of which Dejah Thoris was a fair and beautiful daughter.  (Princess of Mars, chap. 11, p. 52) 

[Hadron in Xanator] From the upper floor a wooden ladder extended upward through the centre of the tower above. It was of solid skeel, which is practically indestructible, so that though I knew it might be anywhere from five hundred thousand to a million years old, I did not hesitate to trust myself to it. (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 34) 

I do not know how old these buildings are [in Horz] but I have heard Martian savants argue that the original dominant race of white-skinned, yellow-haired people flourished fully a million years ago. (Llana of Gathol, book 1, chap. 3, p. 14) 

“The inhabitants of Horz are, as far as we know, the sole remaining remnant of the once dominant race of Barsoom, the Orovars. A million years ago our ships ranged the five great oceans, which we ruled. The city of Horz was not only the capital of a great empire, it was the seat of learning and culture of the most glorious race of human beings a world has ever known. Our empire spread from pole to pole. There were other races on Barsoom, but they were few in numbers and negligible in importance. We looked upon them as inferior creatures. The Orovars owned Barsoom, which was divided among a score of powerful jeddaks. They were a happy, prosperous, contented people, the various nations, seldom warring upon one another. Horz had enjoyed a thousand years of peace.

“They had reached the ultimate pinnacle of civilization and perfection when the first shadow of impending fate darkened their horizon—the seas began to recede, the atmosphere to grow more tenuous. What science had long predicted was coming to pass—a world was dying.

“For ages our cities followed the receding waters. Straits and bays, canals and lakes dried up. Prosperous seaports became deserted inland cities. Famine came. Hungry hordes made war upon the more fortunate. The growing hordes of green men overran what had once been fertile farm land, preying upon all.” (Llana, book 1, chap. 4, pp. 16-17)

“Then why are the pits here? [in Horz]” I demanded.

      “Oh, they were built when the city was built, perhaps a million years ago, perhaps more.” (Llana, book 1, chap. 5, p. 20)

…and six other references mentioning the time of the Orovars as a million years ago.

Creation Myth:
All the peoples of Barsoom (except the Phundahlians) claim descent from the legendary Tree of Life, said to have flourished in the Valley Dor at the South Pole 23 million years ago:

“The First Born of Barsoom,” [Xodar] explained, “are the race of black men of which I am a Dator, or as the lesser Barsoomians would say, Prince. My race is the oldest on this planet. We trace our lineage, unbroken, direct to the Tree of Life which flourished in the Valley Dor twenty-three million years ago.

“For countless ages the fruit of this tree underwent the gradual changes of evolution, passing by degrees from true plant to a combination of plant and animal. In the first stages the fruit of the tree possessed only the power of independent muscular action, while the stem remained attached to the parent plant; later a brain developed in the fruit, so that hanging there by their long stems they thought and moved as individuals. 

“Then, with the development of perceptions came a comparison of them, and thus reason and the power to reason were born upon Barsoom. 

“Many forms of life came and went upon the tree with the passing ages, but still all were attached to the parent plant by stems. At length the fruit of the tree consisted in tiny plant men, such as we now see reproduced in such huge dimensions in the Valley Dor, but still hanging to the limbs and branches of the tree by the stems which grew from the tops of their heads.

The buds from which the plant men blossomed reassembled large nuts about a foot in diameter, divided by double partition walls into four sections. In one section grew the plant man, in another a sixteen-legged worm, in the third the progenitor of the white ape and in the fourth the primeval black man of Barsoom.

“When the bud burst the plant man remained dangling at the end of his stem, but the three other sections fell to the ground, where the efforts of their imprisoned occupants to escape sent them hopping about in all directions. 

“Thus, as time went on, all Barsoom was covered with these imprisoned creatures. For countless ages, they lived their long lives within their hard shells, hopping and skipping about the broad planet; falling into rivers, lakes, and seas, to be still further spread about the surface of the new world. 

“Countless billions died before the first black man broke through his prison walls into the light of day. Prompted by curiosity, he broke open other shells and the peopling of Barsoom commenced.

“The pure strain of the blood of this first black man has remained untainted by admixture with other creatures in the race of which I am a member; but from the 16-legged worm, the first ape and renegade black man has sprung every other form of animal life upon Barsoom” (Gods of Mars, chap.  7, pp. 62-63)

[Ras Thavas] “Now, on Mars, we hold to a very different theory of creation and evolution. We believe that as the planet cooled chemicals combined to form a spore which was the basis of vegetable life from which, after countless ages, the Tree of Life grew and flourished, perhaps in the center of the Valley Dor twenty-three million years ago, as some believe, perhaps elsewhere...” [continues word-for-word as previous.]  (Synthetic Men, chap. 7, p. 223)

[Man Lat] “Do you not know that the First Born of Barsoom, sometimes known to you lesser creatures as The Black Pirates of Barsoom, are of the oldest race on the planet. We trace our lineage, unbroken, direct to the Tree of Life which flourished in the Valley Dor twenty-three million years ago...” [continues word-for-word as previous.]  (Llana, book 2, chap. 12, pp. 90-91)


A BARSOOMIAN GAZETTEER

Here follows a Gazetteer of Barsoom, along with quotations I have carefully gleaned from the Chronicles that provide the clues to all the locations cited. For much of this information, I am greatly indebted to J.G. Huckenpöhler’s excellent “Huck’s Gazetteer of Barsoom;” and to John Flint Roy's A Guide to Barsoom (Ballantine Books, NY, 1976):
 

AAANTHOR - Dead city in the no-man's land between Torquas and Thurd. Now inhabited only by white apes and occasional roving bands of green men. Located at 50o S., and 40o E. of Horz, and about 65 miles southeast of the boundary of Torquas. (TMM/4, 12)

Thar Ban, Jed among the hordes of Torquas, rode swiftly across the ocre vegetation of the dead sea-bottom toward then ruins of ancient Aaanthor. (Thuvia, chap. 4, p. 30)

From the boundary of Torquas to the city of Aanthor is a distance of some 200 haads (74 mi.), so that the Heliumite had before him a journey of more than 150 Earth miles between him and Aanthor [through a tunnel from Lothar—daylight hours] …coming at last into the light of day beyond the mountains, and no great distance from the southern verge of the domains of the Torquassians, not more than 150 haads (55 mi.) at most. (Thuvia, chap. 10, p. 83)

Aanthor lies in 50° south latitude and 40° east of Horz…while Dusar lies 15° north of the equator and 20° east from Horz. (Thuvia, chap. 12, p. 102)

[from Aanthor] All that night and the following day and the second night they rode toward the northeast…and at dawn of the second day Carthoris saw in the distance the waving ribbon of great trees that marked one of the long Barsoomian waterways. [Thoats can travel 80 miles per day, so this 30-hour thoat ride may have covered 120 miles.]
 It was mid-forenoon when the two at last entered one of the roads that cut through the cultivated districts at regular intervals, joining the arid wastes on either side with the great white, central highway that follows through the center from end to end of the far-reaching, threadlike farm lands. (Thuvia, chap. 11, p. 98)


AMHOR – City-state of red men, in Schiaparelli’s Jacartes, 740 mi. north of the Toonolian Marshes, 1,850 mi. east of Duhor, 700  miles north of Morbus, and about 660 mi. north of a point about 115 mi. west of Gooli. The principal business is raising thoats and zitidars. Amhor is noted for its comprehensive zoo, which even exhibits humans and green men. Amhorians are hereditary enemy of Duhorians. (MMM/4; SMM/23-27)

5,000 haads (1,850 mi.) separate Duhor from Amhor. (Mastermind, chap. 4, p. 396)

Amhor—a city about 700 miles north of Morbus. (Synthetic Men, chap. 4, p. 208)

Amhor lies about 750 Earth miles directly north of the point where our capture took place, which distance the ship covered in about seven and a half hours [at 60 mph]. (Synthetic Men, chap. 23, p. 311)

ARTOLIAN HILLS – Extensive range of snow-clad hills surrounding Duhor and extending towards Toonal. They lie between 740-1100 mi. north of Ptarth and the same distance west of Phundahl. Schiaparelli’s Tanais. (MMM/4; SMM/2)

Duhor lies a full 7,800 haads (2,886 mi.) from Toonol, upon the opposite side of the snow-clad Artolian Hills. (Mastermind, chap. 4, p. 397)

The snow-clad Artolian Hills which surround Duhor… (Synthetic Men, chap. 2, p. 199)

ATMOSPHERE FACTORY - Installation regulating the Martian atmosphere, which is largely artificial. Located to the northwest of Warhoon, between Thark and Warhoon territory, near their northern boundaries, about 825 mi. (10 days by thoat) from Zodanga, near a Zodangan canal. (PM/20; WM/9)

[From Warhoon] I started off in a northwesterly direction towards a point where…lay the nearest waterway… Through two long weeks I wandered… At daybreak of the fifteenth day of my search I was overjoyed to see the high trees that denoted the object of my search. About noon I dragged myself wearily to the portals of a huge building [the Atmosphere Factory] which covered four square miles and towered two hundred feet in the air. (Princess, chap. 20, pp. 97-98)

BANTOOM - Valley and kingdom in the southern hemisphere inhabited by the bizarre Kaldanes, about 1,320 mi. southwest of Torquas, and 3,630 mi. west-southwest of Helium and far southwest of Gathol. Mare Tyrrhenum. Unusually, a small stream runs through the valley, which runs from northwest to southeast. (CM/3-9)

Beneath her spread a beautiful valley surrounded by low hills. Dotting it were numerous circular towers, dome-capped, and surrounding each tower was a stone wall enclosing several acres of ground. The valley appeared to be in a high state of cultivation. (Chessmen, chap. 3, p. 159)

Then her eyes wandered out across the valley until presently they picked out what appeared to be a tiny stream winding its way through the center of the farm lands—a strange sight upon Barsoom. (Chessmen, chap. 3, p. 161)

CARRION CAVES - Series of 27 interconnected caverns (a former underground riverbed) snaking through the edge of the Arctic icecap, about one-sixth of the way around the planet from Kaol. They are the only land passage connecting the hothouse cities of the North Pole with the outside world, beneath the ice cliffs. Here the yellow men of Okar bring their dead so that the stench will discourage any invasion of their territory. (WM/8)

[From Kaol] Straight toward the north, Day and night, our destination compass led us after the fleeing flier…
 Early in the second night we noticed the air becoming perceptibly colder, and from the distance we had come from the equator were assured that we were rapidly approaching the north arctic region.
     …never had any flier returned who had passed to any considerable distance beyond the mighty ice-barrier that fringes the southern hem of the frigid zone…
      The distance from the barrier to the pole was no more than a swift flier should cover in a few hours [at about 75 mph]… (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 263)

Suddenly a towering wall of white rose directly in our path, and…with a sickening crash we struck the high looming obstacle three-quarters on. …we found we were at the foot of a mighty ice-barrier, from which outcropped great patches of the granite hills which hold it from encroaching farther toward the south….
      “Nor shall I admit that it [the ice barrier] is impassable before I have followed its entire circle and stand again upon this spot, defeated. The sooner we start, the better, for I see no other way, and it will take us more than a month to travel the weary, frigid miles that lie before us.”
      For five days of cold and suffering and privation we traversed the rough and frozen way which lies at the foot of the ice-barrier. (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 264)

…for the better part of two hours the trail paralleled the barrier, and then suddenly turned toward it through the roughest and seemingly most impassable country I ever had beheld…
      For another two hours we were occupied in traversing a few hundred yards to the foot of the barrier.
      Then, turning about the corner of a wall-like outcropping of granite, we came upon a smooth area of two or three acres before the base of the towering pile of ice and rock that had baffled us for days, and before us beheld the dark and cavernous mouth of a cave…the fabled Carrion Caves! (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 266)

DUHOR – City-state of red men. Located 1,850 mi. west of Amhor, 2,886 mi. from Toonol, on the opposite side of the Artolian hills. North and a little west of Ptarth, and 3,465 mi. northweast (or northeast) of Helium, at the intersection of Schiaparelli’s Sirenius and Tanais. Duhor and Amhor are hereditary enemies. (MMM/4, 6, 14; FMM/Foreword; SMM/1, 2)

“When the ship, with its small convoy, had covered 4,000 of the 5,000 haads (1,850 mi.) that separate Duhor from Amhor, it was sighted by a fleet from Phundahl which immediately attacked.” (Master Mind, chap. 4, p. 396)

“Duhor lies a full 7,800 haads (2,886 mi.) from Toonol, upon the opposite side of the snow-clad Artolian Hills. You, a stranger and alone, could never reach it; for between lie the Toonolian Marshes, wild hordes, savage beasts and warlike cities. You would die uselessly within the first dozen haads, even could you escape the island upon which stands the laboratory of Ras Thavas.” (Master Mind, chap. 4, p. 397)

Ptarth lay at a considerable distance to the west of Phundahl, and a little south and about an equal distance from Duhor, which lay north and a little west of it. An inhabitant of Ptarth…would know much of the entire country included in the triangle formed by Phundahl, Ptarth and Duhor. (Master Mind, chap. 6, p. 410)

Duhor lies…about 4,000 Earth miles northwest [northeast] of the twin cities of Helium.” (Synthetic Men, chap. 2, p. 197)

DUSAR - Powerful nation of red men, noted for its honey. Its capital, of the same name, is situated 4,455 mi. west of Ptarth, at 15o N., 20o E. of Horz. Its domain stretches far to the south; one of its canals (Schiaparelli's Tartarus) passes to the northeast of Torquas. In Trivium Charontis. TMM/-; FMM/16; LG-4/1)

[From Dusar] 13,500 haads (4,995 mi.) away lay Ptarth-- a stiff thirty-hr. journey [@ 148 mph] for the swiftest of fliers.” (Thuvia, chap. 14, p. 122)

[From Horz] Far ahead lay Dusar… Beyond Dusar was no friendly city all the way to Helium. (Llana, book 4, chap. 1, p. 152)

EXUM - Dead city on the equator, identified as Barsoomian Greenwich. A line drawn between Lesser Helium and Horz (also on the Prime Meridian at a distance of 5,000 miles from Helium) bisects the equator about 1,600 miles east of the prime meridian. I place Exum at 220°W on a modern map of Mars, where Schiaparelli’s Cerberus and Antaeus Funostos canals cross.  (SMM/2; LG-1/1)

I flew northwest from Helium, which lies 30 degrees south of the Equator which I crossed about 1,600 miles east of Exum, the Barsoomian Greenwich. North and west of me lay a vast, almost unexplored region… (Llana, chap. 1, p. 6)

FORBIDDEN LAND - What the outer world Barsoomians call the arctic region within the great northern Ice Barrier. (WM/8)

The distance from the barrier to the pole was no more than a swift flyer should cover in a few hours, and so it was assumed that some frightful catastrophe awaited those who reached the “forbidden land,” as it had come to be called by the Martians of the outer world. (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 140)

FOREST OF HIDDEN (or LOST) MEN – A sunken, fertile valley (Shiaparelli's Nodus Gordii) on the equator between Exum and Helium, and south of a line between Helium and Dusar, between 40°-50°E of Exum. Two rival cities of Invak (on the equator at the western side of the Forest) and Onvak (to the east) are at constant war with each other. The people ingest pills that render them invisible for a time. (LG-4/1-)

We decided to give Dusar a wide berth, and in doing so we flew over country with which I was entirely unfamiliar. It was a hilly country, and in the long deep valley I saw one of those rarest of all sights on Mars, a splendid forest. (Llana, book 4, chap. 1, p. 152)

GATHOL - Gathol is the oldest Red Martian inhabited city on Barsoom, noted for its inexhaustible diamond mines. The kingdom of Gathol extends from the equator to 10o N., and from 10o-20o W of Exum. Schiaparelli’s Aethiops canal marks the western boundary of the country. The city was built upon an island in the Throxeus Ocean, and now covers a mountain entirely surrounded by a great salt marsh. The country consists of the mountain city, with its diamond mines, and a great area of grazing land for thoats and zitidars. (CM/-; FMM/1; LG/-)

“My country [Gathol] extends from Polodona [the equator] north ten karads [degrees] and from the 10th karad west of Horz to the 20th west, including thus a million square haads, the greater portion of which is fine grazing land where run our great herds of thoats and zitidars.” (Chessmen, chap. 1, p. 142)

Gathol…is very much more than just a single city, comprising, as it does, some 140,000 square miles, much of which is fine grazing land where run their great herds of thoats and zitidars. (Llana, book 3, chap. 1, p. 99)

The far northwest of the country is cut by one of Barsoom's famous canals [Schiaparelli's Aethiops. –OZ]; and here the grains, and vegetables, and fruits which supply the city are raised; while upon her plains graze the herds that supply her with meat. (Llana, book 31, chap. 4, p. 108)

“Your ancient history has doubtless told you that Gathol was built upon an island in Throxeus, mightiest of the five oceans of old Barsoom. As the ocean receded Gathol crept down the sides of the mountain, the summit of which was the island upon which she had been built, until today she covers the slope from summit to base, while the bowels of the great hill are honeycombed with the galleries of her mines. Entirely surrounding us is a great salt marsh, which protects us from invasion by land, while the rugged and oft-times vertical topography of our mountain renders the landing of hostile airships a precarious undertaking.” (Chessmen, chap. 1, p. 142)

It is only about 4,000 haads (1,480 mi.) from Horz to Gathol. (Llana, book 1, chap. 7, p. 27)

Gathol is southwest of Horz… (Llana, book 2, chap. 1, p. 52)

GHASTA - A small walled citadel of red men, inside the crater of an extinct volcano called the Valley Hohr, through which runs the River Syl from Tjanath. The population is only 100 members of the court and 500 slaves. It is southwest of Tjanath, perhaps 15 mi. inside the border. (FMM/78-9)

[Coming down the underground river southwest from Tjanath] Presently we saw ahead of us what appeared to be an opening in the forest, and a moment later we emerged into a clearing. Looming in from of us at a distance of perhaps less than a haad (.37 mi.) was a towering pile of masonry. It was a gloomy pile, apparently built of black volcanic rock. For some thirty feet above the ground there was a blank wall, pierced by but a single opening—a small doorway almost directly in front of us. This part of the structure appeared to be a wall, beyond it rose buildings of weird and grotesque outlines, and dominating all was a lofty tower, from the summit of which a wisp of smoke curled upward into the quiet air. (Fighting Man, chap. 7, p. 230)

GOLDEN CLIFFS - The 5,000-foot sheer walls of a possible impact crater within the Otz Mountains, surrounding the Lost Sea of Korus and the Valley Dor at the south pole. They are honeycombed with deep caverns and shot with veins and patches of solid gold, broken by outcroppings of ruby, emerald, and diamond boulders. GM/1; WM 1)

At a little distance up the river rose mighty perpendicular bluffs, from the very base of which the great river seemed to rise. (Gods, chap. 1, p. 4) 

The cliffs rose perpendicular directly from the almost level sward of the valley. There was no accumulation of fallen debris, forming a more or less rough ascent to them, as is the case with nearly all other cliffs I have ever seen. The scattered boulders that had fallen from above and lay upon or partly buried in the turf, were the only indication that any disintegration of the massive, towering pile of rocks ever had taken place…
     To my right the bottom of the cliff was lost in the dense foliage of the forest, which terminated at its very foot, rearing its gorgeous foliage fully a thousand feet against its stern and forbidding neighbor.
     To the left the cliff ran, apparently unbroken, across the head of the broad valley, to be lost in the outlines of what appeared to be a range of mighty mountains that skirted and confined the valley in every direction.
     Perhaps a thousand feet from me the river broke, as it seemed, directly from the base of the cliffs…
     The cliffs towered above me a good 5,000 feet. The sun was not quite upon them and they loomed a dull yellow in their own shade. Here and there they were broken with streaks and patches of dusky, red, green, and occasional areas of white quartz. (Gods, chap. 2, p. 11)

…When the sun passed the cliff’s zenith, and as the bright rays touched the dull surface it burst out into a million scintillant lights of burnished gold, of flaming red, of soft greens, and gleaming whites—a more gorgeous and inspiring spectacle human eye has never rested upon.
      The face of the entire cliff was…so shot with veins and patches of solid gold as to quite present the appearance of a solid wall of that precious metal except where it was broken by outcroppings of ruby, emerald, and diamond boulders. (Gods, chap. 2, p. 12)

GOOLI - A village of thatched grass huts on the island of Ompt in the Toonolian Marshes, inhabited by a vain, idiotic and cowardly race of kangaroo-like oviparous marsupial humanoids. (SMM/20-22)

They led us back along the stream and up over a little rise of ground before which we saw a forest, at the edge of which lay a village of thatched huts.
      “That,” said the leader, pointing, “is Gooli, the largest city in the world. There, in his great palace, dwells Anatok, Jed of Gooli and all of the Island of Ompt.” (Synthetic Men, chap. 20, p. 298)

GREAT ICE BARRIER – A towering wall of ice completely surrounding the north polar region at about 70°-77°N. (WM/8)

The distance from the barrier to the pole was no more than a swift flyer should cover in a few hours… (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 140)

Suddenly a towering wall of white rose directly in our path, and though I threw the helm hard over, and reversed our engine, I was too late to avoid collision.
     …we found we were at the foot of a mighty ice-barrier, from which outcropped great patches of the granite hills which hold it from encroaching farther toward the south. (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 140-141)

 “Nor shall I admit that it [the ice barrier] is impassable before I have followed its entire circle and stand again upon this spot, defeated. The sooner we start, the better, for I see no other way, and it will take us more than a month to travel the weary, frigid miles that lie before us.”
     For five days of cold and suffering and privation we traversed the rough and frozen way which lies at the foot of the ice-barrier. (Warlord, chap. 8, p. 142)

HASTOR - City subject to Helium, about 185 mi. due south of Greater Helium. It is noted for its airship building. Located near the southern border of the Empire of Helium, it serves as a bastion against the savage green Thurds. (GM/18-20; WM/6; FMM/1; SMM/25; LG-3/7)

[Hastor] “… lies directly south of Greater Helium, sir; about 500 haads.” (185 mi.) (Llana, book 3, chap. 7, p. 121)

HELIUM FOREST - Wooded area in the Valley of Helium, northwest of the Twin Cities. Its huge sorapus trees furnish much of the lumber supply to the civilized nations of Mars.

[Sola:] “We might hide among the great trees [of the Helium Forest] for a time, but the chances are small indeed for escape.”  (Princess, chap. 16, p. 80)

HELIUM – Mighty empire of red men, in the southeastern quadrant. Principal exports are lumber and metal products. Its boundaries extend from the southern ice fields to and beyond the equator; and from Torquas in the west to the boundaries of Zodanga in the east. It has the greatest air navy on Barsoom. Its central capital consists of two immense, circular walled cities, 75 miles apart: Greater Helium and Lesser Helium. (All books)

Helium… alone of all Barsoomian metropolises consists in two immense circular walled cities about 75 miles apart. (Princess, chap. 23, p. 124)

In the middle of the afternoon we sighted the scarlet and yellow towers of Helium, and a short time later a great fleet of Zodangan battleships rose from the camps of the beseigers without the city, and advanced to meet us.... (Princess, chap. 26, p. 135)

The three great powers of the eastern hemisphere—Helium, Ptarth and Kaol. (Thuvia, Chap. 10, p. 83)

HELIUM, GREATER - Capital of the Empire of Heium, famous for its mile-high Scarlet Tower, is at 30o S., and 1,000 mi. southwest of Zodanga (Princess of Mars). Or, alternately, 1,900 miles due west of Zodanga (Swords of Mars)

Helium lies a thousand miles southwest of Zodanga, and with my compass intact I should have made the trip…in four or five hours. (Princess, chap. 23, p.124)

Over 1,900 miles east of the Twin Cities of Helium, at about 30o south, longitude 172o east, lies Zodanga. (Swords, chap. 1, p. 5)

HELIUM, LESSER - Second city of the Empire of Helium, it lies 66 mi. northwest of Greater Helium, and about 5,000 miles southeast of Horz. Its major landmark is a mile-high yellow tower.

I flew northwest from [Lesser] Helium, which lies 30 degrees south of the Equator… (Llana, chap. 1, p. 6)

HELIUM, VALLEY OF – Forested valley lying between Greater Helium and Lesser Helium, and stretching away to the northwest. Solis Lacus.

[In Thark] “The great waterway which leads to Helium is but fifty miles to the south,” murmured Sola, half to herself; “a swift thoat might make it in three hours; and then to Helium it is 500 miles, most of the way through thinly settled districts…”
     Finally, after studying the map carefully in the moonlight which now flooded the room, I pointed out a waterway far to the north of us which also seemed to lead to Helium. 
     “Does not this pierce your grandfather’s territory?” I asked. 
     “Yes,” she answered, “but it is 200 miles north of us; it is one of the waterways we crossed on the trip to Thark.” (Princess, chap. 16, p. 80)

HOHR VALLEY- The gigantic crater of a long-extinct volcano, cut by the River Syl, one day’s walk (in the dark, probably less than 30 mi.) southwest of Tjanath. In the crater is located the horrible citadel of Ghasta. (FMM/7)

From this new vantage-point we had a better view of the valley than had at first been accorded us, and now more marked than ever were the indications that it was the crater of some gigantic and long-extinct volcano. (Fighting Man, chap. 7, p. 230)

HOLY LAND – What the First Born, or Black Pirates, call the secret subterranean world beneath the Valley Dor, at the south pole, where their Temple of Issus is located. (GM/8)

“You will see what no other than the First Born and their slaves know the existence of—the subterranean entrance to the Holy Land, to the real heaven of Barsoom.” (Gods, chap. 8, p. 69)

HORZ - An ancient city, seat of Barsoomian culture and learning, and last refuge of the white race of Orovars, a million years ago. On the central meridian (220°), 1,320 mi. north-northeast of Gathol, and 5,000 miles northwest of Lesser Helium. (TMM/12; LG-1/-; LG-2/1; LG-4/1)

I had set my directional compass upon Horz, the long deserted city of ancient Barsoomian culture, and loafed along at 75 miles an hour at an altitude of 500 to 1,000 feet. I had seen some green men northeast of Torquas and had been forced up to escape their fire, which I did not return as I was not seeking adventure; and I had crossed two thin ribbons of red Martian farm land bordering canals that bring the precious waters from the annually melting ice caps at the poles. Beyond these I saw no signs of human life in all the 5,000 miles that lie between Lesser Helium and Horz. (Llana, Chap. 1, p. 6)

It was about noon of the third day when I sighted the towers of ancient Horz. The oldest part of the city lies upon the edge of a vast plateau; the newer portions, and they are countless thousands of years old, are terraced downward into a great gulf, marking the hopeless pursuit of the receding sea upon the shores of which this rich and powerful city once stood….
     Horz is, perhaps, the oldest and the greatest of the dead cities of Barsoom. (Llana, chap. 1, p. 7)

“It is fully 4,000 haads from here [Horz] to Gathol, the nearest friendly city.” That would be the equivalent of 1,500 miles—a very long walk. [Actually, 4,000 haads = 1,480 mi. -OZ] (Llana, chap. 13, p. 49)

ILLALL - Okar city in the Arctic icecap, the most remote from the capital of Kadabra. (WM/9)

“We be from Illall,” I continued, giving the name of the most remote city of Okar, which has little or no intercourse with Kadabra. (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 277)

INVAK - City of red men in the Forest of Lost (or Hidden) Men between Horz and Helium, south of Dusar, on the Equator, some 1850 miles east of Gathol. The inhabitants have invented a pill which renders them invisible for about a day. Since John Carter reached Invak first, it must be the further west of the two cities in the valley.  The other city is Onvak, bitter enemies to Invak. (LG-4/-)

“Resistance will be futile,” said the voice; “there are twenty of us and only one of you… I am Ptantus, jeddak of Invak.” (Llana, book 4, chap. 2, p. 153)

“I was trying out a new motor that we have developed in Zodanga and was trying to establish a record for a circumnavigation of Barsoom at the Equator, and of course this place had to be on the Equator and right under me when my motor quit.” (Llana, book 4, chap. 4, p. 162)

“There is another city in the forest inhabited by an offshoot of this tribe,” explained Ptor Fak; “it is called Onvak, and its people also possess the secret of invisibility. Occasionally the Onvak’s come and attack Invak, or lie in wait for the Invak hunting parties when they go out into the forest.”  (Llana, book 4, chap. 4, p. x) 

ISS, RIVER - The sacred river of the dead, also called the River of Death and the River of Mystery. Its main source is certainly the Great Toonolian Marshes. Much of it is underground, but there are various access points where pilgrims may take boats for their final journey to the Barsoomian Paradise in the Valley Dor at the south pole. It flows southward, probably through Mare Acidalium, Niliacus Lacus, and via the Indus to the Margaritifer Sinus, and thence from Pandorae Fretum into Hellespontus and the southern icecap, where it flows underground for 1,000 miles before finally entering the Valley Dor. (PM/24; GM/-; WM/1-7)

“Oh, it is the continual, awful period of bloodshed from the time we break the shell until we gladly embrace the bosom of the river of mystery, the dark and ancient Iss which carries us to an unknown, but at least no more frightful and terrible existence!” (Princess, chap. 9, p 39)

“All Barsoomians speak the same tongue from the ice-clad south to the ice-clad north, though their written languages differ. Only in the valley Dor, where the river Iss empties into the lost sea of Korus, is there supposed to be another language spoken, and, except in the legends of our ancestors, there is no record of a Barsoomian returning up the river Iss, from the shores of Korus in the valley Dor. (Princess, chap. 11, p. 49)

To my left the sea extended as far as the eye could reach, before me only a vague, dim line indicated its further shore, while at my right a mighty river, broad, placid, and majestic, flowed between scarlet banks to empty into the quiet sea before me. (Gods, chap. 1, p. 3)

At a little distance up the river rose mighty perpendicular bluffs, from the very base of which the great river seemed to rise. (Gods, chap. 1, p. 4) 

“…the subterranean passage through which the Iss flows for a thousand miles before it enters the Valley Dor as to reach the very walls of the Temple of Issus…” (Gods, chap. 4, p. 37)

Once we passed far above what seemed to be a deep canyon-like rift stretching from the ice wall on the north across the valley as far as the eye could reach. “That is the bed of the River Iss,” said Xodar. “It runs far beneath the ice field, and below the level of the Valley Otz, but its canyon is open here.” (Gods, chap. 8, p. 71)

JAHAR - City and empire of red men in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere. The capital city is about 825 mi. northeast of Jhama. It lies southwest of 30°S, 35°E, and 50°-75° from Torquas. Its most southern province is desolate U-Gor, overpopulated by savage cannibals. (FMM/-)

The destination compass was of little value to me, since I did not know the exact location of Jahar. However, I set it roughly at a point about  30o south latitude, 35o east longitude, as I believed that Jahar lay somewhere to the south-west of that point. (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 164)

Flying at high speed I had long since left the cultivated areas near Helium and was crossing above a desolate and deserted waste of ocre moss that clothed the dead sea bottoms where once rolled a mighty ocean… 
     Upon the edges of plateaus that once had marked the shore-line of a noble continent I passed above…the sad, deserted cities of old Barsoom. (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 164)

The city of Torquas…was once the most magnificent and powerful of ancient Barsoom. Though it has been deserted for ages by all but roaming tribes of green men, it is still marked on every map, and as it lay directly in the path of my search for Jahar, and as I had never seen it, I had purposely laid my course to pass over it… (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 165)

[At Torquas] I had already flown about 70 karads [degrees] from Helium, but I was aware that Jahar might still be 50-70 karads distant… (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 166)

Jahar is northeast of Tjanath and southwest of Xanator. (Fighting Man, chap. 5, p. 187)

JHAMA - Abandoned castle used as a laboratory by Phor Tak, located 500 mi. northeast of Tjanath and 825 mi. west of Jahar. (FMM/9+)

4,000 haads (1,480 mi.) of difficult and unfriendly country lay between Jhama and Jahar. (Fighting Man, chap. 10, p. 253)

[From Jhama] 2,500 haads (925 mi.) to the east lay Jahar and Sanoma Tora; 1,500 haads (555 mi.) to the south-west were Tjanath and Tavia. (Fighting Man, chap. 12, p. 264)

KADABRA – Domed capital city of the Empire of Okar, a nation of yellow men near the north pole. The city’s circumference is 100 miles. A great black electromagnetic shaft directly over the north magnetic pole outside the city attracts and destroys all aircraft venturing close. (WM/9+)

[In Marentina] Talu gave us careful directions for the journey to Kadabra, the capital city of the Okar nation, which is the racial name of the yellow men…
     That very evening we came within sight of the walled and glass-roofed city of Kadabra. It lies in a low depression near the pole, surrounded by rocky, snow-clad hills. From the pass through which we entered the valley we had a splendid view of this great city of the north…
     We had come quite close to the city when my attention was attracted toward a tall black shaft that reared its head several hundred feet into the air   appeared to be a tangled mass of junk or wreckage, now partially snow-covered…
     I afterward learned that the shaft rests directly over the magnetic pole of Mars [problem: Mars has no magnetic field, and thus no magnetic pole. -OZ], but whether this adds in any way to its incalculable power of attraction I do not know. (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 277)

KAMTOL - Capital city of 200,000 in the Valley of the First Born, a great Rift about 825 mi. west-southwest of Horz, and northwest of Gathol. There are no clues to the location of the city within the valley, except that it is visible from the northeastern rim of the Rift. (LG-2/-)

“You will have to come to Kamtol with us,” said the leader.
     “The city?” I asked. He nodded. (Llana, book 2, chap. 4, p. 61)

KAOL - City and empire of red men. Almost halfway around the planet to the east of Helium, on the equator. One of the three major powers of the Western Hemisphere, the country comprises a sunken area of extreme heat and a vast tropical rain-forest (Syrtis Major). There are several cities within the great Kaolian Forest, connected by a network of roads. (WM/5-7, 16; TMM/10, 13-14)

…we rose high above the last fortress of the Holy Therns, and then raced straight toward the northeast and Kaol… (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 237)

All that night we raced through the Barsoomian void, passing over low hills and dead sea bottoms; above long-deserted cities and populous centers of Martian habitation upon the ribbon-like lines of cultivated land which border the globe-encircling waterways which Earth men call the canals of Mars. (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 238)

…I found that we were upon the verge of a natural forest—so rare a thing upon the bosom of dying Mars that, outside of the forest in the Valley Dor beside the Lost Sea of Korus, I never before had seen its like upon the planet.
     From books and travelers I had learned something of the little-known land of Kaol, which lies along the equator almost halfway round the planet to the east of Helium.
     It comprises a sunken area of extreme tropical heat, and is inhabited by a nation of red men varying but little in manners, customs, and appearance from the balance of the red men of Barsoom.
     The isolation of the Kaolians is rendered almost complete by the fact that no waterway connects their land with that of any other nation, nor have they any need of a waterway since the low, swampy land which comprises the entire area of their domain self-waters their abundant tropical crops.
     For great distances in all directions rugged hills and arid stretches of dead sea bottom discourage intercourse with them. (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 239)

The three great powers of the eastern hemisphere—Helium, Ptarth and Kaol. (Thuvia, chap. 10, p. 83) 

KOBOL – City-state of red men, conquered by Helium 14 years prior to the events in Fighting Man, and later sacked by Hin Abtol on his way from Pankor to Gathol. Thus it should lie somewhere between those two cities. However, Burroughs places it at 25°S, 45°W (of Exum) on his rough map, so I will follow his location. (FMM/1, 16; LG-3/4)

 [Kal Tavan] “I was born in Tjanath…I turned panthan then, and sought service in other cities; thus I served in Kobol.” (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 161)

[Kal Tavan] “For 14 years I have served faithfully in your palace, Tor Hatan, ever since I was brought to Helium a prisoner after the fall and sack of Kobol.” (Fighting Man, chap. 2, p. 155)

[Kal Tavan] “Having been born in Tjanath and served in Kobol, he was more familiar with this part of Barsoom than any man in Helium.” (Fighting Man, chap. 17, p. 328)

KORAD - Dead city, ancient seaport and center of commerce and culture, now occasionally occupied by the Tharks while visiting their northern incubator, and probably also by the Warhoons, who themselves have an incubator just south of the city. It is some 1,450 mi. north of the city of Thark, and well north of the northern boundary of Tharkish territory. Korad lies to the northeast of Zodanga, and near Korad is the point of John Carter’s first arrival on Barsoom. (PM/4,11-12)

We had gone perhaps ten miles [from the incubator] when the ground began to rise very rapidly. We were nearing the edge of one of Mars’ long-dead seas, in the bottom of which my encounter with the [green] Martians had taken place.
     In a short time we gained the foot of the mountains, and after traversing a narrow gorge came to an open valley, at the far extremity of which was a low table land upon which I beheld an enormous city. (Princess, chap. 4, p. 16)

She said that the city in which we were camping was supposed to have been a center of commerce and culture known as Korad. It had been built upon a beautiful, natural harbor, landlocked by magnificent hills. The little valley on the western front of the city, she explained, was all that remained of the harbor, while the pass through the hills to the old sea bottom had been the channel through which the shipping passed up to the city’s gates. (Princess, chap. 11, p. 52)

As the incubator had been placed far north of their own territory in a supposedly uninhabited and unfrequented area, we had before us a tremendous journey [from Korad to Thark]. (Princess, chap. 7, p. 31)

[From Korad to Thark] We were twenty days on the road, crossing two sea bottoms and passing through or around a number of ruined cities, mostly smaller than Korad. Twice we crossed the famous Martian waterways, or canals…  (Princess, chap. 16, p. 76)

[From Korad, after Thark attack on Helium airships] …they had limped slowly toward Helium, but while passing near the city of Zodanga…they had been attacked…  (Princess, chap. 19, p. 94)

KORUS, LOST SEA OF – Small open sea in the Valley Dor, near the south pole, it is the only large body of water left on the surface of Barsoom. On the shore of this sea stands the Golden Temple of Issus in the land of the First Born. Korus is fed by the River Iss, and in turn feeds the larger underground Sea of Omean. (PM/11; GM/1; WM/1,16; TMM/4; LG-2/3)

The vegetation was similar to that which covers the lawns of the red Martians of the great waterways, but the trees and birds were unlike anything that I had ever seen upon Mars, and then through the further trees I could see that most un-Martian of all sights—an open sea, its blue waters shimmering beneath the brazen sun. (Gods, chap. 1, p. 2)

To my left the sea extended as far as the eye could reach, before me only a vague, dim line indicated its further shore, while at my right a mighty river, broad, placid, and majestic, flowed between scarlet banks to empty into the quiet sea before me. (Gods, chap. 1, p. 3)

“I was flying a one-man air scout far to the south when the brilliant idea occurred to me that I should like to search for the Lost Sea of Korus which tradition places near to the south pole…
     “I had reached the area of eternal ice when my port propeller jammed, and I dropped to the ground to make repairs…” (Gods, chap. 10, p. 88)

KORVAS - Deserted city on the banks of the Dead Sea of Korvas, about 500 mi. southeast of Helium (a little over three hours by flier) to 790 mi. (about 30 hours by malagor). As John Carter and Dejah Thoris escape Korvas on malagors and head for Helium, they make a detour to Thark to recruit Tars Tarkas’ green warriors. This implies that Thark—which is southeast of Helium—may triangulate roughly between Helium and Korvas. (JCGM/1-2; 7, 9, 13-14)

 [Carter] “Tars Tarkas, go east and contact the chiefs of all your tribes. I’ll cover the west with air scouts…”
     Night found Carter cruising about 500 miles from Helium. He was very tired. The search of several ruined cities and canals had been fruitless…
     “Tars Tarkas has found Dejah Thoris. She is held in a deserted city on the banks of the Dead Sea at Korvas.” Kantos Kan gave the exact latitude and longitude of the spot… 
     Several hours later, the earthman flew over a low range of hills and saw below him an ancient city on the banks of the Dead Sea. (Giant, chap. 2, pp. 209-210)

 There appeared in the sky, coming from the direction of the city, a great, lone bird upon whose back rode a single man.
     The earthman’s keen eyes squinted for an instant. “The bird is a malagor. Pew Mogel is riding it.” 
     …the gates were thrown open and there began pouring into the arena wave after wave of malagors exactly like the bird Pew Mogel rode…
     “Before you are chewed to bits by the reptiles in the rising water below you,” he said, “you will have a few moments to consider the fate that awaits Helium within the next 48 hours…”
     …”Open the flood-gate!” was his single command before he rose up to lead his troops off toward the north. (Giant, chap. 7, p. 233-234)

“The Toonolian Marshes!” Carter gasped. “They’re 1,000 miles from Helium in the other direction” [from Korvas]. (Giant, chap. 8, p. 234)

 A moment later they had caught two of the birds and had risen over the ancient city of Korvas. …the malagors proved speedy mounts. By noon the next day the trio had reached the City of Thark… (Giant, chap. 9, p. 237-238)

KORVAS, DEAD SEA OF – Based on the location of Korvas, probably Ionia Terra. (JCGM/2)

 “Tars Tarkas has found Dejah Thoris. She is held in a deserted city on the banks of the Dead Sea at Korvas.” 
     Several hours later, the earthman flew over a low range of hills and saw below him an ancient city on the banks of the Dead Sea. (Giant, chap. 2, p. 210)

LOTHAR - Lost city of ancient Mars, inhabited by a remnant of the auburn-haired white race (the Orovars) who ruled Barsoom in the distant past. It lies on the southwestern side of the Gulf of Torquas, within a range of the Mountains of Torquas known as the Lotharian Hills, about 130 mi. northwest of Aaanthor, and over 2,640 mi. southwest of Helium. The distance from Lothar to Ptarth is more than 5,610 mi. The Lotharian army consists of phantom bowmen, which the inhabitants cause to appear to their enemies by mental suggestion. (TMM/5-10)

…he stole forward through the trees until at last he came upon a level, treeless plain, in the center of which a mighty city raised its burnished domes and vividly colored towers…
     But what city could it be? ... That he was within the boundary of Torquas, Cathoris was sure, but that there existed there such a wondrous city he had never dreamed… (Thuvia, chap. 5, p. 41)

“Can it be that we have stumbled upon a surviving city of the past which all Barsoom believes buried beneath the ages?” (Thuvia, chap. 5, pp. 47-48)

Helium is over 8,000 haads (2,960 mi.) from Lothar, while Ptarth lies 9,500 haads (3,515 mi.) northeast of Helium. (Thuvia, chap. 6, pp. 51-52)

…Lothar of antiquity, which stood upon the shore of Throxeus, mightiest of the five oceans. (Thuvia, chap. 9, p.76) 

“… the long-gone past when the ships of mighty Lothar plowed angry Throxeus, and the roaring surf beat against the mighty barrier of these parched and dreary hills… In my day I commanded the fleets of Lothar—mightiest of all the fleets that sailed the five salt seas.” (Thuvia, chap. 10, p. 86)

[From Lothar] …Thuvia set forth to find the passage through the cliffs that she might attempt the seemingly impossible feat of reaching far-distance Ptarth across the more than 17,000 haads (6,290 mi.) of savage Barsoom. (Thuvia, chap. 12, p. 100)

LOTHARIAN HILLS – A low range of the Mountains of Torquas (Schiaparelli's Mare Sirenum) on the southwestern side of the Gulf of Torquas, lying to the northwest of Aanthor and surrounding the ancient city of Lothar. (TMM/4)

 Then he proceeded upon his way into the heart of the unknown valley.
     For the most part the giant trees shut off his view to any but the most limited distances. Occasionally he caught glimpses of the towering hills that bounded the valley upon every side, and though they stood out clear beneath the light of the two moons, he knew that they were far off, and that the extent of the valley was immense. (Thuvia, chap. 5, p. 40)

 “I know of nothing beyond the Lotharian Hills,” he said. “Naught may live there beside the hideous green hordes of Torquas. They have conquered all Barsoom except this single valley and the city of Lothar. Here we have defied them for countless ages, though periodically they renew their attempts to destroy us.” (Thuvia, chap. 6, p. 52)

MANATAJ - The farthest city of the nation of Manator. Manataj must be north of Manator. (CM/16)

     “Your city?”
     “Manataj.”
     “You have come a great way [to Manator] to play at jetan.” (Chessmen, chap. 16, p. 290)

MANATOR - City and nation of red men. The capital city of Manator seems to lie in the southwestern portion of the area. It is located on the equator, 22° west of Gathol (814 miles). (CM/10+)

 “Lies Gathol close by Manator?”
 “Not close, but still the nearest country,” replied Lan-O. “About 22° east (approx. 814 Earth miles) it lies.” (Chessmen, chap. 11, p. 245)

     “And where lies Gathol? Asked Taran.
     “Almost due east of Manator,” replied A-Kor.
     “And how far”
     “Some 21° it is from the city of Manator to the city of Gathol,” replied A-Kor; “but little more than 10° between the boundaries of the two countries.” (Chessmen, chap. 14, p. 266)

MANATOS – The second-most-important city of the nation of Manator, probably the closest to Gathol. (CM/13+)

    “…It is U-Thor, Jed of Manatos, second city of Manator…” 
    “…In Manatos none but wicked criminals who deserve death are forced to play at Jetan…” (Chessmen, chap. 13, pp. 62-63)

MARENTINA - City and principality of yellow men, subject to Okar (though in rebellion at the beginning of Warlord). Situated just with the Great Ice Barrier, near the Carrion Caves, Marentina has its own atmosphere plant, thus ensuring its independence from the rest of Barsoom. (WM/9-16)

 Beyond the last cave we emerged into a desolate country of snow and ice, but found a well-marked trail leading north. The way was rock-strewn, as had been that south of the barrier, so that we could see but a short distance ahead of us at any time.
     After a couple of hours we passed round a huge boulder to come to a steep declivity leading down into a valley…
     …as there was apparently no other way to insure a successful entry into Kadabra, we set out with Talu, Prince of Marentina, for his little, rock-bound country.
     The way was over some of the worst traveling I have ever seen, and I do not wonder that I  this land where there are neither thoats nor fliers that Marentina is in little fear of invasion; but at last we reached our destination, the first view of which I had from a slight elevation a half-mile from the city.
     Nestled in a deep valley lay a city of Martian concrete, whose every street and plaza and open space was roofed with glass. All about lay snow and ice, but there was none upon the rounded, domelike, crystal covering that enveloped the whole city.  (Warlord, chap. 9, p. 274)

MORBUS - City of the ancients, rebuilt by Ras Thavas, the Master Mind of Mars, as a laboratory for developing his Synthetic Men. Located on a large island in the Toonolian Marshes, about 360 miles due east of Phundahl, and some 700 miles south of Amhor. (SMM/-)

Our course lay south of Phundhal, which the leader was evidently seeking to avoid; and ahead I could see the vast Toonolian Marshes stretching away in the distance as for as the eye could see—a labyrinth of winding waterways threading desolate swampland from which rose occasional islands of solid ground, with here and there a darker area of forest and the blue of tiny lakes. (Synthetic Men, chap. 4, p. 205)

[From late morning] The malagors flew swiftly and smoothly. My guess would be that they flew at a speed of more than 400 haads a zode (about 60 mph.) They appeared tireless, and flew on, hour after hour [6 hrs.?], without rest. After circling Phundahl we had flown due east and late in the afternoon approached a large island [Morbus]. (Synthetic Men, chap. 4, p. 207)

OKAR - Empire of the yellow men, occupying most of the Arctic icecap. Its capital city is Kadabra. (WM/9+; LG-1/10; LG-3/11)

Talu gave us careful directions for the journey to Kadabra, the capital city of the Okar nation, which is the racial name of the yellow men… (Warlord, chap. 5, p. 277)

“It has been many years,” she began, “since you were in the kingdom of Okar in the frozen north. Talu, the rebel prince, whom you placed upon the throne of Okar, visited Helium once immediately thereafter. Since then, as far as I have ever heard, there has been no intercourse between Okar and the rest of Barsoom.” 
     “…The general belief has been that the region surrounding the North Pole is but sparsely inhabited and by a race of black-bearded yellow men only.” (Llana, book 1, chap. 10, p. 38)

OMEAN - Subsurface ocean controlled by the Black Pirates or First Born, located near the south pole. The only entrance is through a crater opening (the funnel) some 2 miles wide, in a black flat-topped extinct volcano which lies deep within the south polar ice cap, northwest of the Valley of Lost Souls, and some 1,000 mi. south of Southern Warhoon (six hours by flier). There are also man-made passages from the shore to the Temple of Issus. The sea contains many islands, including the prison Isle of Shador. Omean is larger than Korus, and receives the waters of the lesser sea. To keep it from filling above a certain level, the Black Pirates “have four great pumping stations that force the oversupply back into the reservoirs far north from which the red men draw the water which irrigates their farmlands.” (GM/8-13, 20-21)

Now we swung a little north of west, leaving the valley of lost souls, and shortly I discerned over our starboard bow what appeared to be a black mountain rising from the desolate waste of ice. It was not high and seemed to have a flat top.... 
     As we neared the dark, truncated cone the vessel’s speed was diminished until we barely moved. Then we topped the crest of the mountain and below us I saw yawning the mouth of a huge circular well, the bottom of which was lost in inky blackness. 
     The diameter of this enormous pit was fully a thousand feet. The walls were smooth and appeared to be composed of a black, basaltic rock. 
     For a moment the vessel hovered motionless directly above the center of the gaping void, then slowly she began to settle into the black chasm. Lower and lower she sank until as darkness enveloped us her lights were thrown on and in the dim halo of her own radiance the monster battleship dropped on and on down into what seemed to be the very bowels of Barsoom. 
     For quite half an hour we descended and then the shaft terminated abruptly in the dome of a mighty subterranean world. Below us rose and fell the billows of a buried sea. A phosphorescent radiance illuminated the scene. Thousands of ships dotted the bosom of the ocean. Little islands rose here and there to support the strange and colorless vegetation of this strange world. (Gods, chap. 8, pp. 71-72)

 “Here is the harbour of the navy of the First Born,” said a voice behind us, and turning we saw Xodar watching us with an amused smile on his lips. 
     “This sea,” he continued, “is larger than Korus. It receives the waters of the lesser sea above it. To keep it from filling above a certain level we have four great pumping stations that force the oversupply back into reservoirs far north from which the red men draw the water that irrigates their farm lands.” 
     A new light burst on me with this explanation. The red men had always considered it a miracle that caused great columns of water to spurt from the solid rock of their reservoir sides to increase the supply of the precious liquid which is so scarce in the outer world of Mars. 
     Never had their learned men been able to fathom the secret of the source of this enormous volume of water. As ages passed they had simply come to accept it as a matter of course and ceased to question its origin. (Gods, chap. 8, p. 73)

OMPT - Island in the Toonolian Marshes between Phundahl and Morbus, upon which is located the kingdom and village of Gooli, inhabited by marsupial people. Located to the west of Morbus, approximately 6-8 hours by malagor, or about 280 mi. (SMM/20)

[Leaving Morbus shortly after dawn] Sometime after noon, it became apparent that the malagor had about reached the limit of its endurance. It began to drop closer and closer toward the marshes, and presently it came to the ground upon one of the largest islands that I had seen [Ompt]. It was a very attractive island, with hill and dale and forest land, and a little stream winding down to the lake, a most unusual sight upon Barsoom. (Synthetic Men, chap. 20, p. 296)

ONVAK - City and Empire of invisible red men, constant enemies of Invak, in the Forest of Lost Men, probably northeast of Invak. (LG-4/4)

“There is another city in the forest inhabited by an offshoot of this tribe,” explained Ptor Fak; “it is called Onvak, and its people also possess the secret of invisibility. Occasionally the Onvak’s come and attack Invak, or lie in wait for the Invak hunting parties when they go out into the forest.”  (Llana, book 4, chap. 4, p. 163) 

OTZ MOUNTAINS - Circular mountain chain (possibly an impact crater?), beginning 100 mi. south of the northern boundary of the Otz Valley and culminating in the Golden Cliffs, surrounding the Valley Dor and the Lost Sea of Korus. (GM/3-5, 8; WM/2-4)

“…but insist in your rash purpose to thread the mazes of the Golden Cliffs of the Mountains of Otz, past the ramparts of the impregnable fortresses of the Holy Therns…” (Gods, chap. 3, p. 25)

“The Otz Valley lies in a mighty depression at the south pole. It is sunk thousands of feet below the level of the surrounding country, like a great round bowl. A hundred miles from its northern boundary rise the Otz Mountains which circle the inner Valley of Dor, in the exact center of which lies the Lost Sea of Korus.” (Gods, chap. 8, p. 70)

As we advanced up the river which winds beneath the Golden Cliffs out of the bowels of the Mountains of Otz to mingle its dark waters with the grim and mysterious Iss the faint glow which had appeared before us grew gradually into an all-enveloping radiance. (Warlord, chap. 2, p. 208)

I have no stomach to narrate the monotonous events of the tedious days that Woola and I spent ferreting our way across the labyrinth of glass, through the dark and devious ways beyond that led beneath the Valley Dor and Golden Cliffs to emerge at last upon the flank of the Otz Mountains just above the Valley of Lost Souls... (Warlord, chap. 4, p. 226)

OTZ VALLEY - A large circular depression surrounding the Otz Mountains at the south pole; the Planum Australe

As we came on deck I saw to my surprise that the vessel was passing over a great field of snow and ice. As far as the eye could reach in any direction naught else was visible.
     There could be but one solution to the mystery, we were above the south polar ice cap. Only at the poles of Mars is there ice or snow upon the planet….
     “A little west of south,” he replied. “You will see the Otz Valley directly. We shall skirt it for a few hundred miles.”
     “The Otz Valley!” I exclaimed; “but, man, is not there where lie the domains of the Therns from which I but just escaped?” 
     “Yes,” answered Xodar. “You crossed this ice field last night in the long chase that you led us. The Otz Valley lies in a mighty depression at the south pole. It is sunk thousands of feet below the level of the surrounding country, like a great round bowl. A hundred miles from its northern boundary rise the Otz Mountains which circle the inner Valley of Dor, in the exact center of which lies the Lost Sea of Korus. On the shore of this sea stands the Golden Temple of Issus in the Land of the First Born. It is there that we are bound.” 
     As I looked I commenced to realize why it was that in all the ages only one had escaped from the Valley Dor. My only wonder was that even the one had been successful. To cross this frozen, wind-swept waste of bleak ice alone and on foot would be impossible. 
 We had now reached the southernmost extremity of the great ice barrier. It ended abruptly in a sheer wall thousands of feet high at the base of which stretched a level valley, broken here and there by low rolling hills and little clumps of forest, and with tiny rivers formed by the melting of the ice barrier at its base. 
     Once we passed far above what seemed to be a deep canyon-like rift stretching from the ice wall on the north across the valley as far as the eye could reach. “That is the bed of the River Iss,” said Xodar. “It runs far beneath the ice field, and below the level of the Valley Otz, but its canyon is open here.” (Gods, chap. 8, pp. 70-71)

PANAR - Empire of red men within the Arctic Great Ice Barrier bounding the Arctic Circle (which it shares with Okar, the empire of the yellow men). (LG-1/10-11; LG-3/6+; LG-4/13)

“There is a nation of red men occupying a considerable area, but at some distance from Okar. I am under the impression that when you were there the Okarians themselves had never heard of these people.” (Llana, book 1, chap. 10, p. 38)

PANKOR - Capital of the Empire of Panar, within the Arctic Great Ice Barrier, halfway around the planet to the west of Helium. I place it at 77°N, 250°W. (LG-3/4+)

[Where John Carter is dumped after mutiny] North of us rose a range of rocky hills, their wind swept granite summits, flecked with patches of snow and iced, showed above their snow covered slopes like the backbone of some dead monster. To the south stretched rough, snow covered terrain as far as the eye could reach—to the north, a frozen wilderness and death; to the south, a frozen wilderness and death. There seemed no alternative.
     The Panar smiled. “Pankor lies just beyond those hills…we can be in Pankor in a couple of hours.” 
     …I started off again, but this time toward the north. (Llana, book 3, chap. 11, p. 135)

As we talked, we continued on through the gorge; and presently came out upon a snow covered plain upon which rose one of those amazing, glass covered, hot-house cities of Barsoom’s North Polar region.... 
     Pankor was much like Kadabra, the capital city of Okar, only much smaller. Though the country around it and up to its walls was clothed in snow and ice, none lay upon the great crystal dome which roofed the entire city; and beneath the dome, a pleasant, springlike atmosphere prevailed. Its avenues were covered with the sod of the mosslike ocher vegetation which clothes the sea bottoms of the red planet, and bordered by well-kept lawns of crimson Barsoomian grass. Along these avenues sped the noiseless traffic of light and airy ground fliers which I had become familiar in Marentina and Kadabra long years before. (Llana, book 3, chap. 11, pp. 137-138) 

[From Pankor] Having reached the decision to fly to Helium rather than Gathol, I turned toward the southeast. Before us lay a journey half the distance around the planet… Soon the towers and stately ruins of Horz were visible… (Llana, book 4, chap. 1, p. 151)

PHUNDAHL - City and empire of red men, at the western extremity of the Great Toonolian marshes, about 860 mi. northeast of a point 15° N., 150° W. of Exum. This places it at the intersection of Schiaparelli’s Nilokeras and Dardanus. Its people are religious fanatics (“Phundahmentalists”?) who have little contact with outsiders. (MMM/2, 4, -7, 9+; SMM/1-2, 4, 29, 31)

“The Phundahlians, on the other hand, are egregious sentimentalists, filled with crass stupidities, slaves to every variety of brain withering conceit.” (Master Mind, chap. 2, p. 376)

Ptarth lay at a considerable distance to the west of Phundahl, and a little south and about an equal distance from Duhor, which lay north and a little west of it. An inhabitant of Ptarth, I reasoned, would know much of the entire country included in the triangle formed by Phundahl, Ptarth and Duhor. (Master Mind, chap. 6, p. 410)

…we were 4,500 haads (1,665 mi.) southeast of Duhor, or, more accurately, 150° west longitude from Exum, and 15° north. This placed us 2,600 haads (962 mi.) southwest of Phundahl… (Synthetic Men, chap. 2, p. 199)

POLODONA - The equator of Mars. 

PTARTH - City and empire of red men, one of the three major powers of the Eastern Hemisphere. Northeast of Kaol and allied with it, and 3,515 mi. northeast of Helium and 5,000 mi. east of Dusar, and about the same distance from Phundahl. In Schiaparelli's Lunae Lacus (Lake of the Moon). (GM/18; WM/7, 16; TMM/-; FMM/16)

Helium is over 8,000 haads (2,960 mi.) from Lothar, while Ptarth lies 9,500 haads (3,515 mi.) northeast of Helium. (Thuvia, chap. 6, pp. 51-52)

[From Dusar] 13,500 haads away (4,995 mi.) away lay Ptarth—a stiff thirty-hour journey for the swiftest of fliers… [halfway there, they encountered a horde of green men.] (Thuvia, chap. 14, pp. 122)

The three great powers of the eastern hemisphere—Helium, Ptarth and Kaol. (Thuvia, chap. 10, p. 83)

Ptarth lay at a considerable distance to the west of Phundahl, and a little south and about an equal distance from Duhor, which lay north and a little west of it. An inhabitant of Ptarth…would know much of the entire country included in the triangle formed by Phundahl, Ptarth and Duhor. (Master Mind, chap. 6, p. 410)

RAXAR – Small city-state of red men. It was sacked by Hin Abtol on his way to Gathol. Therefore, it must lie between Pankor and Gathol. Burroughs locates it at 60°N, 40°W of Horz. (LG-3/7)

“[Hin Abtol] took me prisoner when he sacked Raxar on his way down from Panar to Gathol.” (Llana, book 3, chap. 7, p. 108)

RIFT, THE – See Valley of the First Born. (LG-2/-)

SHADOR – A prison island of the First Born near the north shore of the Sea of Omean. (GM/9-13)

From the island of the submarine we were transported on a small cruiser to the distant Isle of Shador. Here we found a small stone prison and a guard of half a dozen blacks. (Gods, chap. 10, p. 85)

SYL, RIVER - An underground river flowing southward from Tjanath and under Hohr, probably joining the Iss at about 75o S. It is probably the same stream that flows through Bantoom Valley, and perhaps also under the city of Manator, possibly originating in the Great Rift (Valley of the First-Born). (FMM/7; CM/12)

“What a mighty river!” he added after a moment’s silence. “Could it be a tributary of Iss?” (Fighting Man, chap. 7, p. 220)

“When you entered the Valley Hohr,” she said. “you saw a beautiful forest, running down to the banks of the river Syl.” (Fighting Man, chap. 8, p. 235)

TEMPLE OF ISSUS - Golden temple, the Holy of Holies of the First Born, on the shore of the Lost Sea of Korus at the South Pole. (GM/9)

When we emerged from the little building which housed the upper terminal of the elevator, we found ourselves in the midst of a veritable fairyland of beauty. The combined language of Earth men hold no words to convey to the mind the gorgeous beauties of the scene. 
     One may speak of scarlet sward and ivory stemmed trees decked with brilliant purple blooms; of winding walks paved with crushed rubies, with emerald, with turquoise, even with diamonds themselves; of a magnificent temple of burnished gold, hand-wrought with marvelous designs; but where are the words to describe the glorious colors that are unknown to earthly eyes where the mind or the imagination that can grasp the gorgeous scintillations of unheard-of rays as they emanate from the thousand nameless jewels of Barsoom. 
     Even my eyes, for long years accustomed to the barbaric splendors of a Martian Jeddak’s court, were amazed at the glory of the scene. 
     Phaidor’s eyes were wide in amazement. 
     “The Temple of Issus,” she whispered, half to herself.  (Gods, chap. 9, pp. 77-78)

TEMPLE OF THE SUN – Far within the inner court of the Temple of Issus lies the Temple of the Sun. At its top is a huge circular central court, a golden temple paved with a transparent marble of sheer whiteness. At its base is another huge circular domed room made of white marble. From the top of the dome of the base chamber to the floor the bottom of a revolving central shaft descends, which contains 687 circular cells stacked one upon another. In other words, between the central court above and the large chamber at the base below, the revolving shaft must be approximately 5,496 feet from top to bottom if the cells are eight feet high, or 6,870 feet high if the cells are ten feet high. (GM/20; WM/3)

“Hast thou ever heard of the Temple of the Sun? It is there they will put her. It lies far within the inner court of Issus, a temple that raises a thin spire far above the spires and minarets of the great temple that surrounds it. Beneath it, in the ground, there lies the main body of the temple consisting in six hundred and eighty-seven circular chambers, one below another. To each chamber a single corridor leads through solid rock from the pits of Issus. 

 “As the entire Temple of the Sun revolves once with each revolution of Barsoom about the sun, but once each year does the entrance to each separate chamber come opposite the mouth of the corridor which forms its only link to the world without.” (Gods, chap. 20, p. 178)

THARK - City and empire of green men. The territory extends from 40o S. to 80o S. Its arid and semi-arid land is bounded on the east and west by two large fertile tracts. The capital city (once one of Barsoom’s greatest seaports) is in the southwest corner of the territory, about ten days by thoat (660 mi.) from Zodanga, and well to the southeast of Helium. Burroughs places it at about 52o S, but many other clues compel us to locate it further north, at 34°S, 153°E of Exum. The horde is over 30,000 strong. The empire comprises 25 communities, of which five make their headquarters at the capital. Their greatest enemies are another green horde to the east called the Warhoon. (PM/7, 16)

They [the Tharks] roamed an enormous tract of arid and semi-arid land between 40o and 80o south latitude and bounded on the east and west by two large fertile tracts. Their headquarters lay in the southwest corner of this district near the crossing of two of the so-called Martian canals. (Princess, chap. 7, p. 31)

Instead of circling back around the city [of Thark] to the northwest and toward the nearest waterway which lay so short a distance from us, we turned to the northeast and struck out upon the mossy waste across which, for 200 dangerous and weary miles, lay another main artery leading to Helium. (Princess, chap. 17, p. 86)

THAVAS - Island and castle in the eastern edge of the Toonolian Marshes, ancestral home and laboratory of Ras Thavas, the Mastermind of Mars. Thavas lies just southwest of the city of Toonol, which is visible from the highest tower of the castle. It takes less than half an hour to fly the intervening distance in a slow cargo ship—probably less than 15 mi. (MMM/6, 13)

[Ras Thavas] led me immediately to a lofty tower that rose at the corner of the largest building of the group that comprised his vast establishment. Within was a circular runway which led not only upward, but down as well. This we ascended, passing openings at each floor, until we came at last out upon its lofty summit. About me spread the first Barsoomian landscape of any extent upon which my eyes had yet rested during the long months that I had spent upon the Red Planet…
     Directly beneath me lay an irregular patch of rocky land elevated perhaps a dozen feet or more above the general level of the immediately surrounding country. Its extent was, at a rough guess, a hundred acres. Upon this stood the buildings and grounds, which were enclosed in a high wall. The tower upon which we stood was situated at about the center of the total area enclosed. Beyond the outer wall was a strip of rocky ground on which grew a sparse forest of fair-sized trees interspersed with patches of a jungle growth, and beyond all, what appeared to be oozy marsh through which were narrow water course connecting occasional open water—little lakes, the largest of which could have comprised scarce two acres. This landscape extended as far as the eye could reach, broken by occasional islands similar to that upon which we were, and at a short distance by the skyline of a large city, whose towers and domes and minarets glistened and sparked in the sun as though plated with shining metals and picked out with precious gems.
     This, I knew, must be Toonol and all about us the Great Toonolian Marshes which extend nearly 1800 earth miles east and west and in some places have a width of 300 miles. Little is known about them in other portions of Barsoom as they are frequented by fierce beasts, afford no landing places for fliers and are commanded by Phundahl at their western end and Toonol at the east; I hospitable kingdoms that invite no intercourse with the outside world and maintain their independence alone by their inaccessibility and savage aloofness.” (Master Mind, chap. 6, pp. 414-415)

…we stopped our motor and drifted without lights a mile or two south of the tower [of Thavas]… To the northwest the lights of Toonol shone plainly against the dark background of the sky… (Master Mind, chap. 13, p. 477)

THROXEUS - Mightiest of the five oceans of ancient Mars, covering  much of the Northern Hemisphere from Horz to the equator, and possibly as far east as the Artolian Hills. It is the only ancient ocean to be named in the Chronicles. On its shores were built Horz, Torquas, and Lothar; Gathol was built on an island in it. The swamplands surrounding the mountain of Gathol are the last remnant of this ancient ocean. (TMM/9-10; CM/1; LG-1/9-12; LG-3-1)

“They do not see us—they but live the old dead past of ancient Lothar—the dead and crumbled Lothar of antiquity, which stood upon the shore of Throxeus, mightiest of the five oceans.” (Thuvia, chap. 9, p. 76)

“Together we shall find the princess of Ptarth, and with you Kar Komak will return to the world of men—such a world as he knew in the long-gone past when the ships of mighty Lothar plowed angry Throxeus, and the roaring surf beat against the mighty barrier of these parched and dreary hills… In my day I commanded the fleets of Lothar—mightiest of all the fleets that sailed the five salt seas.” (Thuvia, chap. 10, p. 86)

“Your ancient history has doubtless told you that Gathol was built upon an island in Throxeus, mightiest of the five oceans of old Barsoom. As the ocean receded Gathol crept down the sides of the mountain, the summit of which was the island upon which she had been built, until today she covers the slope from summit to base, while the bowels of the great hill are honeycombed with the galleries of her mines. Entirely surrounding us is a great salt marsh, which protects us from invasion by land, while the rugged and oft-times vertical topography of our mountain renders the landing of hostile airships a precarious undertaking.” (Chessmen, chap. 1, p. 142)

THURD - City and territory of green men near Torquas, with whom they are enemies. Aaanthor may be a Thurdish city; Thar Ban was in enemy territory. I locate it at 39°S, 87°E of Exum. (TMM/11)

“The Thurds!” he cried. “The Thurds are upon us! Rise, warriors of Torquas, and drive home your swords within the hearts of Torquas’ ancient enemies!” (Thuvia, chap. 11, p. 96)

TJANATH - City and kingdom of red men, 2,220 mi. southwest of Xanator. The underground Syl River runs beneath the city, unknown to any of the citizens above. Burroughs locates it at 60°S, 70°W. (FMM/2, 4-7, 10, 13, 17)

[From Xanator] “Beyond Jahar, to the south-west, lies Tjanath, the city of my birth.” (Fighting Man, chap. 5, p. 189)

[From Xanator] We altered our course so as to pass south of Jahar, as we headed straight towards Tjanath, 6,000 haads (2,220 mi.) away [from mantalia grove SE of Xanator]. (Fighting Man, chap. 5, p. 190)

TOONOL - City and empire of red men at the eastern end of the Toonolian Marshes, 1,600 mi. east of Phundahl. I place it at the intersection of Shiaparelli’s Gehon and Deuteronilus canals. (MMM/2, 4, 6-9, 13-14; SMM/1, 4, 9, 15-16,24)

“Sentiment is indeed a bar to all progress. We of Toonol are probably less subject to its vagaries than most other nations upon Barsoom.” (Master Mind, chap. 2, p. 376)

“Duhor lies a full 7,800 haads (2,886 mi.) from Toonol, upon the opposite side of the snow-clad Artolian Hills (Master Mind, chap. 4, p. 397)

This landscape extended as far as the eye could reach, broken by occasional islands similar to that upon which we were, and at a short distance by the skyline of a large city, whose towers and domes and minarets glistened and sparked in the sun as though plated with shining metals and picked out with precious gems.
     This, I knew, must be Toonol and all about us the Great Toonolian Marshes which extend nearly 1800 earth miles east and west and in some places have a width of 300 miles. Little is known about them in other portions of Barsoom as they are frequented by fierce beasts, afford no landing places for fliers and are commanded by Phundahl at their western end and Toonol at the east; I hospitable kingdoms that invite no intercourse with the outside world and maintain their independence alone by their inaccessibility and savage aloofness.” (Master Mind, chap. 6, pp. 415)

TOONOLIAN MARSHES - Extensive swamp in the Northern Hemisphere, the last remnant of the Throxeus Ocean. It extends some 1,600 mi. between Phundahl on the west and Toonol on the east, and in places is only 265 mi. in width. The only dark area of this size and shape in the Northern Hemisphere is Niliacus Lacus which fits perfectly. It’s located between 32°-38°N, 0°-50°W. (MMM/6; SMM/1, 4, 14-15, 19-23, 28-31)

“Duhor lies a full 7,800 haads (2,886 mi.) from Toonol, upon the opposite side of the snow-clad Artolian Hills. You, a stranger and alone, could never reach it; for between lie the Toonolian Marshes, wild hordes, savage beasts and warlike cities. You would die uselessly within the first dozen haads, even could you escape the island upon which stands the laboratory of Ras Thavas.” (Master Mind, chap. 4, p. 397)

Beyond the outer wall was a strip of rocky ground on which grew a sparse forest of fair-sized trees interspersed with patches of a jungle growth, and beyond all, what appeared to be oozy marsh through which were narrow water course connecting occasional open water—little lakes, the largest of which could have comprised scarce two acres. This landscape extended as far as the eye could reach, broken by occasional islands similar to that upon which we were, and at a short distance by the skyline of a large city, whose towers and domes and minarets glistened and sparked in the sun as though plated with shining metals and picked out with precious gems.

 This, I knew, must be Toonol and all about us the Great Toonolian Marshes which extend nearly 1,800 Earth miles east and west and in some places have a width of 300 miles. Little is known about them in other portions of Barsoom as they are frequented by fierce beasts, afford no landing places for fliers and are commanded by Phundahl at their western end and Toonol at the east; I hospitable kingdoms that invite no intercourse with the outside world and maintain their independence alone by their inaccessibility and savage aloofness.” (Master Mind, chap. 6, pp. 415)

…ahead I could see the vast Toonolian Marshes stretching away in the distance as for as the eye could see—a labyrinth of winding waterways threading desolate swampland from which rose occasional islands of solid ground, with here and there a darker area of forest and the blue of tiny lakes. (Synthetic Men, chap. 4, p. 205)

From Phundall at their Western extremity east to Toonol, the Great Toonolian Marshes stretch across the dying planet for 1,800 Earth miles… (Synthetic Men, chap. 1, p. 195)

The Great Toonolian Marshes are the last dregs of the great oceans that once covered a considerable portion of Barsoom… (Synthetic Men, chap. 15, p. 264)

“The Toonolian Marshes!” Carter gasped. “They’re 1,000 miles from Helium in the other direction” [from Korvas]. (Giant, chap. 8, p. 234)

TORQUAS - City and empire of green men in the Southern Hemisphere. Their territory stretches from Xanator and Torquas in the north to Aaanthor and Thurd in the south, and includes the eastern foothills of the Mountains of Torquas (Mare Sirenum). The city of Torquas lies northwest of Aaanthor, south of Dusar and about 2,600 mi. (or 70°) west of Helium, at 28°S and 60°E of Exum. (TMM/4-12; CM/2; FMM/2-5)

[From Dusar] “Whither went Vas Kor?” he asked. He is not at his palace.”
     “South, to the great waterway that skirts Torquas,” replied the other. (Thuvia, chap. 12, p. 107)

[From Helium] In twelve hours she had flown and been carried by the storm full 7,000 haads (2,590 miles). Just before dawn she was carried over one of the deserted cities of ancient Mars. It was Torquas, but she did not know it. (Chessmen, chap. 2, p 154)

The city of Torquas…was once the most magnificent and powerful of ancient Barsoom. Though it has been deserted for ages by all but roaming tribes of green men, it is still marked on every map, and as it lay directly in the path of my search for Jahar, and as I had never seen it, I had purposely laid my course to pass over it… (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 165)

[At Torquas] I had already flown about 70 karads [degrees] from Helium… (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 166)

TORQUAS, GULF OF - An ancient bay of a dead sea bottom, extending southwest from the city of Torquas toward Xanator, 740 miles away on the opposite shore of the now-dry gulf. 
Now a moss-covered valley, it was the southernmost strait of the once-mighty Throxeus Ocean. Schiaparelli's Atlantis. (FMM/2-5) 

[Flying southwest] I had covered something in the neighborhood of 2,000 haads (740 mi.) since I had been fired upon above Torquas, crossing what had been a large gulf when the waters of the ocean rolled over the vast plains that now lay moss-covered and arid beneath me. Far ahead I could see the outlines of low hills that must have marked the south-western shore-line of the gulf. Towards the north-west the dead sea bottom extended as far as the eye could reach, but this was not the direction I wished to take, and so I sped on towards the hills... I discerned the ruins of a deserted city [Xanator] nestling at the foot of the hills… (Fighting Man, chap. 2, p. 167-168)

TORQUAS, MOUNTAINS OF - Range of mountains (Schiaparelli’s Mare Sirenum) northwest of Aaanthor, guarding the southeastern boundary of Torquas. The section around Lothar, on the southwestern side of the Gulf of Torquas, is called the LOTHARIAN HILLS. (TMM/4)

In the distance before him Carthoris could see the green warrior bearing Thuvia of Ptarth away upon his mighty thoat. The direction of his flight was toward the northwest of Aaanthor, where lay a vast mountainous country little known to red men. (Thuvia, chap. 4, p. 34)

 Far before him loomed the mountains toward which the green man had been fleeing when last he had seen him…
     All that night he forged ahead until, with the dawning of a new day, he entered the low foothills that guard the approach to the fastness of the Mountains of Torquas.
     Rugged, granite walls towered before him. Nowhere could he discern an opening through this formidable barrier… (Thuvia, chap. 4, p. 35)

U-GOR - Province of the Empire of Jahar. Once it wasx a rich agricultural region, but the population was reduced to cannibalism by deliberate overpopulation. It lies about 460 mi. southeast of Jahar, 370 mi. southwest of Xanator, and about 2,590 mi. almost due south of Gathol (Schiaparelli's Thyle II). (FMM/14-15)

 I asked Tavia if she knew the location of U-Gor, and she told me that it lay south-east of Jahar, about 1,000 haads (370 mi.) southwest of Xanator.
     The nearest friendly city towards which we could turn was Gathol, which I estimated lay some 7,000 haads (2,590 mi.) almost due north. (Fighting Man, chap. 15, p. 307)

VALLEY DOR – The “Garden of Eden” and afterlife paradise of red and green Martians. It is contained within an enormous basin surrounded by the Golden Cliffs of the inner Otz Mountains. Within it is the Lost Sea of Korus at the south pole. The River Iss passes through the valley to empty into the sea. (PM/11; GM/-; WM/1-7, 16; LG-2/4, 10-12)

“The Therns for their part have temples dotted about the entire civilized world. Here priests whom the people never see communicate the doctrine of the Mysterious River Iss, the Valley Dor, and the Lost Sea of Korus to persuade the poor deluded creatures to take the voluntary pilgrimage that swells the wealth of the Holy Therns and adds to the number of their slaves.” (Gods, chap. 13, p. 109)

The quiet of the tomb lay upon the mysterious valley of death, crouching deep in its warm nest within the sunken area at the south pole of the dying planet. In the far distance the Golden Cliffs raised their mighty barrier faces far into the starlit heavens, the precious metals and scintillating jewels that composed them sparkling in the brilliant light of Mars’ two gorgeous moons. 
     At my back was the forest, pruned and trimmed like the sward to parklike symmetry by the browsing of the ghoulish plant men.
 Before me lay the Lost Sea of Korus, while farther on I caught the shimmering ribbon of Iss, the River of Mystery, to which for countless ages had been borne the deluded and unhappy Martians of the outer world upon the voluntary pilgrimage to this false heaven. (Warlord, chap.1, p. 202)

VALLEY OF THE FIRST BORN (aka THE RIFT) – Hidden valley of Black Pirates, about 925 mi. southwest of Horz. It is a long chasm, two miles deep and ten miles wide. Well forested, it contains several small rivers and a lake. Therein lies the city of Kamtol. Shiaparelli's Hephaestus. (LG-2/-)

[From Horz] We had covered some 2,500 haads (925 mi.) we had to travel [to Gathol]… 
     It was on the 37th day that we encountered really serious trouble [a caravan of green Martians]. (Llana, book 2, chap. 1, p. 52)

Just then we came to the edge of a yawning chasm. 
     Except for the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, I had never seen anything like it. It was a great rift valley that appeared to be about ten miles wide and perhaps two miles deep, extending for miles in either direction.
     The trail was steep and oftentimes dangerous for it zig-zagged down the face of an almost perpendicular cliff. (Llana, book 2, chap. 3, p. 57)

From our dizzy view on that precarious trail we had an excellent view of the valley below. It was level and well watered and the monotony of the scarlet grass which grows on Mars where there is water, was broken by forests, the whole making an amazing sight for one familiar with this dying planet. 
     There are crops and trees and other vegetation along the canals; there are lawns and gardens in the cities where irrigation is available; but never have I seen a sight like this except in the Valley Dor at the South Pole, where lies the Lost Sea of Korus. For here there was not only a vast expanse of fertile valley but there were rivers and at least one lake which I could see in the distance; and then Llana called our attention to a city, gleaming white, with lofty towers. (Llana, book 2, chap. 3, p. 58)

“What are you doing in the Valley of the First Born?” (Llana, book 2, chap. 4, p. 61)

VALLEY OF LOST SOULS (aka LAND OF LOST SOULS) - A narrow portion of the Otz Valley, around the canyon of the Iss, near the south pole. Fertile and well-watered, it is inhabited by those who turned aside at the last minute from their pilgrimage to the Valley Dor and cannot return to the outside world. (GM/8, 20)

 Once we passed far above what seemed to be a deep canyon-like rift stretching from the ice wall on the north across the valley as far as the eye could reach. “That is the bed of the River Iss,” said Xodar. “It runs far beneath the ice field, and below the level of the Valley Otz, but its canyon is open here.”
     Presently I descried what I took to be a village, and pointing it out to Xodar, asked him what it might be.
     “It is a village of lost souls, he answered, laughing. “This strip between the ice barrier and the mountains is considered neutral ground. Some turn off from their voluntary pilgrimage down the Iss, and, scaling the awful walls of its canyon below us, stop in the valley….
     “They do not attempt to recapture such, since there is no escape from this outer valley…”  (Gods, chap. 8, p. 71)

 I have no stomach to narrate the monotonous events of the tedious days that Woola and I spent ferreting our way across the labyrinth of glass, through the dark and devious ways beyond that led beneath the Valley Dor and Golden Cliffs to emerge at last upon the flank of the Otz Mountains just above the Valley of Lost Souls—that pitiful purgatory peopled by the poor unfortunates who dare not continue their abandoned pilgrimage to Dor, or return to the various lands of the outer world from whence they came. (Warlord, chap. 4, p. 226)

WARHOON - City and empire of green men who are deadly enemies of the neighboring Tharks. The city is about 165 mi. (15 days’ walk @ 11 mi./day) southeast of the Atmosphere Plant. (PM/18-19, 24; GM/14-15; WM/7)

We reached the city of Warhoon after some three days march and I was immediately cast into a dungeon and heavily chained to the floor and walls. (Princess, chap. 18, p. 92)

He said that he knew the place well because the defile though which the Warhoon warriors had passed when they discovered us was the only one ever used by them when marching to the south. 
     “Dejah Thoris and Sola entered the hills not five miles from a great waterway and are now probably quite safe,” he assured me. (Princess, chap. 19, p. 94)

XANATOR - City subject to Torquas. Located about 740 mi. southwest of Torquas, on the Gulf of Torquas. Burroughs locates it at 30°S, 34°E of Exum. (FMM/3-5)

I had covered something in the neighborhood of 2,000 haads (740 mi.) since I had been fired upon above Torquas, crossing what had been a large gulf when the waters of the ocean rolled over the vast plains … beneath me. Far ahead I could see the outlines of low hills that must have marked the southwest shoreline of the gulf. (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 167)

I discerned the ruins of a deserted city nestling at the foot of the hills. (Fighting Man, chap. 3, p. 168)

[From atop the 200-ft. lighthouse tower in the ruined city] To the north and north-east stretched a vast expanse of dead sea bottom as far as the eye could reach. To the south was a range of low hills that curved gently in a northeast direction, forming in bygone days the southern shoreline of what is still known as the Gulf of Torquas. Towards the west I looked out over the ruins of a great city [Xanator] which extended far back in to low hills. (Fighting Man, chap. 4, p. 171)

Xanator is northeast of Jahar. (Fighting Man, chap. 5, p. 186)

ZODANGA - City and empire of red men. The Zodangans for years had waged a ruthless campaign of extermination against the green Martians, until Zodanga was conquered and the city razed by an alliance of Helium and Thark. Zodanga was later rebuilt. In A Princess of Mars, Zodanga is 1,000 miles northeast of Helium (which is stated repeatedly to be at 30oS). But in Swords of Mars, the city of Zodanga is located over 1,900 miles due east of the Twin Cities at 30oS, 172oE of Exum. 

The best explanation for this apparent discrepancy is that suggested by Frank Brueckel in Barsoomian, #13, Jan. 1968 (referenced by Roy in A Guide to Barsoom). Brueckel proposed that the statement in Princess that “Helium lies a thousand miles southwest of Zodanga” refers to the western boundary of the Zodangan nation; whereas the statement in Swords of Mars that “Over 1,900 miles east of the Twin Cities of Helium, at about 30o south, longitude 172o east, lies Zodanga” refers to the location of the capital city of Zodanga. This information also gives us the Chronicles' only precise latitude and longitude for the cities of Zodanga and Helium. (PM/19-26; GM/16-20; SM/-)

[From Zodanga] “I raced at terrific velocity toward the south, following one of the great waterways which enter Zodanga from that direction… I had traversed perhaps 200 miles in a little less than an hour…”  (Princess, chap. 21, p. 107)

 Helium lies a thousand miles southwest of Zodanga, and with my compass intact I should have made the trip…in four or five hours. 
     …morning found me speeding over a vast expanse of dead sea bottom after nearly six hours of continuous flight at high speed. Presently a great city showed below me, but it was not Helium... 
     Believing that I had come too far to the north and west, I turned back in a southeasterly direction, passing during the forenoon several other large cities… 
     About noon I passed low over a great dead city of ancient Mars [near to Thark]. (Princess, chap. 23, pp. 124-125)”

Over 1,900 miles east of the Twin Cities of Helium, at about 30o south, longitude 172o east, lies Zodanga. (Swords of Mars, chap. 1, p. 5)

ZOR - City subject to Helium, approximately 380 mi. southeast of the Twin Cities. (JCM (SMJ)/1-2)

Zor…lies about 380 miles southeast of Helium. (Skeleton Men of Jupiter, p. 262)
 



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