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Volume 6099_12
Another major book which prepared the advent of
Tarzan of the Apes by Edgar Rice Burroughs


Livingstone Traced to Ujiji

Livingstone Traced to Ujiji — Search Expedition Organized in England — Alarm and
Sorrow at the News of Livingstone's Death — News Discredited by Sir Roderick
Murchison — Mr. Young Sent Out to Find the Lost Explorer — The Little Steel
Vessel — The Expedition Hears of a White Man— Traces of Livingstone — Natives
Know Livingstone by His Photograph — Cheering News — Another Search Expe-
dition — Money Eagerly Subscribed — Men Selected for the Undertaking — Stanley
Leads the Way — Stanley on the March — Guides, Carriers and Donkeys — Band
Music and Lively Songs — Natives Carrying Heavy Burdens on their Heads —
Perils and Difficulties of the Journey — Qualities Required in an Explorer —
Tangled Brake and Wild Animals — The Ferocious Rhinoceros — Excitements of
the Chase — A Monster Fleet as a Gazelle — Conflict Between an Elephant and
Rhinoceros — Mr. Oswald s Narrow Escape^The Hunter Scarred for Life —
Stanley's Misfortunes — Sentence of Flogging on a Deserter — The Donkey- Whip —
Daughter of an Infamous King — Urging Forward the Caravan — Sending Away a
Sick Man — Stanley Frightens an Arab Sheik — Across Marshes and Rivers — Half
Buried in a Swamp — Stanley's Graphic Account— Pursuit of a Runaway — The
Fugitive Captured — Two Dozen Lashes and Put in Irons — The Captor Re-
warded — Coral Beads for a Native's Wife.
WE have already seen that in the year 1866 Dr. Livingstone had
remained for a time with a certain Babisa chief, until the native
was restored to health. Musa, and the doctor's other followers,
deserted him and then made for the coast, where they at once spread the
report that Livingstone had been murdered by the sanguinary tribe of

We know that this tale was false, for we have already tracked the
doctor to Ujiji, but the authorities at Zanzibar, in 1866, had no such evi-
dence. Musa declared supposed facts in a very circumstantial manner,
and Dr. Seward, political resident, forwarded the information to Lord
Stanley, and the rumors thus circumstantially circulated gave rise to the
activity which resulted in the Search Expeditions despatched from Eng-
land; which, however, were rendered abortive by the enterprise of the
New York Herald and its correspondent, Henry M. Stanley.

The news of Livingstone's murder was received in England with alarm
and sorrow. The story had so many elements of apparent truth in its
composition, that friends and relatives, as well as the less-informed British
public, feared the worst.

But some people, and notably Sir R. Murchison, discredited the news.
It was, however, suggested that an expedition should be forthwith
despatched to find the explorer, but this suggestion was combated as
one which, if carried out, would prove useless and disastrous.

However, after some months had elapsed, Sir Roderick Murchison
and his adherents gained their point. A former companion of Dr.
Livingstone, Mr. Edward D. Young, was appointed leader, as already-
stated. From the Cape the little expedition was carried, in June, 1867,
to the mouth of the Zambesi in one of Her Majesty's ships, and a small
steel vessel, named the "Search," was successfully launched upon the
waters of the rapid river.

After some adventures, and a visit to a Portuguese settlement, whose
chief gave the members confirmation of Livingstone's death — which, how-
ever. Young did not credit — the "Search" continued, and entered the
Shire River, where they were attacked by the natives, but being at length
recognized as English, were hospitably received.

As the little party continued their route, the inhabitants recognized
the English as old friends. The chief of Mankokwi and others welcomed
the Search Expedition, and though continual delays were thereby neces-
sitated, the value of the friendliness was so great that the time lost was
not considered as also wasted.

The Expedition Hears of a ' White Man."

After a while more progress was made, and the cataracts were passed.
Lake Nyassa was at hand, and information which came in from time to
time assured Mr. Young ahd his companions that they were on the right
trail. No hostile tribe opposed their progress, and the " Search " con-
tinued her venturesome way unmolested.

At length, in the beginning of September, the lake was gained, and it
became now a difficult matter to decide in what direction the course
should be steered. A " white man" had been reported as having already
gone in a north-westerly direction, but that was long ago, and Mr,
Young and his men were somewhat undecided.

The appearance of a native, however, gave them hopes; and when the
man confessed a liking for the English because a white man had lately
passed by, and made his village presents, Mr. Young was assured of
success. Questions were put to the man concerning the appearance and
departure of the good Englishman, and enough was extracted to assure
Mr. Young that, so far, he had been proceeding in the right direction,
and that Livingstone had certainly not been murdered as reported.

Proceeding further up the lake, the good news was confirmed. The
illustrious traveller had remained in a small village by the water during
the past winter season, and had left an excellent impression upon the na~
tives. They gladly welcomed Young's party, and told the leader in what
direction the Englishman had gone. They described him very fairly,
and even indicated the peak of the doctor's cap, while other porticMis of
his equipment were also faithfully and graphically recalled by the native

Doubt could no longer exist in the minds of the members of the
" Search " party that they had found " warm " traces of the great ex-
plorer. Further enquiries resulted in accurate information respecting his
observation of the sun with the sextant — which were illustrated by means
of sticks — by a detail of the number of men, " two or three tens " of
persons, his feet clothed in " skins " (boots) — and his little dog was men-

Natives Know Livingstone by His Photograph

Mr, Young at once continued his course, crossing the lake to Chivola,
where more relics and reminiscenses of the doctor were discovered and
related. The villagers gave many faithful and interesting details of the
"' white man's " residence with them, and held his memory in great reverence.

While Mr. Young remained at Chivola he tested the accuracy of the
chief's memory by mixing a photograph of Livingstone, in European
dress, with the pictures of other individuals. The chief at once identi-
fied the doctor, but said his dress was not the same, as of course it was
"not. This test was regarded, and with reason, as crucial and successful.
Moreover, a prayer-book, a razor, and other relics were gradually pro-
duced by natives with whom he had exchanged them.

So armed with proof. Young proceeded — found other evidence in one
of the doctor's young attendants, who had been ill and left behind. But
the cold season had passed long ago — no news had been heard of the
great traveller since he had gone south-west. Still Young persisted, and
finally he gained information which entirely upset Musa's ingenious
fabrication, although the doctor was not found.

A native, who was encountered by the lake, gave the valuable intelli-
gence that he had himself seen and assisted the doctor, the great
" M'Sungu," after the desertion of Musa and his faithless companions, of
whom the native knew nothing. The man scorned the idea of Living-
stone having been murdered by the Mazitu tribe, for the " M'Sungu " had
avoided them completely. Musa's tale of death and burial was fully
investigated and proved false when the search party penetrated to the
Babisa country, and interviewed the old chief.

This man was the identical individual whom Livingstone had cured
and who was, therefore, extremely well-disposed to the new comers. His
tribe were famous traders and travellers, who knew the country well and
widely. From the Chief of Marengas Mr. Young obtained the best
news they had yet received.

The chief informed them that he knew Livingstone quite well, as was
natural he should, seeing the doctor had tended him for so many weeks.
He said that the white man had gone away across the marshes. After
that, Musa and the Johanna men had returned, having deserted Living-
stone, and were on their way to the coast.

This information, so far, tallied with news already to hand ; but the
chief declared that he had never heard of the death of Livingstone, and
the native was assured that had it occurred he must have heard of it^
considering the wandering habits of his men, and their taste for travel-
ling and trading. The chief thought it most improbable that the doctor
had been killed at all in the country, and that he had not perished as
Musa had declared was already evident. Under these circumstances^
Mr. Young and his men came to the conclusion that Livingstone was
alive, though unfortunately out of reach ; that he had wandered through
territories since infested by a hostile tribe, who had destroyed the

The Babisa chief warmly dissuaded Young from attempting to follow
the doctor under such circumstances, and accordingly the " Search " ex-
pedition returned to the cgast, and to England, with the news that Liv-
ingstone had not been murdered, as stated by Musa, but that he had
wandered away out of reach.

Another Search Fxpedition.

Although the information brought home by Young satisfied for a time
the anxiety of the English people, nothing definite had actually been
heard of the doctor since May, 1869. In 1870, in his address to the
Royal Geographical Society, Sir R. Murchison gave hopes of the doc-
tor's existence, Livingstone had been reported at Ujiji, on Lake Tan-
ganyika, where he was waiting supplies. Sir Samuel Baker hoped to
find him, but this hope had no actual result, owing to geographical

Sir Bartle Frere proclaimed a relief expedition. Money was eagerly
subscribed throughout the United Kingdom, and the Geographical
Society took the matter in hand for the nation. Lieutenants Dawson and
Henn were selected as the leaders, from a candidates' list of four hundred
volunteers. Mr. Oswald Livingstone went with them, but a powerful
rival had already been despatched, and his mission was almost unknowm
at first. This great rival was Henry M. Stanley, who had a tour
arranged for him in India, with instructions to swoop down on Zanzibar
and " find Livingstone."

Stanley carried out his instructions, and arrived in January, 1871, at
Zanzibar, which he found to be a much more beautiful and fertile island
than he had supposed. He soon introduced himself to Dr. Kirk, and,
without delay, set about making the necessary preparations for his jour-
ney. The great difficulty was to obtain information as to the amount of
food, or rather the articles for purchasing it, which would be required for
the hundred men he proposed enlisting in his service.

He had engaged at Jerusalem a Christian Arab boy named Selim, who
was to act as his interpreter, and he had also on the voyage attached to
the expedition two mates of merchantmen, Farquhar and Shaw, who
were very useful in constructing tents and arranging two boats and the
pack-saddles and packages for the journey, but who proved in other re-
spects very poor travellers. He also secured the services of that now
well-known hero, Bombay, captain of Speke's faithfuls, and five of his
other followers, Uledi, Grant's valet, and the blue-headed Mabruki, who
had in the meantime lost one of his hands, but, notwithstanding, was.
likely to prove useful. They were the only remains of the band to be
found, the rest having died or gone elsewhere. These six still retained
their medals for assisting in the discovery of the source of the Nile.
Stanley Getting Ready to Start.

The boats, one of which was capable of carrying twenty people and
the other six, were stripped of their planks, the timbers and thwarts only
being carried. Instead of the planking it was proposed to cover them
with double canvas skin, well tarred. They and the rest of the baggage
"were carried in loads, none exceeding sixty-eight pounds in weight.
Two horses and twenty-seven donkeys were purchased, and a small cart,
while the traveller had brought with him a watch-dog, which he hoped
would guard his tent from prowling thieves. An ample supply of beads,
cloth, and wire was also laid in, with tea, sugar, rice, and medicine. To
Bombay and his faithfuls were added eighteen more free men, who were
all well armed, and when mustered appeared an exceedingly fine-looking
body of soldiers. These were to act as escort to \hcpagazis, or carriers.

On the 4th of February, 1871, the expedition was ready, and on the
5th embarked in four dhows, which conveyed it across to Bagamoyo on
the mainland. Here it was detained five weeks while its persevering
leader was combating the rogueries of Ali Ben Salim and another Arab,
Hadji Palloo, who had undertaken to secure one hundred and forty
carriers. The packages were rearranged, the tents improved, and other
necessary arrangements made.

He found here a caravaii which had been despatched by the British
Consul a hundred days before to the relief of Dr. Livingstone; but
which, its leader making as an excuse that he was unable to obtain a
fresh nurnber of carriers, had hitherto remained inactive.

Band Music and Lively Songs.

The climate of Bagamoyo is far superior to that of Zanzibar. In its
neighborhood a French Jesuit mission has been for some time estab-
lished, with ten priests and as many sisters, who have been very success-
ful in educating two hundred boys and girls. The priests sumptuously
entertained Mr. Stanley with excellent champagne and claret, while
some of their pupils, among whom they had formed a brass band,
amused them with instrumental music and French songs.

He divided his expedition into five caravans, the first of which he
started off on the 18th of February, although it was not till March 21st
that he with the largest was able to commence his journey westward.
Altogether the expedition numbered on the day of departure, besides
the commander and his two white attendants, twenty-three soldiers, four
chiefs, one hundred and fifty-three carriers, and four supernumeraries.
Every possible care had been bestowed on the outfit, and in nothing that
it needed was it stinted. Bombay proved to be honest and trustworthy,
while Ferajji and Mabruki turned out true men and staunch, the latter, on
one occasion, finding a difficulty in dragging the cart, having brought it
along on his head rather than abandon it. The facility with which the
natives carry heavy loads on their heads is described by Stanley, On
one occasion he was waiting for Shaw, who was leading a caravan
with supplies. Food being scarce in the camp, and Shaw not arriving,,
he sent a message to him, requiring him to come on with all the speed
he could ; but time passed, and the caravan arrived not. Stanley then
set out to meet it, and thus describes Shaw's order of march : — " Stout
burley Chowereh carried the cart on his head, having found thatcarrying
it was easier than drawing it. The sight was such a damper to my
regard for it as an experirnent, that the cart was wheeled into the
reeds and there left. The central figure was Shaw himself, riding at a
gait which rendered it doubtful whether he or his animal felt most sleepy.
Upon expostulating with him for keeping the caravan so long waiting"
when there was a march on hand, he said he had done the best he could
but as I had seen the solemn pace at which he rode, I felt dubious about
his best endeavors, and requested him, if he could not mend his pace, ta
dismount and permit the donkey to be loaded for the march."

Perils and Difficulties.

Thus delays, obstacles and risks are sure to meet one who undertakes
a land journey in intertropical Africa. There is no longer, as in the
desert, the peril of death from thirst or starvation ; for the country
abounds in game, and the course does not throughout lie through inter-
minable swamp, as in the river navigation. But from the very beginning
the explorer is beset with hindrances and annoyances small and great.
An army of porters must be got together, drilled and fed. Like other
Africans, they are children of impulse, credulous, suspicious, often lying,
cowardly and treacherous. On the slightest provocation they are seized
with panic, and desert ; or they take advantage of relaxed discipline.

The leader must be possessed of inexhaustible good-humor, and at the
same time be able to prove, when occasion requires, that he is a stern
master, A dove-like demeanor will hardly suit the African explorer ; he
must be wise as a serpent and watchful as a hawk. When at length a
start is made, difficulties accumulate at every step. In a country where
rain falls for ten or eleven months in the year, under a vertical sun, the
growth of vegetation is amazing.

In the dry season the grass and shrubs are burned far and wide ; but
after a few weeks' rain the new plant-life starts up with incredible quick-
ness. The country is covered with an impenetrable jungle of grass,
reeds, and bamboos. A thick undergrowth starts up below the shade of
the forest trees; the great stems of the pandanus, the banana, and the
baobab are covered to their tops with a feathery growth of parasitic ferns
and orchids, and festooned with the tough branches of the wild vine and
the liana, and other twining and creeping plants.

The rivers are at their highest mark, and the marshes are profound
and impassable. The native villages are almost smothered under the
dark luxuriance of plant-life, and lions and other beasts of prey can creep
up unseen to the very doors of the huts. The whole country, in short,
becomes a tangled brake, with only here and there an open space, or a
rough track marking where the heavy body of an elephant, a rhinoceros,
or a buffalo has crushed a way through the high grass. The fact that
there is " a lion in the way " — much more an elephant — is an incentive
to the traveller to push on.

A Dangerous Beast.

The rhinoceros especially is a monster that no traveller would wish to-
meet, and renders exploration in some parts of Africa perilous in the
extreme. Graphic accounts of the deadly exploits of this ferocious
brute are given by all who have penetrated far into the wilds of the Dark

The largest of the rhinoceros family is he of Africa, the square-nosed
white rhinoceros. A full-grown brute of his species will measure
eighteen feet in length (Mr. Galton shot one eighteen feet six inches) ;
the circumference of its broad back and low-hanging belly almost as
much; while it is so low on its legs that a tall man a-tiptoe could see across
its back. Attached to its blunt nose — not to the bone, but merely set in
the skin — is a horn more or less curved, hard as steel, sharp, and more
than a yard long; and immediately behind this is a little horn, equally
sharp, and shaped like a handleless extinguisher. Its eyes are marvel-
ously little — so little, indeed, that at a short distance they are scarcely to
be seen; at the same time, however, it should be borne in mind that the
rhinoceros is of nocturnal habits; and, as it is with all such animals, by
daylight the eyes are seldom seen to full advantage.

Its ears are long, pointed, and tipped with a few bristles ; these and a
scrubby tassel at the extremity of its tail comprise the whole of its hirsute
appendages. His sense of hearing and smell are wonderfully acute.
Andersson says, " I have had frequent opportunities of testing both these
qualities. Even when feeding, lying down, or obeying any passing
demand of nature, he will listen with a deep and continued attention,
until the noise that has attracted his attention ceases. He ' winds ' an
enemy from a very great distance; but if one be to leeward of him it is
not difficult to approach within a few paces."

A Monster Fleet as a Gazelle.

Hunters universally agree as to the wonderful swiftness of this ponder-
ous brute. Says Gordon Gumming, "A horse and rider can rarely
manage to overtake it ;" and Gaptain Harris echoes, "From its clumsy
appearance one would never suppose it capable of such lightning-like
movements." " He is not often pursued on horseback," says Andersson,
who, without doubt, knows more of the animal than any other European^
"and chiefly because his speed and endurance are such that it is very"
difficult to come up with and follow him, to say nothing of the danger
attendant on such a course. Many a hunter, indeed, has thereby en-
dangered his life."

Should the lion and rhinoceros meet, the former allows the latter a
wide berth, and the huge elephant yields to him the path rather than
risk a battle. Occasionally, however, the peaceful giant of the forest will,
lose all patience with his quarrelsome neighbor, and screw up his cour-
age " to have it out " with him. But the extra strength of the elephant
does not sufficiently compensate for his cumbrous gait, and the swift and
sudden movement of keitloa gives him an immense advantage. A cele-
brated African sportsman once witnessed such a battle at Omanbonde^
but in this instance the impetuous rage of the rhinoceros proved his
downfall ; for, having driven his terrible horn up to the hilt into the car-
cass of the elephant, he was unable to extricate it, and the latter, falling^
dead of his wound, crushed out the life of his assailant in his descent.
Mr. Andersson once witnessed a fight between a gigantic bull elephant
and a black rhinoceros, and in the end the former turned tail and ran for
his life.

That he will not allow his passion for war to be hampered by the ties
of blood and kindred, is proved by the same gentleman. " One night,
"while at the skarm " (a circular wall, built of rough stone, loosely piled
on each other), "I saw four of these huge beasts engage each other at
the same time ; and so furious was the strife, and their gruntings so hor-
rible, that it caused the greatest consternation among my party, who
were encamped a little way off. I succeeded after awhile in killing two-
of them, one of which was actually unfit for food, from wounds received
on previous occasions, and probably under similar circumstances."

The rhinoceros's best friend, and the rhinoceros hunter's most tiresome
enemy, is a little bird, vulgarly known as the rhinoceros bird. It con-
stantly attends on the huge beast, feeding on the ticks that infest its hide,
the bird's long claws and elastic tail enabling it to hold fast to whatever
portion of the animal it fancies. If it rendered the rhinoceros no further
service than ridding him of these biting pests, it would deserve his grati-
tude ; but, in addition, it does him the favor of warning him of the ap-
proach of the hunter. With its ears as busy as its beak, the little senti-
nel detects danger afar off, and at once shoots up into the air, uttering a
sharp and peculiar note, which the rhinoceros is not slow to understand
-and take advantage of; he doesn't wait to make inquiry, but makes off
at once. Gumming asserts that when the rhinoceros is asleep, and the
bird fails to wake him with its voice, it will peck the inside of his ears,
and otherwise exert itself to rouse its thick-headed friend.

As a rule, the rhinoceros will shun man's presence, and do its best to
escape as soon as the hnnter approaches. Like all other rules, however,
this one is not without exception. In proof of this, Mr. Oswell relates an
adventure in which he was the hunted as well the hunter, barely escaping
with his life. One day, while returning to camp on foot, he saw, at a
short distance off, two rhinoceroses of the terrible keitloa species ap-
proaching him as they grazed. He says : " I immediately crouched, and
quietly awaited their arrival ; but though they soon came within range,
from their constantly facing me I was unable to fire, well knowing the
laselessness of a shot at the head. In a short time they had approached,
but on account of the exposed nature of the ground I could neither
retreat nor advance, and my situation became highly critical.

Scarred for Life.

" I was afraid to fire, for even had I succeeded in killing one, the other
would in all likelihood have run over and trampled me to death. In this
dilemma it suddenly occurred to me that on account of their bad sight -I
might possibly save myself by endeavoring to run past them. No time
was to be lost, and accordingly, just as the leading animal almost touched
me, I stood up and dashed past it. The brute, however, was too quick
for me, and before I had made many good paces I heard a violent snort- "
ing at my heels, and had only time to fire my gun at random at his head
when I felt myself impaled on his horn.

" The shock stunned me completely. The first return to consciousness
was, I recollect, finding myself seated on one of my ponies, and a Caffre
leading it. I had an indistinct notion of having been hunting, and on
observing the man I asked quickly why he was not following the track
of the animal, when he mumbled something to the effect that it was
gone. By accident I touched my right hip with my hand, and on with-
drawing it was astounded to find it clotted with blood ; yet my senses
were still so confused, and the side so benumbed, that I actually kept
feeling and pressing the wound with my fingers. While trying to
account for my strange position, I observed some of my men coming
toward me with a cart, and on asking them what they were about, they
cried out that they had come to fetch my body, having been told that I
had been killed by some animal. The truth now for the first time broke
upon me, and I was quickly made aware of my crippled condition. The
wound I had received was of a very serious character, and although it
ultimately healed, it left scars behind which will no doubt remain till the
day of my death."

This was not the only opportunity Mr. Oswell had of testing the un-
flinching courage occasionally exhibited by the rhinoceros. Once as,
mounted on a first-rate horse, he was returning from an elephant hunt,
he saw in the distance a magnificent white rhinoceros, bearing a horn of
unusual size. Without a thought as to the danger of the proceeding, he
.spurred his steed, and was speedily neck and neck with his game.
Instantly the deadly gun was leveled, and a bullet lodged in the thick-
skinned carcase. Not fatally, however ; and, worse than all, instead of
"bolting," as is the animal's wont when wounded, it just stood stock-still
for a moment, eyeing the hunter with its vengeful little eyes, and then
"deliberately stalking toward him, made a sudden rush at the refractory
steed, and thrust its horn completely through its body, so that the point
of the tremendous weapon struck the rider's leg through the saddle-flap
at the other side. The horse was of course killed on the spot, but
the rider was so little injured that he immediately followed and slew the

A Powerful Foe.

Innumerable instances of dangerous encounters with wild animals
might be mentioned, to show the perils that constantly beset the path of
Stanley. Kingston relates an adventure of this description.

" Once more," he says, " the trumpeting burst forth, the sounds echo-
ing through the forest. A minute afterwards I heard the crashing of
boughs and brushwood some way off. I guessed, as I listened, that the
animal was coming towards where I lay. The sounds increased in loud-
ness. Should it discover me it would probably revenge itself by crushing
me to death, or tossing me in the air with its trunk. I had my rifle ready
to fire. There was a chance that I might kill it or make it turn aside.

The ground where I lay sloped gradually downwards to a more opert
spot. I expected the next instant that the elephant would appear. It did
so, but further off than I thought it would, and I thus began to hope that
I should escape its notice. It was moving slowly, though trumpeting
with pain and rage.

" The instant I caught sight of it another huge creature rushed out of
the thicket on the opposite side of the glade. It was a huge bull
rhinoceros with a couple of sharp-pointed horns, one behind the other.

"The elephant on seeing it stopped still, as if wishing to avoid a con-
test with so powerful an antagonist. I fully expected to witness a long
and terrible fight, and feared that, in the struggle, the animals might
move towards where I lay and crush me. That the elephant was wounded;
I could see by the blood streaming down its neck. This probably made
it less inclined to engage in a battle with the rhinoceros. Instead of
advancing, it stood whisking its trunk about and trumpeting. The-
rhinoceros, on the contrary, after regarding it for a moment, rushed fear-
lessly forward and drove its sharp-pointed horns into its body while it in.
vain attempted to defend itself with its trunk.

"The two creatures were now locked together in a way which made it
seem impossible for them to separate, unless the horns of the rhinoceros
were broken off. Never did I witness a more furious fight. The ele-
phant attempted to throw itself down on the head of its antagonist, and'
thereby only drove the horns deeper into its own body. So interested
was I, that I forgot the pain I was suffering, while I could hear no other
sounds than those produced by the two huge combatants. While I was.
watching them, I felt a hand on my shoulder, and saw one of our party
standing over me.

" ' I am sorry you have met with this accident ! ' he exclaimed. ' The
sooner you get away from this the better. There is a safer spot a little
higher up the bank. We will carry you there.'

" I willingly consenting, my friends did as they proposed, as from
thence I could watch the fight with greater security. They, having
placed me in safety, hurried towards the combatants, hoping to kill both
of them before they separated.

The Huge Creature Fell Over.

"The elephant, already wounded, appeared likely to succumb without
our further interference. There was indeed little chance of its attempting
to defend itself against them. One of the men sprang forward until he
got close up to the animals, and firing he sent a bullet right through the
elephant's heart. The huge creature fell over, pressing the rhinoceros
to the ground. As the great beast was now pinned fast and unable to
escape, it was not difficult to dispatch him, and this was quickly done."

We must return from these conflicts with African wild animals to
follow the thrilling adventures of Mr. Stanley.

The Kinganni river was reached by a bridge rapidly formed with
American axes, the donkeys refusing to pass through the water. The
country due west of Bagamoyo was found to be covered with towns and
villages which were previously unknown. Soon after starting, Omar,
the watch-dog, was missing, when Mabruki, hastening back, found him
at the previous halting-place. One of the caravans at the same place was
detained by the sickness of three of the carriers, whose place it was neces-
sary to supply.

Stanley soon had to experience the invariable troubles of African
travellers. His two horses died within a few hours of each other, both,
however, from disease of long standing, and not from the climate. Few
men were better able to deal with the rogueries of the petty chiefs he
met with than Mr. Stanley. He had always a ready answer, and invari-
ably managed to catch them in their own traps, while the "great master,"
as he was called, managed to keep his subordinates in pretty good

One of his carriers, Khamisi, under Shaw's command, having ab-
sconded, Uledi and Ferajji found him, having fallen into the hands of
some plundering Washensi, who were about to kill him. A court of
eight soldiers and eight carriers having been convened, condemned him
to be flogged with the "great master's " donkey-whip. As Shaw ought
to have kept a better look out, he was ordered to give him one blow and
the carriers and soldiers the remainder. This being done, the man was

Moving on, the expedition passed Simbamwenni, the fortifications of
which are equal to any met with in Persia. The area of the town is
about half a square mile, while four towers of stone guard each corner.
There are four gates, one in each wall, which are closed with solid square
doors of African teak, and carved with complicated devices. It is ruled
by the daughter of the infamous Kisalungo, notorious as a robber and
kidnapper, another Theodore on a small scale. Before long Stanley was
attacked with fever, which greatly prostrated his strength, though he
quickly recovered by taking strong doses of quinine.

The most painful event which occurred was the flight of Bunda Selim,
who had been punished for pilfering rations. The men sent after him
were seized and imprisoned by the Sultana of Simbamwenni, and, though
ultimately liberated by the interference of an Arab sheikh, nothing could
be found of the missing cook. Shaw also fell ill, and left the task of urg-
ing on the floundering caravan through marshes and rivers to his su-
perior.  Several of the athers followed his example, and even Bombay
complained of pains and became unserviceable.

Misconduct of Attendants.

The report from Farquhar's caravan was most unsatisfactory, he, as far
as Stanley could make out, having lost all his donkeys. The unhappy
man, indeed, he found on overtaking him, was suffering from dropsy.
He had also given to the porters and soldiers no small amount of the
contents of the bales committed to his charge, as payment for the services
he had demanded of them, and in purchasing expensive luxuries. As he
could not walk and was worse than useless, Stanley was obliged to send
the sick man, under the charge of Mabruki, thirty miles away to the
village of Mpwapwa, to the chief of which place he promised an ample
reward if he would take care of him.

Worse than all, the wretched Shaw, after a dispute, during the night
fired into Stanley's tent, too evidently with the intention of killing him.
He found the intended murderer pretending to be asleep, with a gun by
his side yet warm. Unable to deny that he had fired, he declared that in
his dreams he had seen a thief pass his door; and then asked what was
the matter, "Oh, nothing," answered Stanley; "but I would advise you
in future, in order to avoid all suspicion, not to fire into my tent, or at
least, so near me. I might get hurt, in which case ugly reports would
get about, and this, perhaps, would be disagreeable, as "you are probably
aware. Goodnight!"

On reaching Mpwapwa the chief Lencolo positively refused to take
charge of the white man unless an interpreter was left with him, and
Jako, who was the only one of the party besides Bombay and Selim who
could speak English, was ordered to remain in that capacity.

A Slieikli Badly Friglitened.

The expedition was now about to enter Ugogo. During the passage
of the intervening desert, five out of the nine donkeys died, the cart
having some time before been left behind.

The expedition was now joined by several Arab caravans, so that the
number of the party amounted to about four hundred souls, strong in
guns, flags, horns sounding, drums, and noise. This host was to be led
by Stanley and sheikh Hamed through the dreaded Ugogo.

In May they were at Mvumi, paying heavy tribute to the sultan.
Nothing seemed to satisfy him. Stanley suggested that as he had twenty
Wazunga armed Avith Winchester repeating rifles, he might make the
sultan pay tribute to him. The sheikh entreated that he would act
peaceably, urging that angry words might induce the sultan to demand
double the tribute.

We quote Stanley's own account of some of his experiences in this
part of his journey:

The Wanyamwezi donkeys stuck in the mire as if they were rooted to
it. As fast as one was flogged from his stubborn position, prone to the
depths fell another, giving me a Sisyphean labor, which was maddening
under pelting rain, assisted by such men as Bombay and Uledi, who
could not for a whole skin's sake stomach the storm and mire. Two
hours of such a task enabled me to drag my caravan over a savannah
one mile and a half broad ; and barely had I finished congratulating my-
self over my success before I was halted by a deep ditch, which, filled
with rain-water from the inundated savannahs, had become a consider-
able stream, breast-deep, flowing swiftly into the Makata. Donkeys had
to be unloaded, led through a torrent, and loaded again on the other
bank — an operation which consumed a full hour.

Presently, after straggling through a wood clump, barring our prog-
ress was another stream, swollen into a river. The bridge being swept
away, we were obliged to swim and float our baggage over, which de-
layed us two hours more. Leaving this second river-bank, we splashed,
waded, occasionally half-swimming, and reeled through mire, water-
dripping grass and matama stalks, along the left bank of the Makata
proper, until farther progress was effectually prevented for that day by a
deep bend of the river, which we would be obliged to cross the next day.

Though but six miles were traversed during that miserable day, the
march occupied ten hours.

Half dead with fatigne, I yet could feel thankful that it was not ac-
companied by fever, which it seemed a miracle to avoid; for if ever a dis-
trict was cursed with the ague, the Makata wilderness ranks foremost of
those afflicted. Surely the sight of the dripping woods enveloped in
opaque mist, of the inundated country with lengthy swathes of tiger-
grass laid low by the turbid flood, of mounds of decaying trees and
canes, of the swollen river and the weeping sky, was enough to engender
the mukunguru ! The well-used khambi, and the heaps of filth sur-
rounding it, were enough to create a cholera !

Crossing a Swollen Stream.

The Makata, a river whose breadth during the dry season is but forty
feet, in the Makisa season assumes the breadth, depth, and force of an
important river. Should it happen to be an unusually rainy season, it
inundates the great plain which stretches on either side, and converts it
into a great lake.

So swift was the flow of the Makata, and so much did its unsteady
bridge, half buried in the water, imperil the safety of the property, that
its transfer from bank to bank occupied fully five hours. No sooner had
we landed every article on the other side, undamaged by the water, than
the rain poured down in torrents that drenched them all, as if they had
been dragged through the river. To proceed through the swamp which
an hour's rain had formed was utterly out of the question. We were
accordingly compelled to camp in a place where every hour furnished its
quota of annoyance.

One of the Wangwana soldiers engaged at Bagamoyo, named Kingaru,
improved an opportunity to desert with another man's kit. My two
detectives, Uledi (Grant's valet), and Sarmean, were immediately de-
spatched in pursuit, both being armed with American breech-loaders.
They went about their task with an adroitness and celerity which augured
well for their success. In an hour they returned with the runaway, having
found him hidden in the house of a chief called Kigondo, who lived
about a mile from the eastern bank of the river, and who had accom-
panied Uledi and Sarmean to receive his reward, and render an account
of the incident.

Kigondo said, when he had been seated, " I saw this man carrying a
bundle, and running hard, by which I knew that he was deserting you.

We (my wife and I) were sitting in our little watch-hut, watching our
corn ; and, as the road runs close by, this man was obliged to come close
to us. We called to him when he was near, saying, " Master, where are
you going so fast ? Are you deserting the Musungu, for we know you
belong to him, since you bought from us yesterday two doti worth of
meat ?'

" ' Yes,' said he, ' I am running away; I want to get to Simbamwenni.
If you will take me there, I will give you a doti.'

" We said to him then,  Come into our house, and we will talk it over
quietly.' When he was in our house in an inner room, we locked him
up, and went out again to the watch ; but leaving word with the women
to look out for him. We knew that, if you wanted him, you would send
askari (soldiers) after him.

" We had but lit our pipes when we saw two men armed with short
guns, and having no loads, coming along the road, looking now and then
on the ground, as if they were looking at footmarks. We knew them to
be the men we were expecting ; so we hailed them, and said, ' Masters,
what are ye looking for ?

" They said,  We are looking for a man who has deserted our master.
Here are his footsteps. If you have been long in your hut you must
have seen him. Can you tell us where he is?' We said, ' Yes ; he is in
our house. If you will come with us, we will give him up to you ; but
your master must give us something for catching him.' "

As Kigondo had promj^ed to deliver Kingaru up, there remained
nothing further to do for Uledi and Sarmean but to take charge of their
prisoner, and bring him and his captors to my camp on the western bank
of the Makata. Kingaru received two dozen lashes, and was chained ;
his captor a doti, besides five khete of read coral beads for his wife.

Continued at ERBzine 6099_13


William Hillman
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