THE excitement caused in England by Livingstone's account of all
that he had seen and done in his great journeys was intense.
Men of science were eager to ascertain if the lakes of the South
were connected with those of Central Africa, and, if so, by what
means. One and all felt that the work begun must be carried on at what-
ever cost. Missionary societies prepared to send members into the
new and vast fields that had been opened.
On every side arose a cry for new men, willing to risk their lives in
the common cause of humanity and geographical discovery. With the
missionaries who responded to this appeal we have not now to deal,
though we are glad to be able to add that quite a little colony went to
work on the shores of the Nyassa. Our task is merely to trace the
further progress of the solution of the great problems of Central African
geography, and it is with feelings of mingled joy and regret that we
resume our narrative of the career of one of the greatest of all our heroes.
We rejoice that Livingstone was spared to add yet another chapter to
geographical science; we bitterly regret that our gain was purchased atj
the cost of a life so valuable as his.
On his return to England in 1864, the great explorer would fain havej
retired from active service, and spent the evening of his life in settling the
pecuniary affairs of his family and enjoying the society of his children.
When asked by his friend, Sir Roderick Murchison, president of the
Royal Geographical Society, to name a leader for a new expedition to
resolve the problem of the watershed between the Nyassa and Tangan-
yika, Livingstone at once fixed upon an eminent traveller, whose name is
for obvious reasons withheld. That traveller declined to undertake the
mission because no sufficient remuneration was offered for his services,
and in his disappointment, Sir Roderick appealed to Livingstone. Why
could not he, who had already done so much, undertake this one more
journey? Who so fit to complete the work as the experienced ex-
plorer who had begun it?
Resolve to Return to Africa.
For a moment, but only for a moment, our hero hesitated, and then
he urged, almost apologetically, all the reasons against the undertak-
ing of fresh responsibility by a man of the advanced age of fifty-three,
who was already worn out by the fatigues of two previous jour-
neys, each extending over several years. All objections were, how-
ever, overruled, and before the interview closed Livingstone had con-
sented to start for Zanzibar as soon as his book on the Zambesi was
For this new expedition the English Government subscribed the sum
of 2,500, the Royal Geographical Society $2,500, and a private friend
5,000. Its main object was to explore the country between the Nyassa
and Tanganyika, with a view to determining the relation of the two lakes
to each other, but from first to last Livingstone never lost sight of the
question — to him of equal importance — of the best means for benefiting
the barbarous races in Africa.
Our hero left England for the third and last time in August, 1865,
scarcely more than a year after his return home from his Zambesi journey,
and arrived in Zanzibar in January, 1866. He proposed penetrating to
the Nyassa by way of the Rovuma River and those districts on the east
of the lake inhabited by the dreaded Ajawa, but, except for this mere
outline of a plan, he determined to be guided by circumstances, knowing
from many a provoking experience how seldom any programme can be
accurately carried out in African travel.
Kindly received by the Sultan of Zanzibar, to whom he had first-rate
letters of introduction, Livingstone was able to make the necessary
arrangements for his journey with great rapidity, and by the beginning
of March he had in his service, in addition to thirteen Sepoys from India,
ten Johanna men, two Shapunga men, one of them the now celebrated
Susi, two Wayans, the Chumah who with Susi remained with his master
to the last, and a Wakatani. -An Arab dhow was purchased for the
transit to the Rovuma of the animals, consisting of six camels, three
buffaloes, two mules, and four donkeys, and large stores of merchandise
and provisions. No pains, in short, were spared to ensure success, and
on the 1 8th of March all was ready for the start.
The Expedition Starts.
The explorer and his retinue crossed from Zanzibar to the main land
in Her Majesty's ship " Penguin," and after a rather disheartening exami-
nation of the mouths of the Rovuma, Mikindany Bay, twenty-five miles
above them, was fixed upon as the best spot for disembarkation. Living-
stone and his people landed, the " Penguin " took her leave, and the work
of the expedition may be said to have begun. A house on the sea-shore
was hired at the rate of four dollars a month to form a kind of permanent
storehouse ; the animals were disembarked from the dhow, carriers were
engaged, and early in April the march to the south was commenced.
The caravan wound slowly through dense jungle, which had to be cut
down for the passage of the camels, though it offered no serious obstruc-
tion to the men of the party, and, halting now at one, now at another
Makonde village, arrived on the banks of the Rovuma, opposite the
furthest point reached by the " Pioneer" in 1866.
The course was now due west, along the edge of " that ragged outline
of table-land " which had been seen on the previous expedition as flanking
both sides of the river. A rough path led, in winding fashion, from one
village to another, all inhabited by Makonde, a degraded negro race,
knowing nothing — though they are in constant intercourse with Arabs —
of God, of a future state, or of the commonest usages of civilized life.
They pray to their mothers when dying or in distress, and believe
implicitly in the power of their doctors over life and death. The head-
man of every village was also the doctor. Livingstone made several
attempts to teach the Makonde the first principles of rehgion, but his
ignorance of their language rendered all his efforts unsuccessful.
In the middle of April the caravan turned southwards, and for the next
two months a south-westerly course was pursued, through a mountainous
and well- wooded country, peopled by the Mtambwe, said to be a branch
of the Makonde. In this march the chief difficulty with which our hero
had to contend was the cruelty of his men to the animals, many of which
were lamed by blows from their drivers, but whether with a view to
retarding the journey, or from a wanton love of inflicting suffering, it was
impossible to decide. The camels often came back from pasture bleeding
from newly-inflicted wounds, and the buffaloes and mules were also soon,
covered with sores.
In May a country comparatively free of wood was entered, in whicb
it was possible to advance without perpetual cutting and clearing, and the
same month the highest point of the Rovuma reached by the " Pioneer"
in 1862 was passed. Beyond came districts hitherto totally unknown to
Europeans — though Roscher is supposed to have been in their neigh-
borhood — where the natives, though not exactly unfriendly, did not
readily supply food to the exploring party. Much coaxing and bargain-
ing were required to obtain needed supplies, which were not always of
the best quality, yet they were always dear. The country was suffering;
from drought, and the people were in daily fear of raids from the Mazitu,
a warlike race living on the southern banks of the Rovuma, who plunder
and murder the surrounding tribes with savage recklessness.
Miserably short marches were all that could be made on the small
rations to which Livingstone was now obliged to reduce his men, but
finally, all difficulties surmounted, the junction with the Loendi, supposed
to be the parent stream of the Rovuma, was reached, and, crossing it with
the help of a friendly chief called Matumora, our hero hoped to make
his way rapidly to Lake Nyassa, across the southern bank of the
Mutiny Among the Sepoys.
But now the Sepoys, who had long shown signs of insubordination,
declared they would go no further, and inquiry revealed that they had
offered Ali, the leader of the retinue, eight rupees to take them to the
Coast. The Nassick boys followed their example. They would not go
on to be starved; Livingstone must pay their wages and let them go.
By continued threats and promises, however, a truce was patched up for
a time, and the whole party crept on along the southern bank of the
Rovuma till the i8th June, when one of the Nassick boys died, and the
Sepoys again rebelled! To make a long story short, we may add that,
after several vain attempts to bind them to his service, Livingstone
finally consented to the return of the Indians to Zanzibar, and that those
who survived the journey to the coast arrived there in August or Sep-
tember. They appear to have suffered greatly, and to have had some
excuse for their unwillingness to proceed further in a country where
death from starvation was the least of many evils to be feared.
Pressing on with his reduced numbers, Livingstone followed the course
of the Rovuma until the 1st July. Then leaving the river he entered the
Ajawa country, and, traversing it in a south-westerly direction, came to
Lake Nyassa at the confluence of the Nishinge, in August, to find him-
self once more amongst the friendly Mangahja, to whom he had rendered
such great services in 1861.
The practicability of the shorter route to the Nyassa from the eastern
coast was now proved beyond a doubt, and, overjoyed by the successful
termination of the first stage of his journey, Livingstone eagerly set
about endeavoring to cross the lake, hoping to reach an Arab settlement
which he knew to exist on the western shore, with a view to making it
the starting-point for Tanganyika.
In this plan our hero was disappointed. After trying for nearly a
month to persuade first one and then another native chief to lend him a
canoe, Livingstone finally determined to go southwards round Cape
Maclear and ascend the lake on the other side. In this he was success-
ful, and we soon find him marching across the base of the promontory,
with the singular addition to his retinue of two Ajawa, who acted as
guides and carriers, much to their own surprise, and that of everybody
else, this tribe seldom condescending to do any work but fighting.
A Courteous Chief.
The village of Marenga, situated at the eastern edge of the bottom of
the heel of the lake, was entered, inhabited by a tribe called Babisa, who
had lately joined with the Ajawa in their raids upon the Manganja. The
chief of this village, who was suffering from a loathsome skin disease
introduced into the country by the Arabs, received Livingstone cour-
teously, but allowed him to proceed northwards without warning him
that the Mazitu were ravaging the country through which he must
Late in September an Arab met the party, and told Musa, one of the
Johanna men, that all who ventured further would certainly be murdered ;
forty-four Arabs had been killed at Kasungu ; he only had escaped to
tell the tale.
Surprised that he had heard nothing of this from Marenga, and half
suspecting foul play, Livingstone lost no time in returning to that chief
to inquire if there were any foundation for the story. The reply
received was to the effect that it might be true. The natives were very
bitter against the Arabs, who were gradually destroying their countiy.
They would allow no more to settle amongst them, but their hostility
would not extend to Livingstone or his people, and there were no Mazitu
where he was going.
Completely reassured himself, Livingstone determined to proceed, but
the Johanna men had taken alarm. " Musa's eyes stood out with terror."
He said, speaking of Marenga, " I no can believe that man ; " and when
Livingstone inquired how he came to give such ready credence to the
Arab, he answered, " I ask him to tell me true, and he say true, true."
Reasoning and persuasion were alike in vain. Convinced that they and
their master were doomed, the Johanna resolutely declined to go further
and when the start was again made they went off in a body, leaving
their loads on the ground.
Report of Livingstone's Death.
This was the true origin of the report, long believed in England, of the
murder of Livingstone by natives on the western shores of Lake Nyassa.
The deserters made their way back to Zanzibar, and, anxious to excuse
their own conduct, and explain their sudden return, related the foUowirig'
plausible story :
The expedition had safely reached Lake Nyassa and crossed it. The
doctor then pushed on westwards, and in course of time reached Goo-
mani, a fishing village on a river. The people of Goomani warned
Livingstone that the Mafites, a wandering predatory tribe, were out on a
plundering expedition, and that it would not be safe to continue the jour-
ney ; but the dangers thus presented to view were not of a nature to
deter a man who had braved so many before. Treating the warnings as
of little moment, therefore, he crossed the river in canoes the next morn-
ing, with his baggage and his train of followers. All the baggage
animals had perished from want of water before this river was reached,
so that the luggage had to be carried by the men. Being a fast walker,
Livingstone soon distanced all his heavily-laden followers except Musa,,
and two or three others who kept up with him.
The march had continued some distance, when Dr. Livingstone saw
three armed men ahead, and thereupon he called out to Musa, " The
Mafites are out after all! " These were the last words he uttered.
The Mafites, armed with bows and arrows and axes, closed upon
the doctor, who drew his revolver and shot two. The third, however,,
got behind him, and with one blow from an axe clove in his head. The
wound was mortal, but the assassin quickly met his own doom, for a
bullet from Musa's musket passed through his body, and the murderer fell
dead beside his victim.
Musa added that the doctor died instantly, and that, finding the Mafites-
were out, he ran back to the baggage-men, and told them that their
master had been killed. The baggage was then abandoned, and the whole
party sought safety by a hasty flight, which they continued till sunset,,
when they took refuge for the night in a jungle. The next day they
returned to the scene of the disaster, and found Livingstone's body lying;
on the ground naked but for the trousers, the rest of his clothing having"
been stolen. A hole was hastily " scratched " in the ground, and the
explorer was buried. No papers or any other means of identification
were recovered, and, broken-hearted at the loss of their beloved master,
the Johanna men started for the coast, enduring great hardships by the
way, but finally arriving safely in Zanzibar.
To this tale all the faithless servants adhered through one cross-exami-
nation after another, and it was very generally believed, until Sir Roder-
ick Murchison, in a letter to the. Times, pointed out several flaws in the
ingenious fabrication, proposing at the same time that an expedition
should be sent to the western shores of Lake Nyassa to examine into the
truth of the report. The English Government promptly seized this sug-
gestion; volunteers were called for, and hundreds of brave men eagerly
offered their services. Mr. Edward Daniel Young was selected to take
the command, and left England on the nth of June, 1869.
Young's Search Expedition.
In a trip extending over less than five months, the gallant officer com-
pletely proved the falsity of Musa's account, obtained trustworthy evi-
dence of Livingstone's continued health and activity, and in October
embarked for England, where the news he brought was received with
Meanwhile, Livingstone, ignorant alike of the report of his death and
of the efforts being made on his behalf, quietly reflects in his journal that
he is not sorry to have got rid of the Johanna men, they were such invet-
erate thieves. Pressing on with his small retinue, now reduced to the
surviving Nassick boys and the Shapunga and Ajawa men, Livingstone
reached a village at the foot of Mount Mulundini, on the west of the
heel of the Nyassa, and, obtaining there confirmation of the reports of
disturbances on the north, determined to go west amongst the Manganja,
here called Maravi.
This resolution was attended with the best results. Courteously
received at every village, and supplied with guides to the next, our hero
passed safely through a beautiful mountainous country, till he came to
the hamlet of Pamiala, where he turned southwards, and, pursuing a
zig-zag course, reached Chipanga, the most southerly point of his
A short march westward from Chipanga, brought the party to a village
called Theresa, beyond which the course was north-easterly, and through
districts hitherto totally unknown to Europeans. One river after another,
flowing towards Lake Nyassa, was crossed, and all seemed likely to go
well, when, in October, after a successful hunt, in which a fine hartebeest
antelope was shot, came news, from villagers flying southwards for their
lives, that the Mazitu were out and close at hand.
Alarm and Flight.
The servants, who were eagerly anticipating a hearty supper, such as
rarely fell to their lot, started to their feet, the half-cooked meat was
hastily packed, and Livingstone and his guide Mpanda set out to engage
extra carriers to aid in the retreat.
As they approached the next village, however, the inhabitants poured
out. The Mazitu were there, too, and the terrified people were fleeing to
the Zalanyama mountains, on the south-west. Mpanda and his men now
wished to go home and look after their own property, but Livingstone
managed to persuade them to remain, and follow with him " the spoor of
the fugitives." Taking his stand at the foot of the rocky sides of the
Zalanyama range, now crowded with trembling natives, our hero intended
to defend his property to the last ; but after waiting some time he heard
that the enemy had gone to the south. Had he carried out his first
scheme of going forward in search of men, he would have walked
straight into the hands of the Mazitu, and his fate would probably have
differed but little from that assigned to him in Musa's story.
Most of the region before these mountains are reached is lowlands,
and filled with "sponges;" Livingstone's description of the latter will
stand the reader in good stead when he comes to the constant mention
of these obstructions in the later travels towards the north. They were
among the most formidable obstacles he had to encounter, and at times
greatly impeded his progress.
"The bogs, or earthen sponges, of this country, occupy a most
important part in its physical geography, and probably explain the
annual inundations of most of the rivers. Wherever a plain sloping
towards a narrow opening in hills or higher ground exists, there we have
the conditions requisite for the formation of an African sponge. The
vegetation, not being of a healthy or peat-forming kind, falls down, rots,
and then forms rich black loam. In many cases a mass of this loam,
two or three feet thick, rests on a bed of pure river sand, which is
revealed by crabs and other aquatic animals bringing it to the surface.
At present, in the dry season, the black loam is cracked in all direc-
tions, and the cracks are often as much as three inches wide, and very
"The whole surface has now fallen down, and rests on the sand, but
when the rains come, the first supply is nearly all absorbed in the sand.
The black loam forms soft slush, and floats on the sand. The narrow
opening prevents it from moving off in a landslip, but an oozing spring
rises at that spot. All the pools in the lower portion of this spring-
course are filled by the first rains, which happen south of the equator
when the sun goes vertically over any spot. The second, or greater
rains, happen in his course north again, when all the bogs and river-
courses being wet, the supply runs off, and forms the inundation : this
was certainly the case as observed on the Zambesi and Shire, and, taking
the different times for the sun's passage north of the equator, it explains
the inundation of the Nile."
So saturated was the soil with moisture, that for days solid land was
not to be found. Where Jhere was not absolute swamp and mire, the
ground was covered with a matted green carpet — a thin crust of vegeta-
tion and soil covering " the waters under the earth " — which rose and
fell a foot at each step. These treacherous places had to be crossed with
a light step, and without pausing, for at the least delay the foot might slip
through the floating mass, and the unhappy traveller plunge up to the
armpits in mire.
Fire and Desolation.
As the journey westward was pursued, the smoke of burning villages
on the east and on the south plainly marked the course of the marauders,
and, thankful for his narrow escape, Livingstone pressed on as rapidly as
possible to the village of Mapino, beyond which he could only advance
very slowly, as the country was thinly peopled, and food and water were
scarce. The constant raids of marauders from the north and the visits
of Arab slave-traders from the south had, moreover, rendered the natives
suspicious and inhospitable, but, as in his previous journeys, Living-
stone everywhere succeeded in overcoming the prejudice against white
men, and convincing the poor down-trodden people that he meant them
nothing but good.
In November, the foot of Mount Chisia was reached, and a halt was
made at a blacksmith's or founder's village, where Livingstone was inter-
ested in witnessing the primitive native mode of smelting iron, and was
watching the erection of a furnace on an ant-hill, when the feeling of
security was again dispelled by tidings of the approach of the Mazitu.
They were already, said the messenger, at the village on the north,
which was to have been the next halting-place.
The head-man of the village at once urged Livingstone to remain with
him till it was certain which path the hated invaders would take, and the
women were all sent away, whilst the men went on quietly with their
usual occupations. No Mazitu came, but an elephant approached
Livingstone's camp and " screamed at him," making off, however, at the
shouting of the villagers.
The next morning the march was resumed, and the Mazitu having been
fortunately avoided, the source of the Bua, a tributaiy of the Loangwa,
was reached, beyond which a halt was made outside a stockaded village,
where the people refused to admit our hero until the head-man came and
gave permission. This was a foretaste of many similar difficulties, but
slowly, very slowly, step by step and inch by inch, the advance north-
wards continued, now broken by illness, now hindered by roundabout
excursions in search of the way.
A Serious Loss.
In December, the banks, of the Loangwa were sighted, and, unable to
obtain food at the village on its eastern shores, Livingstone crossed the
stream without a guide, and beyond it entered a " pathless, bushy
country," where the way had to be cut step by step by the almost faint-
To give the merest outlines of the difficulties surmounted, the dangers
escaped, and the privations endured as the gallant little band advanced
further and further into the unknown interior, would be to fill a volume.
We must content ourselves with stating that a climax appears to have
been reached in January, 1867, when, after plodding on under heavy
rains through a famine-stricken country, and crossing the river Cham-
beze, afterwards under its name of the Lualaba discovered to be of such
vast importance, which comes down from the western slope of Lobisa,
our hero was deserted by the two Ajawa men mentioned as having
joined his party at Lake Nyassa. The loss of two carriers was bad
enough, but, to complicate matters still further, they took with them the
medicine-box for the sake of the cloth, and some clothes belonging to a
boy named Baraka, in which were packed a quantity of flour, the tools,,
two guns, and a cartridge-pouch.
Livingstone, in relating the incident in his journal, remarks pathetically
that the thieves would, of course, only throw away the valuable contents
of the medicine-box when they discovered their nature, adding that he
felt as if he had now received the sentence of death.
"There can be little doubt," says Mr. Waller, editor of Livingstone's
Journal, " that the severity of his subsequent illnesses mainly turned
upon the loss of his medicines, and it is hardly too much to believe that
his constitution from this time was steadily sapped by the effects of fever-
poison which he was powerless to counteract, owing to the want of
quinine." Before quoting Livingstone's account of this loss it may be
well to explain that after the desertion of the Johanna men he was obliged
to rely on the natives through whose districts he passed not only for
guides but for porters. The following is the narrative :
"A guide refused, so we marched without one. The two Waiyau,
who joined us at Kande's village, now deserted. They had been very
faithful all the way, and took our part in every case. Knowing the lan-
guage well, they were extremely, useful, and no one thought that they
would desert, for they were free men — their masters had been killed by
the Mazitu — and this circumstance, and their uniform good conduct, made
us trust them more than we should have done any others who had been
slaves. But they left us ir^the forest, and heavy rain came on, which
obliterated every vestige of their footsteps. To make the loss more gall-
ing, they took what we could least spare — the medicine-box^ which they
would only throw away as soon as they came to examine their booty.
The Thieves Escape.
"One of these deserters exchanged his load that morning v/ith a boy
called Baraka, who had charge of the medicine-box, because he was so
careful. This was done, because with the medicine-chest were packed
five large cloths and all Baraka's clothing and beads, of which he was
very careful. The Waiyau also offered to carry this burden a stage to
help Baraka, while he gave his own load, in which there was no cloth, in
exchange. The forest was so dense and high, there was no chance of
getting a glimpse of the fugitives, who took all the dishes, a large box
of powder, the flour we had purchased dearly to help us as far as the
Chambeze, the tools, two guns, and a cartridge-pouch ; but the medicine-
chest was the sorest loss of all! I felt as if I had now received the sen-
^tence of death, like poor Bishop Mackenzie.
"All the other goods I had divided in case of loss or desertion, but
had never dreamed of losing the precious quinine and other remedies;
other losses and annoyances I felt as just parts of that undercurrent of
vexations which is not wanting in even the smoothest life, and certainly
not worthy of being moaned over in the experience of an explorer
anxious to benefit a country and people — but this loss I feel most
keenly." Every effort was made to intercept the runaways and recover
the precious box; but they were fruitless, and it was not until Living-
stone met Stanley at Ujiji five years later that he was again supplied with
those medicines without which travel in Africa is so deadly.
After crossing the Chambeze Livingstone found himself in a country
called Lobemba, and late in January reached the village of the head
chief Chitapanga. Chitapanga gave the travellers a grand reception and
made a favorable impression upon Livingstone at first by his jolly good-
nature; but subsequently he exhibited on a small scale all the rapacity
of Kamrasi, and Livingstone was glad to get away after a stay of a few
Interview Wiith a Great Chief.
The stockade of Chitapanga was quite a formidable-looking structure.
Besides a triple stockade, the village' was defended by a deep, broad
ditch, and hedge of thorny shrub.
The messengers from the great chief soon approached to inquire if
the traveller desired an audience, and instructing him that their custom
required every one to take something in his hand the first time he came
before so great a man as Chitapanga. Being tired from marching, Liv-
ingstone deferred his visit to the chief until evening. At. 5 p. m. he sent
notice of his coming. Passing through the inner stockade and then on
to an enormous hut, he entered the presence of the chief His Majesty
was seated on the three-legged stool, which is one of the peculiar institu-
tions of the country. Near him were three drummers, beating furiously,
and ten or more men with odd-looking rattles in their. hands, with which
they kept time to the drums, while seated and standing all about in the
background were hundreds of eager subjects, who gazed with deepest
interest on the reception. A noticeable feature of the ceremony was the
regular approaching and receding of the rattlers, who seemed to give to
their chief some special reverence by advancing toward him and holding
their toy-looking instruments quite near the ground, While they kept up
still with the drummers.
Chitapanga was a strongly-built burly-looking fellow, with a jolly,
laughing face. Livingstone was seated on a huge tusk, and the talk
began. He found little difficulty in interesting the chief in those things
which he had to tell, and was treated with a respect and cordiality which
impressed him very favorably with him. When they had got a little
acquainted, the chief walked with his visitor toward a group of cows
and with a generous air pointed out one and said, ".That is yours."
Various circumstances conspired to protract the stay of Livingstone
twenty days at this village. Though quite favorably impressed with
Chitapanga, the necessity of holding all his interviews through others
gave rise to serious annoyances. He was particulaily troubled and vexed,
after killing the cow which had been given him, by the chief's demand-
ing a blanket for it. This was more annoying because he had none
except such as belonged to the men who were with him.
Tricks of Jjying Interpreters.
This demand was pressed, however, and it at length turned out that
one of the Nassick lads, who had acted as interpreter at their interviews,
had not stated the conversation correctly. The chief had given the cow,
expecting a blanket, but the boy had said to Livingstone, " He says you
may give him any little thing you please." This presumptuous interference
of interpreters is one of the most serious annoyances of travelling in any
country; particularly is it so in Africa: not only Dr. Livingstone but
many travellers there have been greatly troubled by it.
At this village Livingstone met a party of small black Arab slave-
traders from Bagamoio, on the coast near Zanzibar, by whom he was able
to send a packet of letters, which reached England safely and greatly
relieved the public mind concerning the great traveller, who had been
reported dead by Musa after he had so heartlessly deserted him near
Nyassa. These Arab traders had come into the country by a much
nearer route : a route too which was full of villages and people who had
plenty of goats. By these men Livingstone ordered another supply of
cloth and beads and a small quantity of coffee and sugar, candles, pre-
served meats, etc., with some medicines, to be sent to Ujiji.
Little else occurred during the stay with Chitapanga worthy of special
mention. The frequent returns of illness were nothing uncommon now.
It was sad indeed to be so great a sufferer, and deprived of the relief
which he could have found in his medicine-box. We cannot imagine a
more painful experience than the consciousness of failing health in a far
away heathen land without a single remedy at hand.
At length, after repeated misunderstandings and compromises with
Chitapanga, all growing out of the unpardonable interference of the boys,
who presumed to interpret the conversation according to their ideas of
what it was best should be said, Dr. Livingstone prepared to leave. He
" I told the chief before starting that my heart was sore because he
was not sending me away so cordially as I liked. He at once ordered
men to start with us, and gave me a brass knife with ivory sheath, which
he had long worn as a memorial. He explained that we ought to go
north as, if we made easting, we should ultimately be obliged to turn
west, and all our cloth would be expended ere we reached the Lake Tan-
ganyika; he took a piece of clay off the ground and rubbed it on his
tongue as an oath that what he said was true, and came along with us to
see that all was right ; and so we parted."
The Bold Discoverer Turned Aside.
Holding a north-westerly course from this point, numerous small rivers
and rivulets were crossed, and in March, he came in sight of Lake
Liemba, which subsequent exploration proved to be the southern ex-
tremity of Tanganyika. It was Livingstone's desire to march up the
shore of the lake and discover at once what its northern connections
were ; but news of a Mazitu raid in that direction compelled him to
desist, and he concluded to strike westward, visit Casembe, and explore
Lake Moero, of which he had already heard rumors. This plan he
carried out fully, in spite of many delays; and after his arrival at
Casembe's town, he wrote a despatch to Lord Clarendon, dated Decem-
ber loth, 1867 (which, however, was never sent), in which he gives an
epitomized description of his travels, and of his stay at Casembe. This
despatch is especially valuable because it treats of the geography of the
whole district between Lakes Nyassa and Moero, and we reproduce it
nearly entire :
The altitude of this upland is from 4,000 to 6,000 feet above the level
of the sea. It is generally covered with forest, well watered by numerous
rivulets, and comparatively cold. The soil is very rich, and yields
abundantly wherever cultivated. This is the watershed between the
Loangwa, a tributary of the Zambesi, and several rivers which flow
towards the north. Of the latter, the most remarkable is the Chambeze,
for it assists in the formation of three lakes, and changes its name three
times in the five or six hundred miles of its course.
On leaving Lobemba we entered Ulungu, and, as we proceeded north-
wards, perceived by the barometers and the courses of numerous rivulets,
that a decided slope lay in that direction. A friendly old Ulungu chief,
named Kasonso, on hearing that I wished to visit Lake Liemba, which
lies in his country, gave his son with a large escort to guide me thither ;
and early in April last we reached the brim of the deep cup-like
cavity in which the lake reposes. The descent is 2,000 feet, and still the
surface of the water is upwards of 2,500 feet above the level of the sea.
The sides of the hollow are very steep, and sometimes the rocks run the
whole 2,000 feet sheer down to the water. Nowhere is there three miles
of level land from the foot of the cliffs to the shore, but top, sides, and
bottom are covered wjth well-grown wood and grass, except where the
bare rocks protrude. The scenery is extremely beautiful. A stream of
fifteen yards broad and thigh deep came down alongside our precipitous
path, and formed cascades by leaping 300 feet at a time. These, with
the bright red of the clay schists among the greenwood-trees, made the
dullest of my attendants pause and remark with wonder. Antelopes,
buffaloes, and elephants abound on the steep slopes ; and hippopotomi,
crocodiles, and fish swarm in the water. Gnus may live to old age
if not beguiled into pitfalls. The elephants sometimes eat the crops
of the natives, and flap their big ears just outside the village stock-
ades. One got out of our way on to a comparatively level spot,
and then stood and roared at us. Elsewhere they make clear off at
sight of man.
The first village we came to on the banks of the lake had a grove of
palm-oil and other trees around it. This palm-tree was not the dwarf
species seen on Lake Nyassa. A cluster of the fruit passed the door of
my 'hut which required two men to carry it. The fruit seemed quite as
large as those on the West Coast. Most of the natives live on two
islands, where they cultivate the soil, rear goats, and catch fish.
We remained six weeks oh the shores of the lake, trying to pick up
some flesh and strength. A party of Arabs came into Ulungu after us
in search of ivory, and hearing that an Englishman had preceded them,
naturally inquired where I was. But our friends, the Biiulungu, suspect-
ing that mischief was meant, stoutly denied that they had seen anything
of the sort; and then became very urgent that I should go on to one of
the inhabited islands for safety.
I regret that I suspected them of intending to make me a prisoner
there, which they could easily have done by removing the canoes; but
when the villagers who deceived the Arabs told me afterwards with an
air of triumph how nicely they had managed, I saw that they had only
been anxious for my safety. On three occasions the same friendly dis-
position was shown ; and when we went round the west side of the lake
in order to examine the arm or branch above referred to, the head-man
at the confluence of the Lofu protested so strongly against my going
— the Arabs had been fighting, and I might be mistaken for an Arab,
and killed — that I felt half-inclined to believe him. Two Arab slaves
entered the village the same afternoon in search of ivory, and confirmed
all he had said.
We now altered our course, intending to go south about the district
disturbed by the Arabs. When we had gone 60 miles we heard that the
head-quarters of the Arabs were 22 miles farther. They had found
ivory very cheap, and pushed on to the west, till attacked by a chief
named Nsama, whom they beat in his own stockade. They were now
at a loss which way to turn. On reaching Chitimba's village, I found
them about 600 in all ; and, on presenting a letter I had from the Sultan
of Zanzibar, was immediately supplied with provisions, beads, and cloth.
They approved of my plan of passing to the south of Nsama's country,
but advised waiting till the effects of punishment, which the Baulungu
had resolved to inflict on Nsama for breach of public law, were known. It
had always been understood that whoever brought goods into the country
was to be protected ; and two hours after my arrival at Chitimba's, the
son of Kasonso, our guide, marched in with his contingent. It was
anticipated that Nsama might flee ; if to the north, he would leave me a
free passage through his country ; if to the south, I might be saved
from walking into his hands.
Not Anxious to Marry an African Belle.
But it turned out that Nsama was anxious for peace. He had sent
two men with elephants' tusks to begin a negotiation ; but treachery was
suspected, and they were shot down. Another effort was made with ten
goats, and repulsed. This was much to the regret of the head Arabs.
It was fortunate for me that the Arab goods were not all sold, for Lake
Moero lay in Nsama's country, and without peace no ivory could be
bought, nor could I reach the lake.
The peace-making between the people and Arabs was, however, a
tedious process, occupying three and a half months drinking each other's
blood. I thought that had I been an Arab I could easily swallow that,
but not the next means of cementing the peace — marrying a black wife.
Nsama's daughter was the bride, and she turned out very pretty. She
came riding pickaback on a man's shoulders ; this is the most dignified
conveyance that chiefs and their families can command. She had ten
maids with her, each carrying a basket of provisions, and all having the
same beautiful features as herself. She was taken by the principal Arab,
but soon showed that she preferred her father to her husband, for seeing-
preparations made to send off to purchase ivory, she suspected that her
father was to be attacked, and made her escape.
I then visited Nsama, and, as he objected to many people coming near
him, took only three of my eight attendants. His people were very
much afraid of fire-arms, and felt all my clothing to see if I had any con-
cealed on my person. Nsama is an old man, with head and face like
those sculptured on the Assyrian monuments. He has been a great
conqueror in his time, and with bows and arrows was invincible. He is
said to have destroyed many native traders from Tanganyika, but twenty
Arab guns made him flee from his own stockade, and caused a great
sensation in the country.
He was much taken with my hair and woolen clothing; but his people,
heedless of his scolding, so pressed upon us that we could not converse,
and, after promising to send for me to talk during the night, our inter-
view ended. He promised guides to Moero, and sent us more provisions
than we could carry ; but showed so much distrust, that after all we went
without his assistance..
Remarkably Handsome Natives.
Nsama's people are particularly handsome. Many of the men have as
beautiful heads as one could find in an assembly of Europeans. All have
very fine forms, with small hands and feet. None of the West-coast
ugliness, from which most of our ideas of the Negroes are derived, is here
to be seen. No prognathous jaws nor lark heels offend the sight. My
observations deepened the impression first obtained from the remarks of
Winwood Reade, that the typical Negro is seen in the ancient Egyptian,
and not in the ungainly forms which grow up in the unhealthy swamps
of the West Coast. Indeed it is probable that this upland forest region
is the true home of the Negro. The women excited the admiration of
the Arabs. They have fine, small, well-formed features; their great
defect is one of fashion, which does not extend to the next tribe ; they
file their teeth to points, the hussies, and that makes their smile like that
of the crocodile.
Nsama's country is called Itawa. From the large population he had
under him, Itawa is in many parts well cleared of trees for cultivation,
and it is lower than Ulungu, being generally about 3,000 feet above the
sea. Long lines of tree-covered hills raised some 600 or 700 feet above
these valleys of denudation, prevent the scenery from being monotonous.
Large game is abundant. Elephants, buffaloes and zebras grazed in
large numbers on the long sloping banks of a river called Chisera, a mile
and a half broad. In going north, we crossed this river, or rather marsh,
which is full of papyrus plants or reeds. Our ford was an elephant's
path ; and the roots of the papyrus, though a carpet to these animals,
were sharp and sore to feet usually protected by shoes, and often made
us shrink and flounder into holes chest deep. The Chisera forms a
larger mars'h west of this, and it gives off its water to the Kalongosi, a
feeder of Lake Moero.
The Arabs sent out men in all directions to purchase ivory ; but their
victory over Nsama had created a panic among the tribes, which no
verbal assurances could allay. If Nsama had been routed by twenty
Arab guns, no one could stand before them but Casembe ; and Casembe
had issued strict orders to his people not to allow the Arabs who fought
Nsama to enter his country. They did not attempt to force their way.
but after sending friendly messages and presents to different chiefs, when
these were not cordially received, turned off in some other direction, and
at last, despairing of more ivory, turned homewards. From first to last
they were extremely kind to me, and showed all due respect to the
When at the lower end of Moero we were so near Casembe that it
was thought well to ascertain the length of the lake, and see Casembe
too. We came up between the double range that flanks the east of the
lake ; but mountains and plains are so covered with well-grown forest that
we could seldom see it. We reached Casembe's town late in November.
It stands near the north end of a lakelet ; this is from one to three
miles broad, and some six or seven long; it is full of sedgy islands,,
and abounds in fish.
The town of Casembe covers a mile square of cassava plantations, the
huts being dotted over that space. Some have square enclosures of
reeds, but no attempt has been made at arrangement ; it might be called
a rural village rather than a town. No estimate could be formed by
counting the huts, they are so irregularly planted, and hidden by cassava;
but my impression from other collections of huts was that the population
wa's under a thousand souls. The court or compound of Casembe —
some would call it a palace — is a square enclosure of 300 yards by 200
yards. It is surrounded by a hedge of high reeds.
His Koyal Highness Casembe.
Inside, where Casembe honored me with a grand reception, stands a
gigantic hut for Casembe, and a score of small huts for domestics. The
queen's hut stands behind that of the chief, with a number of small huts
also. Most of the enclosed space is covered with a plantation of cassava
and cotton. Casembe sat before his hut on a square seat placed on lion
and leopard skins. He was clothed in a coarse blue and white Manchester
print edged with red baize, and arranged in large folds so as to look like
a crinoline put on wrong side formost His arms, legs, and head were
covered with sleeves, leggings and cap made of various colored beads in
neat patterns. Each of his head-men came forward, shaded by a huge,,
ill-made umbrella, and followed by his dependants, made obeisance to
Casembe, and sat down on his right and left : various bands of musicians
did the same.
When called upon I rose and bowed, and an old counsellor, with his
ears cropped, gave the chief as full an account as he had been able to
gather during our stay of the English in general, and my antecedents in
particular. My having passed through Lunda to the west of Casembe,.
and visited chiefs of whom he scarcely knew anything, excited most atten-
tion. He then assured me that I was welcome to his country, to go
where I liked, and do what I chose. We then went to an inner apart-
ment, where the articles of my present were exhibited in detail. He had
examined them privately before, and we knew that he was satisfied.
They consisted of eight yards of orange-colored serge, a large striped
tablecloth ; another large cloth made at Manchester in imitation of West
Coast native manufacture, which never fails to excite the admiration of
Arabs and natives, and a large richly gilded comb for the back hair, such
as ladies wore fifty years ago : this was given to me by a friend at Liver-
pool, and as Casembe and Nsama's people cultivate the hair into large
knobs behind, I was sure that this article would tickle the fancy.
Casembe expressed himself pleased, and again bade me welcome.
Friglitful Stories of Human Sacrifices.
The different Casembes visited by the Portuguese seem to have varied
much in character and otherwise. Pereira, the first visitor, said (I quote
from memory) that Casembe had 20,000 trained soldiers, watered his
streets daily, and sacrificed twenty human victims every day. I could
hear nothing of human sacrifices now, and it is questionable if the
present Casembe could bring a thousand stragglers into the field. When
he usurped power five years ago, his country was densely peopled ; but
he was so severe in his puishments — cropping the ears, lopping off the
hands, and other mutilations, selling the children for very slight offences,
that his subjects gradually dispersed themselves in the neighboring
countries beyond his power. This is the common mode by which
tyranny is cured in parts like these, where fugitives are never returned.
The present Casembe is very poor. When he had people who killed
elephants he was too stingy to share the profits of the sale of the ivory
with his sub ordinates.
The elephant hunters have either left him or neglect hunting, so he
has no tusks to sell to the Arab traders who come from Tanganyika.
Major Monteiro, the third Portuguese who visited Casembe, appears to
have been badly treated by this man's predecessor, and no other of his
nation has ventured so far since. They do not lose much by remaining
away, for a little ivory and slaves are all that Casembe ever can have to
sell. About a month to the west of this the people of Katanga smelt
copper-ore (malachite) into large bars shaped like the capital letter I,
They may be met with of from 50 lbs. to 100 lbs. weight all over the
country, and the inhabitants draw the copper into wire for armlets and
leglets. Gold is also found at Katanga, and specimens were lately sent
to the Sultan of Zanzibar.
Hot Springs and Earthquakes.
As we come down from the watershed toward Tanganyika we enter an
area of the earth's surface still disturbed by internal igneous action. A
hot fountain in the country of Nsama is often used to boil cassava and
maize. Earthquakes are by no means rare. We experienced the shock
of one while at Chitimba's village, and they extend as far as Casembe's.
I felt as if afloat, and as huts would not fall there was no sense of danger ;
some of them that happened at night set the fowls a-cackling. The
most remarkable effect of this one was that it changed the rates of the
chronometers ; no rain fell after it. Some of Nsama's people ascribed
the earthquakes to the hot fountain, because it showed unusual commo-
tion on these occasions.
The foregoing is Livingstone's interesting account of the country
through which he passed. A few days after his arrival at Lake Liemba,
Livingstone had an attack which showed him the power of fever when
unchecked by medicine, and a recurrence of his symptoms at Casembe's
made him anxious to proceed to Ujiji in order to recuperate and replenish
his stores before pursuing his explorations. He actually set out for Lake
Tanganyika, but was soon convinced that the intervening country was
impassable until the rainy season was over. This involved a delay of
several months, and before these had passed and the season for travel
come round again, he had determined to explore Lake Bangweolo before
going north. He hoped to complete the exploration early in 1868; but
owing first to the desertion of several of his men who refused to turn
back, and secondly to Casembe's postponements and delays, it was June
before he started from Casembe's town on his way south. His journey
was wholly without incident requiring special mention, unless we except
one which has rather mor^ of a personal interest than Livingstone often
imparted even to his private diaries.
A Grave in a Strange Land.
Under date of June 25th he writes: — "We came to a grave in the
forest ; it was a little rounded mound as if the occupant sat in it in the
usual native way : it was strewed over with flour, and a number of the
large blue beads put on it: a little path showed that it had visitors.
This is a sort of grave I should prefer : to lie in the still, still forest, and
no hand ever disturb my bones. The graves at home always seem to me
to be miserable, especially those in the cold damp clay, and without elbow
room ; but I have nothing to do but wait till He who is over all, decides
where I have to lay me down and die. Poor Mary lies on Shupanga
brae, and beeks foment the sun. " This is an allusion to Mrs. Living-
It was in July that Dr. Livingstone discovered one of the largest of
the Central African lakes ; and it is extraordinary to notice the total
absence of all pride and enthusiasm, as — almost parenthetically — he
records the fact. " Reached the chief village of Mapuni, near the north
bank of Bangweolo. On the 18th I walked a little way out, and saw the
shores of the lake for the first time, thankful that I had come safely-
hither." He made a canoe voyage during the next few days which gave
him an idea of its size, and he thinks he is considerably within the mark
in setting down Bangweolo as 150 miles long, by 80 broad.
The reader must have discovered by this time that everything in
Africa is upon a large scale — great rivers, thick jungles, wide stretches
of country unpeopled, tremendous waterfalls, and all natural objects
great with the exception of mountains. These in their loftiest grandeur
are not to be found in the Dark Continent.
It is also seen that there is a great abundance of animal life. Here is
the home of the elephant, the lion, the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros,
the zebra, the giraffe and animals of less size, but swift in their move-
ments and beautiful in appearance. Reptiles also abound, as well as
monkeys and gorillas, and the traveller in Africa meets with constant
surprises as well as constant dangers. In years past many have gone
out to South Africa for the purpose of hunting and engaging in wild
sports. Marvellous tales have been told by these adventurers of their
achievements, some of which we shall have occasion to notice hereafter,
Livingstone was not, properly speaking, a sportsman, yet, of course, he
carried his gun and other arms, but never more than once or twice had
occasion to use them except for the purpose of obtaining food for his
One of the noticeable features of Livingstone's journeys is the facility •
with which he gains the friendship of the natives, comes into pleasant
relations with the chiefs, secures what is needful for his men, and is able,
if occasion offers, to return and be welcomed by those whom he has met
before. Nothing could better show the nobility of his nature, the large-
ness of his heart, the sympathy that he had for all men, as well as the
consummate tact which he displayed in dealing with savage tribes.
Continued in ERBzine 6099_11