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Volume 6099_11
Another major book which prepared the advent of
Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs


Great Excitement Among the Natives by the Presence of a White Man
Great Excitement Among the Natives by the Presence of a White Man — Cruise on a
Large Lake — Strike of Canoe-Men — Only a Coverlet with which to hire another
Canoe— Food Obtained by Shooting Buffaloes — Fine Sport for the Hunter — How
the Buffalo is Hunted — Thrilling Adventure with the Huge Brute— A Hottentot
Dodging in the Bushes — Terrible Foe — Adventure of a Friend of Livingstone—
A Dangerous Meeting with Two Lions — Charge of a Mad Buffalo — Livingstone
Pursues His Journey — A Country Convulsed by War — Mohammed and other
Arab Traders — Flight for Life — Livingstone Pacifies the Natives — Return of
Deserters— Start for Ujiji— Serious Illness — A Dauntless Hero — Encounter with
an Elephant — Beautiful Monkeys in the Forest — Thousands of Ants on the
March — Graphic Description of Manyuema — Degraded Tribe of Cannibals —
Market Scene in Manyuema — Terrible Massacre — Disastrous Attempt to Go
Forward — Lake Named after President Lincoln — The Explorer's Account of the
Soko — Freaks of a Strange Animal — A Wild Creature that Never Attacks
Women — Amusing Female Soko — Ten Men with Stores Meet Livingstone —
Shocking Barbarity — Hundreds of Lives Lost — Shameful Cruelty and Destruc-
tion — Off on Foot for Ujiji — Near to Death— People Who Eat Their Enemies —
Arrival at Ujiji — Sick, Worn out and in Desperate Straits.
EMBARKING on the lake in a fine canoe, with five stout men as
propellers, Livingstone in a few hours reached an island where he
remained a short tirfte, going on before night to the more import-
ant Mbahala, where his appearance created the greatest excitement
amongst the natives, who had never before seen a white man. Walking
across to the north end of the island, Livingstone ascertained it to be
about one mile broad, and from the eastern point he made out a larger
island on the right, called by the natives Chirubi, and said to contain a
large population, possessing many sheep and goats. These minor facts
determined, our hero prepared to continue his voyage, hoping to pass, if
he could not touch at, the spot where the Lualaba leaves Lake Bang-
weolo on its journey to Moero.

But, alas ! in July the canoe-men struck. They had heard of a medi-
tated attack upon their little bark ; they dared not remain longer on the
lake ; but if Livingstone liked to stay on Mbahala they would come
and fetch him presently, when all danger was over. Believing this to be
a gotten up tale to avoid further work in his service, their wages having
been paid in advance, the unfortunate explorer at first thought of seizing
their paddles, and appealing to the head-man of the island. Reflecting
still further, however, that he was entirely in their power, and that the
islanders would probably side with them, he resolved to bear ''with
meekness, though groaning inwardly," the disappointment inflicted upon

" I had only," says Livingstone, " my coverlet to hire another canoe,
and it was now very cold ; the few beads left would all be required to
buy food on the way back. I might have got food by shooting buffaloes,
but that on foot, and through grass with stalks as thick as a goosequill, is
dreadfully hard work." Back then he must go to Masantu's, compelled
to trust to native reports, for the present at least, for his computation of
distances, etc., on the lake.

Livingstone's reference to getting food by shooting buffaloes shows
how abundant these animals are in the southern part of Africa. This is
one of the attractions of this part of the continent for the hunter,
although our great explorer seldom hunted merely for sport. Travellers
give us interesting accounts of the African buffalo and the excitement of
the chase.

Fine Sport for the Hunter.

In the first place, he is a handsome animal, of graceful shape, and a
giant in strength; in his native wilds he is just a peaceful grazer, con-
tented to pass his life cropping grass and green leaves, and to interfere
with no animal, human or other ; but, challenge him to' war, and the
fiercest hunter could not desire bolder game ; capture and tame him, and
he will draw your plough or wagon as submissively as the ox. He is a
faithful friend, and will fight to the, death on behalf of his companions,
and for the sake of his young will do battle with the lion himself

Of retiring habits, they affect vast solitudes where verdure abounds,
and there is no lack of rivers and pools in which they may luxuriate,
immersing themselves till only their heads appear above the surface, cool-
ing their leathery hides and getting respite from the formidable stinging
things that fly, or the biters that closely adhere to their bodies. If water
is unattainable, the buffalo will content himself with mud, if there is
plenty of it. Throwing himself flat upon his side in the mire, he shuf-
iles round and round, the soil yielding to his immense weight the exuda-
tion of any moisture there may be, till he manufactures for himself a
delicious basin of mortar, covering him to his very eyes.

When he rises and walks off he presents a decidedly unhandsome ap-
pearance, which is not improved when, in the course of an hour or so,
the sun bakes his mud crust, and he looks, when standing still, like
some hideous clay image. Ease, however, is of considerably more im-
portance to the buffalo than elegance, and until the motion of his
limbs causes his ugly coat to peel off he may defy all the vermin in the

When Captain Methuen and his party were hunting at the Cape of
Good Hope he had an opportunity of judging how terrible a beast the
bull buffalo is when wounded and hard driven by the daring sportsman.
With the captain were a Hottentot attendant, named Frolic, and a friend,
named Moneypenny, and having discovered a herd of buffaloes, the trio
let fly at them, wounding some, but not so badly but that the entire
drove escaped to an impenetrable patch of forest. The captain, however,
climbed into a tree, and thereby sighted and shot another bull, whereon
the wounded animal ran toward the report, his ears outstretched, his
eyes moving in all directions, and his nose carried in a right line with the
head, evidently bent on revenge. He passed within thirty yards of me,
and was lost in the bush. Descending from our frail perch. Frolic again
discovered this buffalo standing among some small thick bushes which.
nearly hid him from view ; his head was lowered, not a muscle of the
body moved, and he was without doubt listening intently. We crept
noiselessly to a bush and I again fired.

"His Horn Struck the Muzzle of the Gun."

"The huge brute ran forward with the wind, fortunately not in our di-
rection, and again stood still. Presently he lay gently down, and know-
ing that buffaloes are exceedingly cunning, and will adopt this plan
merely to escape notice and entrap their persecutors, we drew near with
great caution. I again fired through his shoulder, and concluded from
his not attempting to rise that he was helpless. We walked close up to
him, and never can the scene which followed be erased from my memory.
Turning his ponderous head round, his eye caught our figures. I fired
the second barrel of my rifle behind his horns, but it did not reach the
brain. His wounds gave him some difificulty in getting up, which afford-
ed Moneypenny and myself just time to ensconce ourselves behind the
slender shrubs that grew round the spot, while Frolic unwisely took to
his heels. The buffalo saw him, and uttering a continued unearthly noise
between a grunt and a bellow, advanced at a pace at which these unwieldy
creatures are rarely seen to run, unless stirred by revenge.

"Crashing through the low bushes as if they were stubble, he passed
me, but charged quite over Moneypenny's lurking-place, who aimed at
him as he came on, and lodged the ball in the rocky mass of horn above
his head ; the buffalo was so near at the time of his firing that his horn
struck the barrel of the gun the next instant; but whether the noise and.
smoke confused the animal, or he was partially stunned by the bullet, he
missed my friend, and continued in pursuit of Frolic.

"The Hottentot dodged the terrible brute round the bushes, but
through these slight obstacles it dashed with ease and gained ground
rapidly. Speechless we watched the chase, and in the awful moment,
regardless of concealment, stood up and saw the buffalo overtake his
victim and knock him down. At this crisis my friend fired his second
barrel at the beast, which gave Frolic one or two blows with his fore-feet,
and pushing his nose under, endeavored to toss him; but the Hottentot,
aware of this, with much presence of mind lay perfectly still. Directly
after the buffalo stumbled and fell dead, and Frolic got on his legs and
limped toward us. He was much hurt, and the powder-flask in his
game-bag was stamped quite flat."

A Terrible Foe.

Although of a pacific disposition, the buffalo will defend himself with
astonishing courage against the attacks of either man or beast when
brought to bay. The bear has no chance with, and even the cunning
tiger dare not face the buffalo's terrible horns, and can only obtain the
mastery by lying in ambush and springing on to the buffalo's flanks.
The buffalo cow will attack the lion fearlessly in defence of her young.
Dr. Livingstone asserts that a toss from the buffalo will often kill a lion,
and that he had seen two who had evidently come to their death by the
horns of the buffalo.

In a letter to his friend Dr. Livingstone, Mr. Vardon thus describes a
terrific struggle between a buffalo and three lions as witnessed and
assisted at by himself and Mr. Oswell, on the banks of the Limpopo : —
^' Oswell and I were riding along the banks of the river when a water-
buck started in front of us. I dismounted, and was following it through
the jungle, when three buffaloes got up, and after going a little distance
stood still, and the nearest bull turned round and looked at me. A ball
from a two-ouncer crashed into his shoulder, and they all three made off.
Oswell and I followed as soon as I had reloaded, and when we were in
sight of the buffalo, and gaining on him every stride, three lions leaped
on the unfortunate brute.

" He bellowed most lustily as he kept up a running fight, but he was of
course soon overpowered and pulled down. We had a fine view of the
struggle, and saw the lions on their hind-legs tearing away with teeth
and claws in the most ferocious style. We crept up within thirty yards,
and kneeling down blazed away at the lions. My rifle was a single
barrel, and I had no spare gun. One lion fell dead almost on the buffalo;
he had merely time to turn towards us, seize a bush with his teeth, and
drop dead with the stick in his jaws.

"The second made off directly; and the third raised his head coolly,
looked around for a moment, then went on tearing and biting at the
carcase as hard as ever. We retired a short distance to load, then again
advanced and fired. The lion made off, but the ball that he had received
oz^^/z/ to have stopped him, as it went clear through his shoulder-blade.
He was followed up and killed, after having charged several times. Both
lions were males. The buffalo had of course gone close to where the
lions were lying down, and they seeing him lame and bleeding, thought the
opportunity too good a one to be lost. It is not often that one bags a
brace of lions and a bull buffalo in about ten minutes."

Captain Speke, in his " Journal of the Discovery of the Nile," relates
the experience of a day in hunting the buffalo. Accompanied by two
natives, he had met a large herd early in the day, and followed them
some time, killing a cow, and wounding several others, among them a
bull. "As they knew they were pursued they kept moving on in short
runs at a time, when, occasionally gaining glimpses of their large dark
bodies as they forced through the bush, I repeated my shots and struck
a good number, some more and some less severely. This was very pro-
voking ; for all of them, being stern shots, were not likely to kill, and
the jungle was so thick I could not get a front view of them.

" Presently, however, one with her hind-leg broken pulled up on a
white-ant hill, and, tossing her horns, came down on a charge the instant
I showed myself close to her. One crack of the rifle rolled her over.
Following the spoors, the traces of blood led us up to another one as
lame as the last. He then got a second bullet in the flank, and, after
hobbling a little, evaded our sight and threw himself into a bush, where
we no sooner arrived than he plunged headlong at us from his ambush,
just, and only just, giving me time to present my rifle.

" It was a most ridiculous scene. Suliman by my side, with the
instinct of a monkey, made a violent spring and swung himself by a
bough immediately over the beast, while Faraj bolted away and left me
single-gunned to polish him off There was only one course to pursue,
for in one instant more he would have been into me; so, quick as
thought, I fired the gun, and, as luck would have it, my bullet, after
passing through the edge of one of his horns, stuck in the spine of his
neck, and rolled him over at my feet as dead as a rabbit.

" We commenced retracing our steps. Tracking back to the first post
of attack, we followed the blood of the first bull, till at length I found
him standing like a stuck pig in some bushes, looking as if he would like
to be put out of his misery. Taking compassion, I leveled my gun ; but
as bad luck would have it, a bough intercepted the flight of the bullet
and it went ' pinging ' into the air, while the bull went off at a gallop.
To follow on was no difficulty, the spoor was so good; and in ten
minutes more, as I opened a small clearance, rifle in hand, the great
beast, from the thicket at the opposite side, charged down like a mad bull,
full of ferocity — as ugly an antagonist as ever I saw, for the front of
his head was all shielded with horn. A small mound fortunately stood
between us, and as he rounded it, I jumped to one side and let fly at his
flank, but without the effect of stopping him ; for, as quick as thought,
the huge monster was at my feet, battling with the impalpable smoke of
my gun, which fortunately hung so thick on the ground at the height of
his head that he could not see me, though I was so close that I might,
had I been possessed of a hatchet, have chopped off his head. This was
a predicament that looked very ugly, for my boys had both bolted,
taking with them my guns ; but suddenly the beast, evidently regarding
the smoke as a phantom which could not be mastered, turned round in
a bustle, to my intense relief, and galloped off at full speed, as if scared
off at some terrible apparition."

Such are some of the thrilling adventures among the wild animals of
Africa. Livingstone often escaped starvation by the expert use of his gun.

Flying for Ljfe.

Proceeding with our narrative, from Masantu's the march back to
Chikumbi, where Mohammed and his party had been left, was com-
menced, and in August the settlement of an Arab trader named Kombo-
kombo, a little to the south of Chikumbi, was reached. Here Living-
stone was cheered by the news that Mohammed was contemplating a
journey west, which would take him to the great Lualaba. " The way
seems opening before me," he exclaims, "and I am thankful." Before
arrangements for accompanying Mohammed could be made, however,
came rumors of war on the other side of the Lualaba. Syde bin Omar,
an Arab trader from Iramba, the country on its western shores between
Lake Bangweolo and the Rua district, declared it would be madness to
attempt any explorations in that direction.

Mohammed therefore readily gave up his scheme for the present, and
united with Omar in objecting strongly to Livingstone's going with his
small party even down the right bank of the Lualaba, though it was in
sight. Our hero resolved then to wait until all were ready to go, little
dreaming that the delay would last until the beginning of October, that
the country would be convulsed with war, and that when he did leave
Chikumbi it would be to flee to the north for his life. First came a raid
from devastating hordes of Mazitu, who were repulsed by the united
forces of the Arab traders and the native chiefs ; then a quarrel between
the successful allies, resulting in an attack, headed by Casembe and
Chikumbi, on the Arabs, beginning with the Kombokombo mentioned

Confusion now prevailed everywhere. The daily entries in Living-
stone's journals became impossible, but on the 5th of October he writes
how he and his little band of servants were on one occasion surrounded
by a party of fifteen or twenty natives, who attacked them with spears
and poisoned arrows ; how " one good soul helped them away — a bless-
ing be on him and his ; " how he narrowly escaped from the hands of
another chief, who took him and his men for Mazitu ; and how, lastly, he
joined forces with the Arab traders, and started north, fences being built
every night to protect the united camps, which were, however, unmolested
till the northern bank of the Kalongosi river was reached.

Here 500 natives were drawn up to dispute the passage, but as Living-
stone and an advanced party with thirty guns crossed over they retired.
Our hero, however, went amongst them, explained who he was, was
recognized by some old acquaintances, and obtained a truce for the
Arabs. All became friendly, an elephant was killed, stores of provisions
were bought, and two days later the march was resumed.

Kabwawata, on the north-west of Lake Moero, was reached, and an-
other long delay ensued before the Arab traders were again ready to
start. The time was employed by Livingstone in making an exhaustive
resume of his own work and that of his predecessors in connection with
the Nile, his conviction being that in Lake Bangweolo he had found the
final, or at least one of the final, sources of that great river. The work
of Cameron and Stanley has, however, since proved the Lualaba to be
the upper course, not, as supposed by Livingstone, of the Nile, but of
the Congo, and we therefore pass over all that the hero of our present
chapter urges in support of the former view.

Return of Deserters.

Whilst Livingstone was at Kabwawata he was cheered by the return
of some of the men who had deserted before the trip to Bangweolo, and
now begged to be taken back. Readily forgiven by their master, who
observes that there was great excuse for them, after the conduct of their
Johanna comrades, they now became apparently devoted to his service,
though we shall presently have to relate their renewed faithlessness.

Once more surrounded by the retinue who had come with him from
Lake Nyassa, Livingstone started for Ujiji with the Arabs in December^
his party and Mohammed's leading the way. The march to Tanganyika,
which was in a more northerly direction than the westward journey,
seems to have been one long agony to Livingstone. In his journal he
tells of heavy rains impeding progress, the escape and recapture of slaves
and the hostility of villagers ; but the entries became shorter and shorter,
and on the first of January, 1869, he records that the new year was
opening badly ; he had been wet times without number, but the wet-
ting of yesterday was once too often ; he felt very ill," and in crossing
the Lofuko, within some six weeks' journey of the lake, he was " cold up
to the waist," which made him worse, though he struggled on for another
two hours and a half.

On the 3d January, after one hour's march, he found himself too weak
to go further ; his lungs were affected ; he did not know how the next
few days were passed. A rill was crossed, and sheds were built, but
whether he took any share in the work he cannot tell. " I lost count,"
he says, " of the days of the week and month after this," but about Jan-
uary 7th he managed to write the following touching sentence :

" I cannot walk. Pneumonia of right lung, and I cough all day and
all night; distressing weakness. Ideas flow through the mind with great
rapidity and vividness, in groups of twos and threes. If I look at any
piece of wood, the bark seems covered all over with figures and faces of
men, and they remain though I look away and turn to the same spot
again. I saw myself lying dead in the way to Ujiji, and all the letters I
expected there useless. When I think of my children and friends, the
lines run through my head perpetually —

' I shall look into your faces,
And listen to what you say,
And be often very near you
When you think I am far away.'

Mohammed Mogharib came up, and I have got a cupper, who cupped my chest."

Serious Illness.

A little further we have the following entry, dated the 8th January :
" Mohammed Mogharib offered to carry me. I am so weak, I can
scarcely speak. We are in Marungu proper now — a pretty but steeply
undulating country. This is the first time in my life I have been carried
in illness, but I cannot raise myself to the sitting posture. No food ex-
cept a little gruel. Great distress in coughing all night long; feet
swelled and sore. I am carried four hours each day on a kitanda or
frame, like a Cot ; carried eight hours one day. We seem near the brim
of Tanganyika. Mohammed Mogharib is very kind to me in my ex-
treme weakness ; but carriage is painful ; head down and feet up alter-
nates with feet down and head up ; jolted up and down sideways —
changing shoulders involves a toss from one side to the other of the
kitanda. The sun is vertical, blistering any part of the skin exposed,
and I try to shelter my face and head as well as I can with a bunch of
leaves, but it is dreadfully fatiguing in my weakness."

After this we have no note for five weeks. Then, on the 14th Feb-
ruary, 1869, the arrival at Tanganyika is announced, succeeded by a few
lines to the effect that Livingstone felt if he did not get to Ujiji, where he
could have proper food and medicine, soon he must die.

Not until late in the same month, after fearful sufferings in a miserable
hut infested with vermin on the shores of the lake, were canoes obtained,
and the transit begun. A little revived by the pure air on the water,
and already near Ujiji, he had hoped soon to be in that village, where he
believed letters from home and stores from Zanzibar must long have been
awaiting him.

The Same Dauntless Hero.

On the 14th of March, Ujiji was at last reached, but, on landing, our
hero found that more than half his goods had been made away with, and
that the road to Unyanyembe was blocked up by a Mazitu war. No
hope of receiving anything more from the east for the present, no hope of
getting home by way of Zanzibar; but not one repining word is uttered
by Livingstone in the now more frequent notes in his journal. He says
nothing about the improvement in his health, though that is implied in
the plans he hints at for further researches on the west. No change of
purpose is allowed to result from all he has undergone. He has reached
Ujiji; he is better. He will make Ujiji the starting point for a journey
direct to Manyuema, far aVay on the north-west, not only of Moero, but
of that other unseen lake known as Kamolondo, and supposed by him to
be the most northerly and elevated of the series of which Bangweolo is
probably the lowest and most southerly.

Forty-two letters were now written home, and entrusted to Arabs for
transmission to Zanzibar, but they never reached their destination, and
are supposed to have been wantonly destroyed. One ingenious theory
respecting the relation of Tanganyika to the other lakes of Central
Africa is worked out after another — what is the meaning of the current
. setting towards the north? — is the long narrow sheet of water only a
river after all ? — if a lake, has it an outlet, and, if so, where is that outlet ?
— such are some of the questions propounded, but not answered, by the
great explorer, as he bides his time for an opportunity to go and see the
great rivers reported to intersect Manyuema, that unknown country of
which little more than rumors had then reached even the Arab traders of

Presently came rumors of vast herds of elephants in Manyuema, and
of a sturdy race of blacks differing essentially from any of those yet met
with. A horde of Arabs determined to go and test the truth of these

The dangers incident to elephant hunting in all this part of Africa are
vividly seen in the following narrative, related by a member of a hunting
party who was a participant in the perilous sport :

"We had bagged a good many birds, when a beautiful little gazelle
came bounding across our path. It put me in mind of an Italian grey-
hound, only it had a longer neck and was somewhat larger. I was quite
sorry when Chickango (a native connected with our party), firing, knocked
it over. It was, however, a welcome addition to our game bag. He
called it Ncheri. It was the most elegant little creature I met with in
Africa among the numberless beautiful animals which abound in the re-
gions we passed through.

"We were at the time proceeding along the foot of a hill. Scarcely
had he fired, when a loud trumpeting was heard, and directly afterwards
we saw a negro rushing through the underwood, followed by a huge ele-
phant. 'Up! up the hill!' cried Chickango, suiting the action to the
word. I followed, for as we were wishing to kill birds alone, my gun was
loaded only with small shot. The elephant made towards us. The negro
stranger came bounding on. Chickango and I had got some way up the
hill, but Wilson, one of our number, who stood his ground, was engaged
in ramming home a bullet. The elephant had all the time been keeping
one eye on the black and one on us.

"When I thought he was on the point of seizing us, he suddenly turned
on his first assailant. The black darted to a tree, when the elephant
seizing him with his trunk, threw him with tremendous force to the ground.
This enabled Wilson to spring up after us; and the hill being very steep,
with rolling stones, we hoped that we were there safe from the infuriated
beast. It cast a glance at the unfortunate black, who was endeavoring to
crawl away along the ground. Again the elephant was about to seize
him with his trunk, and in an instant would have crushed him to death,,
when Wilson, raising his gun, fired, and struck the creature in the most
vulnerable part — behind the ear. The ball must have entered the brain,,
for, sinking down instantly, it rolled over, and, we thought, must have
killed the black by its weight.

"He was Still Breathing."

" We hurried down, hoping that there might yet be time to save the
poor fellow's life, regardless at the moment of our victory, which, with
hunters in general, would have been a cause of triumph. As we got
round, we found the black had narrowly escaped being crushed to death;
indeed, as it was, his legs appeared to lie almost under the monster's back.
We drew him out, however, and to our satisfaction found that he was stilL
breathing. Chickango said that he belonged to the Bakeles, and was
probably a chief hunter among them. As, however, we were much nearer
our own abode than their village, Wilson and I agreed to carry him
with us, somewhat I fancied, to Chickango's astonishment. Oh! he
black fellow, he die; what use carry?' he remarked. Of course we kept
our own opinion, hoping that with our doctor's skill the poor man might
recover. He was unable to speak, and was indeed apparently uncon-

"'Had my rifle been loaded with ball, I should have saved that poor
fellow the last fearful crush; and in the future we must not go without
one or two of our fowling-pieces loaded with ball,' obsei^ved Wilson ram-
ming down a bullet into his rifle."

" Chickango and I did the same. We then constructed a rough litter^
on which we placed the injured negro. We bore him along, a porter and
Chickango carrying the head and I the feet part of the litter. We found
the weight considerable, especially over the rough ground we had to
traverse, but the life of a fellow-creature depended upon our perseverance.

Chickango carefully noted the spot where the elephant lay, that we might
return as soon as possible for some of the meat and the tusks, which were
very large. We reached the spot where our friends were cutting out the
canoe just as they were about to leave it, and we were thankful to have
their assistance in carrying the stranger. The doctor instantly applied
himself to examining the hurts of the negro. He found that his left arm
had been broken, and the ribs on the same side severely crushed. 'The
injuries might be serious for a white man,' he observed; 'but the blood
of an African, unheated by the climate, escapes inflammation, and I have
hopes that he may recover.' Chickango was very eager to set out im-
mediately, in order to bring in the eleahant's tusks and some meat, but
Wilson considered that it was too late in the day, and put off the expedi-
tion till the following morning.

"We were somewhat later in starting than we intended. We carried
baskets and ropes, to bring with us the ivory and a supply of meat. On
reaching the spot, however, where the huge monster lay, we found that
others had been before us. The tusks were gone, and a portion of the
flesh. Innumerable birds of prey, also, were tearing away at it, or seated
on the surrounding trees devouring the pieces they had carried off, while
hyenas, already gorged, crept sulkily away, doubting whether they should
attack us or not. The spectacle was almost ghastly, and it showed how
soon a mountain of flesh might disappear in that region.

Beautiful Little Monkeys.

"Chickango was greatly disappointed, as not a particle of flesh which
he could touch remained, while, of course, we regretted the loss of the
valuable tusks. On our way back, we caught sight of a number of beau-
tiful little monkeys skipping about in the trees. Chickango called them
"oshingui." They were the smallest I ever saw. Below the trees where
they had their abode ran a small stream ; and Chickango told me they
were very fond of water, and were never found at a distance from it. On
the same trees, and playing with them, were numerous birds, called mon-
key-birds from their apparent attachment to those creatures.

" We saw another very beautiful little bird, with an extremely long flowing
tail of pure milk-white. It had a crest on its head of a greenish black,
and its breast was of the same color, while lower down the feathers were
of an ashy brown. Snow-white feathers on the back rose up, like those
of the birds of paradise, to which it had a strong resemblance. Soon
after this I saw some creatures on the ground, and catching hold of one
of them, I found it was an enormous ant of a greenish white color, with
a head of a reddish black. The, fangs were so powerful that when I put
my fingers to them, they literally tore a piece of flesh out.

"'Why, these creatures would eat us all up, if we were to encounter
them as we did those the other day,' I remarked.

" ' No fear massa,' answered a native. ' Dey no come in same way.
Dey no go into house, no climb tree, and only just a few hundred or
t'ousand march together.'

" It was satisfactory to hear this, for really I felt that should an army
invade us, we might have more reason to dread them than the blacks
themselves. I was not soriy to miss the elephant flesh, for I had not for-
gotten the tough morsals we had placed between our teeth when pre-
sented to us by the friendly blacks soon after we landed."

The journey to Manyuema commenced on the 12th of July, 1869.
After crossing the lake, the line of march was directly north-west until

Bambarre, the district of a friendly chief named Moenekuss, was reached
in September. Numerous rivers and minor streams were crossed on the
way, some flowing into Tanganyika, and others westward the Lualaba;
the district near the lake is mountainous and covered with dense forests.
The Manyuema country is described by Livingstone as surpassingly

Palms crown the highest heights of the mountains, and their gracefully bended
fronds wave beautifully in the wind ; and the forests, usually about five miles
broad, between groups of villages, are indescribable.
Climbers of cable size in great numbers are hung among the
gigantic trees, many unknown wild fruits abound, some the
size of a child's head, and strange birds and monkeys are every-
where. The soil is excessively rich, and the people, although
isolated by old feuds that are never settled, cultivate largely.

They have selected a kind of maize that bends its fruit-stalk ants on the march.
round into a hook, and hedges some eighteen feet high are made by insert-
ing poles, which sprout like Robinson Crusoe's hedge, and never decay.
Lines of climbing plants are tied so as to go along from pole to pole,
and the maize-cobs are suspended to these by their own hooked fruit-
stalk. As the corn-cob is forming, the hook is turned round, so that the
fruit-leaves of it hang down and form a hatch for the grain beneath or
inside it. This upright granary forms a solid-looking wall round the vil-
lages, and the people are not stingy, but take down the maize and hand
it to the men freely.

The streets of the villages often run east and west, in order that the
bright blazing sun may lick up the moisture quickly from off them. The
dwelling houses are generally in line, with public meeting-houses at each
end, opposite the middle of the street ; the roofs are low, but well
thatched with a leaf resembling the banana-leaf, from which the water
runs quickly off. The walls are of well-beaten clay, and screened from
the weather. Inside, the dwellings are clean and comfortable, and before
the Arabs came, bugs were unknown. In some places, where the south-
east rains are abundant, the Manyuema place the back of the houses to
this quarter, and prolong the low roof down, so that the rain does not
reach the walls. These clay walls stand for ages, and men often return
to the villages they left in infancy and build again the portions that
many rains have washed away. Each housewife has from twenty-five to
thirty earthen pots slung to the ceiling by very neat cord-swinging tas-
sels ; and often as many neatly-made baskets hung up in the same fashion,
and much firewood.

The population is very large, and the people are fine-looking; Living-
stone thinks that a crowd of Londoners, divested of their clothing and
set opposite a crowd of Manyuema, would make a sorry spectacle. The
people are very naked, answering to Cowper's lines:

" Time was, when clothing, sumptuous or for use.
Save their own painted skins, our sires had none,
As yet black breeches were not ; satin, smooth, '

Or velvet soft, or plush with shaggy pile ;
The hardy chief upon the rugged rock
Washed by the sea, or on the grav'ly bank
Thrown up by wintry torrents roaring loud,
Fearless of wrong, reposed his weary strength."

The natives plait the hair into the form of a basket behind ; it is first
rolled into a very long coil, then wound around something till it is about
eight or ten inches long, projecting from the back of the head. The
Manyuema, with their great numbers, their favored country, and their
industrious habits, would seem to possess all the elements of a strong
and progressive nation; but they are among the most barbarous tribes
of Central Africa.

They are cannibals of the most degraded sort, for they eat the bodies
of those who die of disease; they are suspicious, vindictive, and cruel;
and they are so quarrelsome and treacherous that inhabitants of one
village or district seldom dare venture beyond the confines of the next.
Even Livingstone's large charity, quickened as it was by the outrages to
Avhich he saw them subjected at the hands of the Arabs, could find but
little that was good in them except their physique. " The Manyuema,"
he says, after a long stay among them had made him familiar with their
ihabits, "are the most bloody, callous savages I know; one puts a scarlet
ifeather from a parrot's tail on the ground, and challenges those near to
stick it in the hair : he who does so must kill a man or woman ! An-
other custom is that none dare wear the skin of the musk cat, ngawa,
lunless he has murdered somebody : guns alone prevented them from
killing us all, and for no reason either."

One of the great institutions of the Manyuema country is their mar-
kets, held in certain villages and at stated times. Even in war-time mar-
ket people are allowed to pass freely to and from the fairs with their
wares. People from distant districts collect here, and exchange their
surplus product for Manyuema luxuries. Fish-wives, goat-herds, slave-
owners; dealers in ivory, palm oil, pottery, skins, cloth, and iron-ware;
sellers of fruit, vegetables, salt, grain, and fowls, all mingle in the motley
•throng, and shout the merits of their particular goods at the top of their
lungs, and with a perseverance and ardor that would make the fortune
of an auctioneer at home. Strange varieties of savage costume and no
•costume are to be seen in these groups : the wild Balegga man-eater
:stalking side by side with the white-skirted Moslem man-hunter from
Zanzibar ; and the plumed, painted, tattooed, and bespangled chieftain
laying his dignity temporarily aside to chaffer with a poor commoner in
liis simple waistcloth, over the price of a pig or of a mess of roasted
white ants.

Dreadful Massacre.

At Nyangwe there was a market once in eveiy four days, and the
assemblage generally numbered about three thousand. One fdir day the
Arabs, who had been sauntering peaceably among the crowd, suddenly
produced their arms and began firing on the helpless multitude, chiefly
composed of women. Flinging down their Avares, the panic-stricken
people fled on all sides, many of them dashing into the river that flowed
close by, or cHmbing into boats that filled and sank with the numbers
that crowded into them. The market-place was strewn with the dead
and dying, and with the confused heaps of merchandise which had been
dropped or thrown down in the flight, while the murderous scoundrels
c:ontinued firing so long as they' could see a victim to aim at.

Livingstone believed that five hundred Hves were sacrificed in this
unprovoked massacre. The object was to "strike terror" into the
hearts of the inhabitants, and show them the irresistible power of the
gun. The result was that the country became too hot to hold the mur-

Having rested at Bambarre until November, Livingstone resolved to
go west to the Lualaba, and buy a canoe for its exploration. Travelling
was very difficult, as it was now the rainy season ; and the attitude of the
natives became so threatening that after penetrating to within ten miles
of the Lualaba he was compelled to turn back and return to Bambarre.
Towards the end of December he set out with Mohammed's ivory party„
hoping to reach another part of the Lualaba, and thus carry out his origi-
nal scheme. The route pursued was due north, and was followed for
about a month; but rheumatism and \yeakness, accompanied by a chol-
eraic complaint, drove him back, and in February, 1870, he went into
winter quarters at Mamohela, a town some distance north of Bambarre^
which the Arabs had made their chief depot. Here he remained several
months, regaining strength, and making preparations for further explor-
rations and discoveries.

In June a third attempt was made to reach Lualaba, which proved even
more disastrous than either of the preceding ones. In the first place
most of his men deserted him, so that he was obliged to start with only-
three attendants The country proved exceedingly difficult from forest
and water ; trees fallen across the path formed a breast-high wall which
had to be climbed over ; flooded rivers, breast and neck deep, had to be
crossed ; the mud was awful ; and nothing but villages eight or ten miles
apart, the people of which were far from friendly. For the first time in
his life Livingstone's feet failed him ; instead of healing quietly, as here-
tofore, when torn by hard travel, irritable eating-ulcers fastened on both
feet, and he was barely able to limp back to Mamohela in July
The ulcers now laid him up. If the foot were put to the ground a
discharge of bloody ichor followed, and the same discharge happened
every night with considerable pain that prevented sleep. They eat
through everything — muscle, tendon, and bone; and medicines have
very little elTect upon them. Their periodicity would seem to indi-
cate that they are allied to fever. For eighty days Livingstone never
came out of his hut ; and even then the ulcers had only begun to

His journal shows that during the period of his confinement Living-
stone was gathering information from both natives and Arabs as to the
great lake and river system which he had discovered ; speculating with
apparent seriousness upon the possibility of Moses having penetrated to
this region and founded the lost city of Meroe ; and observing the habits
of the people. He learned that another large lake, called Chibungo, lay
about twelve days distant \vest from the Lualaba; and that a large river,
which he called Lualaba West, flows out of it in a north-easterly direc-
tion and empties into the main stream.

To the central Lualaba, or main stream, he gave the name of "Webb's
River;" to the western, "Young's River;" and to Chibungo, "Lake
Lincoln," in honor of our own President Lincoln.

Concerning one whose name was given to a river, Livingstone says :
" Osvvell and Webb were fellow-travellers, and mighty hunters. Too
much engrossed myself with mission-work to hunt, except for the chil-
dren's larder, when going to visit distant tribes, I relished the sight of
fair stand-up fights by my friends with the large denizens of the forest,
and admired the true Nimrod class for their great courage, truthfulness,
and honor."

Under date of August 24th he gives an interesting account of the
soko, which he believed to be identical with the gorilla, but which Mr.
Waller is probably right in regarding as an entirely new species of chim-
panzee. The narrative is as follows :

Four gorillas or sokos were killed yesterday : an extensive grass-burn-
ing forced them out of their usual haunt, and coming on the plain they
were speared. They often go erect, but place the hand on the head as
if to steady the body. When seen thus, the soko is an ungainly beast.
The most sentimental young lady would not call him a " dear," but a
bandy-legged, pot-bellied, low-looking villain, without a particle of the
gentleman in him. Other animals, especially the antelopes, are graceful,
and it is pleasant to see them either at rest or in motion : the natives are
also well made, lithe and comely to behold ; but the soko, if large, would
do well to stand for a picture of the devil.

He takes away my appetite by the disgusting bestiality of appearance.
His light-yellow face shows off his ugly whiskers, and faint apology for
a beard ; the foreground of the great dog-mouth ; the teeth are slightly
human, but the canines show the beast by their large development. The
hands, or rather the fingers, are like those of the natives. The flesh of
the feet is yellow, and the eagerness with which the Manyuema devour it
leaves the impression that eating sokos was the first stage by which
they arrived at being cannibals ; they say that the flesh is delicious.

Freaks of a Strange Animal.

The soko is represented by some to be extremely knowing, success-
fully stalking men and women while at their work, kidnapping children
and running up trees with,them — he seems to be amused by the sight of
the young native in his arms, but comes down Avhen tempted by a bunch
of bananas, and as he lifts that, drops the child : the young soko in such
a case would cling closely to the armpit of the elder. One man was cut-
ting out honey from a tree, and naked, when a soko suddenly appeared
and caught him, then let him go : another man Avas hunting, and missed
in his attempt to stab a soko ; it seized the spear and broke it ; then grap-
pled with the man, who called to his companions, " Soko has caught
me;" the soko bit off the ends of his fingers and escaped unharmed.
Both men are now alive at Bambarre.

The soko is cunning and has such sharp eyes that no one can stalk
him in front without being seen, hence, when shot, it is always in the
back ; when surrounded by men and nets, he is often speared in the back
too ; otherwise he is not a very formidable beast ; he is nothing as com-
pared in power of damaging his assailant to a leopard or lion, but is
more like a man unarmed, for it does not occur to him to use his canine
teeth, which are long and formidable. Numbers of them come down in
the forest within a hundred yards of our camp, and would be unknown
but for giving tongue Hke fox-hounds ; this is their nearest approach to
speech. A man hoeing was stalked by a soko, and seized ; he roared
out, but the soko giggled and grinned, and left him as if he had done it
in play. A child caught up by a soko is often abused by being pinched
and scratched, and let fall.

Never Attacks Women.

The soko kills the leopard occasionally, by seizing both paws and
biting them so as to disable them; he then goes up a tree, groans over
his wounds, and some time recovers, while the leopard dies: at other
times both soko and leopard die. The lion kills him at once, and some-
times tears his limbs off, but does not eat him. The soko eats no flesh —
small bananas are his dainties, but no maize. His food consists of wild
fruits which abound. The soko brings forth at times twins. A very large
soko was. seen by Mohammed's hunters sitting picking his nails; they
tried to stalk him, but he vanished. Some Manyuema think that their
buried dead rise as sokos, and one was killed with holes in his ears, as if
he had been a man. He is very strong, and fears guns but not spears;,
he never catches women.

Sokos collect together and make a drumming noise, some say with,
hollow trees, then burst forth into loud yells which are well imitated by
the natives' embryotic music. If a man has no spear, the soko goes
away satisfied, but if wounded he seizes the wrist, lops off the fingers,
and spits them out, slaps* the cheek of his victim, and bites without
breaking the skin: he draws out a spear (but never uses it), and takes
some leaves and stuffs them into his wound to staunch the blood; he
does not wish an encounter with an armed man. He sees women do
him no harm, and never molests them; a man without a spear is nearly
safe from him. They beat hollow trees as drums with hands, and then
scream as music to it; when men hear them, they go to the sokos; but
sokos never go to men with hostility. Manyuema say, "Soko is a man,
and nothing bad in him."

They live in communities of about ten, each having his own female ;.
an intruder from another camp is beaten off with their fists and loud
yells. If one tries to seize the female of another, he is caught on the
ground, and all unite in boxing and biting the offender. A male often
carries a child, especially if they are passing from one patch of forest to
another over a grassy space; he then gives it to the mother.

Later on, one of the Arabs caught a young female soko whose mother
had been killed, and gave it to Livingstone, who gives the following
amusing account of it: She is eighteen inches high, has fine long black
hair all over, Avhich was pretty, so long as it was kept in order by her
dam. She is the least mischievous of all the monkey tribe I have seen,
and seems to know that in me she has a friend, and sits quietly on the
mat beside me. In walking, the first thing observed is that she does not
tread on the palms of her hands, but on the backs of the second line of
bones of the hands: in doing this the nails do not touch the ground, nor
<io the knuckles; she uses the arms thus supported crutch fashion, and
hitches herself along between them; occasionally one hand is put down
before the other, and alternates with the feet, or she walks upright and
holds up a hand to any one to carry her.

If refused, she turns her face down, and makes grimaces of the most
bitter human weeping, wringing her hands, and sometimes adding a
fourth hand or foot to make the appeal more touching. Grass or leaves
she draws around her to make a nest, and resents anyone meddling with
Jier property. She is a most friendly little beast, and came up to me at
once, making her chirrup of welcome, smelled my clothing, and held out
her hand to be shaken. She eats everything, covers herself with a mat
to sleep, and makes a nest of grass or leaves, and wipes her face with a

Shocking Barbarity.

The arrival of ten men from Ujiji with stores early in 1871, enabled
Livingstone to penetrate to the Lualaba; but he was unable, after the
most strenuous efforts, to procure a boat to descend the river, and his
men utterly refused to cross over into the^ountry beyond.

While staying on the banks of the Lualaba, which he found to be a
mighty river, at least 3,000 yards broad and always deep, he witnessed a
scene so shocking that he could stand the companionship of the Arabs
no longer, and resolved to return at once to Ujiji. Almost from the day
the Arab hordes entered the country petty outrages on either side had
kept up a chronic state of hostility between them and the natives; and
as their stay was protracted these outrages became gradually more
numerous and more murderous. At the time when the scene referred to
occurred, Livingstone was staying at the headquarters of Dugumbe, who
had a large ivory- hunting party with him.

His people seemed to be on friendly enough terms with the natives;
"but one day in July the Arabs in camp became very much incensed on
learning that Kimburu and several other local chiefs had mixed the blood
of friendship with a slave named -Manilla. The result shall be given in
Livingstone's own words:

The reports of guns on the other side of the Lualaba all the morning-
tell of the people of Dugumbe murdering those of Kimburu and others
who mixed blood yvith Manilla. " Manilla is a slave, and how dares he
to mix blood with chiefs who ought only to make friends with free men
like us?" — This is their complaint. Kimburu gave Manilla three slaves,
and he sacked ten villages in token of friendship; he proposed to give
Dugumbe nine slaves in the same operation, but Dugumbe's people
destroy his villages, and shoot and make his people captives to punish
Manilla; to make an impression, in fact, in the country that they alone
are to be dealt with — "make friends with us, and not with Manilla or
anyone else" — such is what they insist upon.

About 1,500 people came to market, though many villages of those
that usually come from the other side were now in flames, and every now
and then a number of shots were fired on the fugitives.

Panic-stricken Crowd.

It was a hot, sultry day, and when I went into the market I saw Adie
and Manilla, and three of the men who had lately come with Dugumbe.
I was surprised to see these three with their guns, and felt inclined to
reprove them, as one of my men did, for bringing weapons into the
market, but I attributed it to their ignorance, and, it being very hot, I
was walking away to go out of the market, when I saw one of the fellows
haggling about a fowl, and seizing hold of it. Before I had got thirty
yards out, the discharge of two guns in the middle of the crowd told me
that slaughter had begun: g:rowds dashed off from the place, and ran. .

At the same time that the three opened fire on the mass of people
near the upper end of the market-place volleys were discharged from a
party down near the creek on the panic-stricken women, who dashed at
the canoes. These, some fifty or more, were jammed in the creek, and
the men forgot their paddles in the terror that seized all. The canoes
were not to be got out, for the creek was too small for so many; men
and women, wounded by the balls, poured into them, and leaped and
scrambled into the water, shrieking. A long line of heads in the river
showed that great numbers struck out for an island a full mile off: in
going towards it they had to put the left shoulder to a current of about
two miles an hour; if they had struck away diagonally to the opposite
bank, the current would have aided them, and, though nearly three miles
off, some would have gained land; as it was, the heads above water
showed the long line of those that would inevitably perish.

Shot after shot continued to be fired on the helpless and perishing^
Some of the long line of heads disappeared quietly ; whilst other poor
creatures threw their arms high, as if appeah'ng to the great Father
above, and sank. One canoe took in as many as it could hold, and all
paddled with hands and arms: three canoes, got out in haste, picked up
sinking friends, till all went down together, and disappeared. One man
in a long canoe, which could have held forty or fifty, had clearly lost his
head ; he had been out in the stream before the massacre began, and now
paddled up the river nowhere, and never looked to the drowning.

By and by all the heads disappeared; some had turned down stream
towards the bank, and escaped. Dugumbe put people into one of the
deserted vessels to save those in the water, and saved twenty-one, but
one woman refused to be taken on board from thinking that she was to
be made a slave of; she preferred the chance of life by swimming to the
lot of a slave : the Bagenya women are expert in the water, as they are
accustomed to dive for oysters, and those that went down stream may
have escaped, but the Arabs themselves estimated the loss of life at
between 330 and 400 souls. The shooting-party near the canoes were
so reckless, they killed two of their own people ; and a Banyamwezi fol-
lower, who got into a deserted canoe to plunder, fell into the water, went
down, then came up again, and down to rise no more,

My first impulse was to pistol the murderers, but Dugumbe protested
against my getting into a blood-feud, and I was thankful afterwards that
I took his advice. Two wretched Moslems asserted " that the firing was
done by the people of the English;" I asked one of them why he lied
so, and he could utter no excuse : no other falsehood came to his aid as
he stood abashed before me, and so telling him not to tell palpable false-
hoods, I left him gaping.

After the terrible affair in the water, the party of Tagamoio, who was
the chief perpetrator, continued to fire on the people there, and fire their
villages. As I write I hear the loud wails on the left bank over those
who are there slain, ignorant of their many friends now in the depths of
Lualaba. Oh, let Thy Kingdom come ! No one will ever know the
exact loss on this bright sultry summer morning ; it gave me the impres-
sion of being in hell. All the slaves in the camp rushed at the fugitives
on land, and plundered them : women were for hours collecting and car-
rying loads of what had been thrown down in terror.

I proposed to Dugumbe to catch the murderers, and hang them up in
the market-place, as our protest against the bloody deeds before the
Manyuema. If, as he and others added, the massacre was committed by
Manillo's people, he would have consented ; but it was done by Taga-
moio's people, and others of this party, headed by Dugumbe. This
slaughter was peculiarly atrocious, inasmuch as we have always heard
that women coming to or from market have never been known to be
anolested : even when two districts are engaged in actual hostilities, " the
women," say they, " pass among us to market unmolested ; " nor has one
ever been know to be plundered by the men. These Nigger Moslems
are inferior to the Manyuema in justice and right. The people under
Hassani began the superwickedness of capture and pillage of all indis-
criminately. Dugumbe promised to send over men to order Tagamoio's
men to cease firing and burning the villages ; they remained over among
the ruins, feasting on goats and fowls all night, and next day continued
their infamous work till twenty-seven villages were destroyed.

The murderous assault on the market people, felt to me like Gehenna,
-without the fire and brimstone ; but the heat was oppressive, and the fire-
arms pouring their iron bullets in the fugitives, was not an inapt repre-
sentation of burning in the bottomless pit. The terrible scenes of man's
inhumanity to man brought on a severe headache, which might have been
serious had it not been relieved by a copious discharge of blood ; I was
laid up all yesterday afternoon with the depression the bloodshed made
— it filled me with unspeakable horror.

Off on Foot for Ujiji.

The foregoing description by Livingstone of this bloody conflict will
eanable the reader to understand his eager desire to get away and pursue
his journey.

Collecting his own little retinue, he started on foot for Ujiji three days
later, the Arabs trying to prove their penitence by pressing their goods
upon him, begging him not to hesitate to tell them of anything he wanted.
A little gunpowder was all he would accept. Again attacked by fever, and
"almost every step in pain," he pressed on, past miles of burning villages,
until he came to a party of Manyuema who refused to come near, threw
stones at him and his men, and "tried to kill those who went for water."

On the 8th of August, after a bad night, an attack being every moment
expected, our hero attempted to come to a parley with his enemies, feel-
ing sure that he could soon convince them of his friendly intentions, but
they would not listen to his envoys, and in passing along a narrow path,
"with a wall of dense vegetation touching each hand," he came to a spot
where trees had been cut down to obstruct his party whilst they were
-speared. Clambering over the barrier, though expecting instant death,
Livingstone was surprised at meeting with no opposition, but as he crept
slowly along, preceded by his men, who really seemed to have behaved
very well, and peered into the dense foliage on either side, a dark
shadow, that of an infuriated savage, here and there intervened between;
him and the sun. Every rustle in the leaves might now mean a spear,,
any sound might be the signal for a massacre. Presently a large spear
from the right almost grazed Livingstone's back, and stuck into the
ground behind him. He looked round and saw two men from whom it
came in an opening in the forest only ten yards off, but again his foes
disappeared as if by magic.

Within Twelve Indies of Death

All were now allowed to go on for a few minutes unmolested, but soon
another spear was thrown at Livingstone by an unseen assailant, missing-
him again by about a foot. A red jacket he wore, he tells us, led our
hero to be taken for Mohammed Mogharib, one of the slave-dealers, and
it soon became evident that his men were to be allowed to escape whilst
the attack was concentrated upon him. Ordering his attendants to fire
their guns into the bush — the first time, be it observed, that he had ever
in the course of his long wanderings used weapons in his own defence —
our hero still went calmly on, congratulating himself that no yells or
screams of agony succeeded his volley, till he came to a part of the forest
cleared for cultivation.

Here he noticed a gigantic tree, made still taller by growing on an
ant-hill twenty feet high, to which fire had been applied near the roots.
As he came up to it, he heard a crack which told that the destructive ele-
ment had done its work, but he felt no fear till he saw the huge bulk falling
forwards towards himself He started back, and only just escaped beings
crushed. "Three times in one day," he remnrks, "was I delivered from
impending death." His attendants, gathering round him, and taking
this third preservation as a good omen, shouted, " Peace ! peace! you will
finish your work in spite of these people, and in spite of everything."

Five hours more of "running the gauntlet" ensued, and then the little
band emerged unscathed on the cleared lands of a group of villages, to
be met by a friendly chief named Muanampanda, who invited them to be
his guests. On learning the meaning of all the firing he had heard,
Muanampanda offered to call his people together and punish those who
had molested the explorer, but, true to his generous character, Living-
stone declared he wished no revenge for an attack made in error, and
with some little difficnlty the chief consented to humor what must have
seemed to him a strange whim.

At Muanampanda's, Livingstone had unmistakable proof of the prac-
tice of cannibalism amongst the Manyuema, who eat their foes killed in
battle, not from any lack of other animal food, but with a view to inspir-
ing themselves with courage. They are said to bury a body which is to
be eaten for two days in a forest, and then to disinter and cook it. We
are glad to be able to add that they seem rather ashamed of this horrible
practice, and do not like strangers to look at their human meat.

From Muanampanda's Livingstone went on eastwards by very slow
stages, for he was overtaken by a serious return of his old illness, and the
entries in his journal, as on his last trip to Tanganyika, are very short
and unsatisfactory. On the 23d September he writes, " I was sorely
knocked up by this march from Nyangwe back to Ujiji. In the latter
part of it I felt as if dying on my feet. Almost every step was in pain
— the appetite failed, whilst the mind, sorely depressed, reacted on the
body. All the traders were returning successful. I alone had failed,
and experienced worry, thwarting, baffling, when almost in sight of the
end towards which I strained."

Another Misfortune.

Another week and he chronicles his third arrival on the shores of
Tanganyika, close to the entry into the lake of the river Logumba,
which rises in the Kalogo mountains on the west. ** Perhaps," hazards
Livingstone, "this river is the outlet of Tanganyika." "Great noises
as of thunder were heard as far as twelve days off, which were ascribed
to Kalogo, as if it had subterranean caves into which the water rushed
with great noise ; the country slopes that way," he adds, " but I was too
ill to examine its source " (that of the Logumba).

On the 9th October the worn-out, almost dying, explorer arrived on
the islet of Kasenge, landed on the eastern shores of the lake, and on the
23d entered Ujiji, reduced, to use his own words, "to a skeleton."
Warmly welcomed by the Arabs, who had believed him to be dead, and
finding the market full of all kinds of native provisions, he hoped
that proper food and rest would soon restore him, but in the evening his
people came to tell him that the goods he left under the care of a man
named Shereef had been sold at a nominal price, the Arabs adding that
they protested, but the " idiot" would not listen to them.

" This was distressing," exclaims poor Livingstone, thus again cut off
from hope of fresh explorations. " I had made up my mind, if I could
not get people at Ujiji, to wait till men should come from the coast, but
to wait in beggary was what I never contemplated." The man Shereef
actually came without shame to shake hands with his old master, and on
Livingstone's refusing him that courtesy he assumed an air of displeas-
ure, as if badly treated, observing on leaving, " I am going to pray."

In his destitution Livingstone felt, he tells us, as if " he were the man
who went down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves," but
for him there was no hope of priest, Levite, or good Samaritan. Never,
however, was the oft-quoted proverb, " when things are at the worst
they will mend," more thoroughly verified than in this instance. First
came a generous offer of aid in the form of a stock of valuable ivory
from an Arab named Syed bin Magid, and then the news brought by
Susi of the approach of an " Englishman," who proved to be more of an
American than was supposed.

The fact that Stanley reached Ujiji without the knowledge of Living-
stone and those composing his expedition, shows how difficult it is in
Africa to obtain news of what is transpiring even a short distance away.
In our own country it could be known for hundreds of miles away from
a party of travellers that they were on the march ; starting on one side
of the continent, the other side could be made aware of the fact imme-
diately. From time to time reports could be furnished, and enterprising
newspapers could present cuts showing the various experiences through
which the travellers were passing. But Africa is not America. For a
long time Stanley and his men journeyed from Zanzibar towards the
lake on the shores of which, now historic, Livingstone was secluded.
No news went ahead, no messengers told the story, no telegraph flashed
hope to the despairing explorer, and suddenly, unexpectedly, yet with joy
like that of the morning, the great American hero stood face to face with
the one whom he was seeking.

This is the statement of the fact. In the subsequent chapter we shall
trace Mr. Stanley's journey, and shall see what befell him on the way.
We shall also learn a little later the wonderful effect produced upon Liv-
ingstone by this timely arrival. It is safe to say that if help had not
come as opportunely as it did, the explorer would have died there upon
the banks of the lake which he had struggled so long and heroically to
reach. He was a broken-down, worn-out man, and needed the strong
support, sympathy and timely help of just such a young, bold, heroic
soul as Stanley was.

Continued at ERBzine 6099_12


William Hillman
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