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Volume 1290a
Frank E. Schoonover: Gods of Mars - sepia FP dup of DJ
ERB Commenced writing this second Mars book on July 14, 1912

First Appearance: All-Story Magazine 
1913 January - May

First Hardcover Edition: A.C. McClurg & Co.: 
September 28, 1918 ~ 348 pages

Read the online public domain version of this novel at:

Hillman Log Notes Series
A Study Guide for Fans and Researchers
Part II (Visible Answers Version)
Continued from Part I
Volume 1289
For an alternate version with invisible answers go to:
ERBzine 1290

These log notes sequentially pinpoint the important events throughout  the novel. 

The information is  presented in the form of questions and answers. 

Each chapter title bar has links to the actual novel text

 Hillman Log Notes
Foreword ~ 10 Q
I. The Plant Men ~ 30 Q
II. A Forest Battle ~ 15 Q
III. The Chamber of Mystery ~ 20 Q
IV. Thuvia ~ 20 Q
V. Corridors of Peril ~ 20 Q
VI. The Black Pirates of Barsoom ~ 15 Q
VII. A Fair Goddess ~ 20 Q
VIII. The Depths of Omean ~ 35 Q
IX. Issus, Goddess of Life Eternal ~ 20 Q
X. The Prison Isle of Shador ~ 10 Q


XI. When Hell Broke Loose ~ 20 Q
XII. Doomed to Die ~ 10 Q
XIII. A Break for Liberty ~ 20 Q
XIV. The Eyes in the Dark ~ 20 Q
XV. Flight and Pursuit ~ 20 Q
XVI. Under Arrest ~ 25 Q
XVII. The Death Sentence ~ 15 Q
XVIII. Sola's Story ~ 15 Q
XIX. Black Despair ~ 15 Q
XX. The Air Battle ~ 25 Q
XXI. Through Flood and Flame ~ 10 Q
XXII. Victory and Defeat ~ 15 Q




1. The first step taken in planning their escape: Xodar draws a map of Omean and the shortest route to Helium.
2. . . . Second step: Xodar explains the duties and customs of the Shador guards.
3. Purpose of Carter's leaps to the high barred windows: To look for a small craft moored near the island.
4. Reason for Carter's leaping over the partition to the next cell: So the visiting guard would not see him and learn of his ability to leap to the window.
5. Reason for the guard's surprise after he completed his search: The missing Carter has suddenly returned.
6. Why Carter was so curious about the Martian boy: Everything about him is very familiar.
7. Why Carter and the boy were led to great amphitheatre: To participate in the monthly rites of Issus.
8. Why the black men participated in the rites: To wash the sins from their souls and to prove their loyalty to Issus.
9. Prize to the outsiders who won: They get to fight again.
10. What Carter saw across the arena from his cage: The horrid Issus sitting in splendour and surrounded by her 100 slave maidens, and many soldiers and dignitaries.
11. People who do all the work in First Born society: Slaves.
12. Fate of Issus' slaves at the end of one year of service: Butchered for Issus' dining table or killed in the arena by Great White Apes.
13. Leaders of the slave revolt in the arena: Carter and the young red Martian.
14. The surprising ability of the young man: He can leap and fight nearly as well as Carter.
15. Carter's strategy when the First Born forces became too great: He leads an attack to reach Issus.
16. Meaning of the cry, "Rise slaves!": The female slaves are attacking their masters.
17. Two people who saved Carter's life: The red Martian youth and Phaidor.
18. Phaidor's plea to Carter: For him to leave the arena and strive to reach her father, Matai Shang to find a way to rescue her.
19. Issus' means of escape: A dark opening in the flooring of the dais.
20. Why Carter must now meet the mob alone: The slaves have all been killed and the lad has been knocked unconscious.


1. How Carter and the lad escaped the mob: They fall into the chute through which Issus has escaped.
2. Sight in the apartment at the bottom of the chute: A cursing Issus behind the safety of a barred gate.
3. Vital knowledge possessed by the lad: He had labored as a slave remodeling this area and knows of a vast network of concealed corridors beneath this chamber.
4. The explanation for the origin of the red race: In the ancient fight for survival against dwindling resources and the savage green men, the three main races of black, white and yellow men had amalgamated, resulting in the red race.
5. Where their escape through the pits of Issus led: The submarine pool.
6. Reason the submarine was deserted: a radio-aerial message has ordered everyone to the arena to put down the slave revolt.
7. Reason for their return to Shador prison: to free Xodar
8. Purpose of the phony dispatch written by Carter: To have the guards escort them back to their cells.
9. How Carter convinced the boy that their return to prison was a wise plan: Later they can easily escape and find weapons.
10. Carter's situation at chapter's end: Back in the cell with Xodar as prisoner of the the First Born.


1. Carter's escape plan: He will help the lad and Xodar escape the cell and they will swim to an airship docked nearby.
2. Xodar's realization about Carter and the lad: "One might think you two master and pupil, or father and son." He notes the resemblance between them in appearance and fighting styles.
3. Issus' method of delivering to the therns her decrees that are written in blood upon parchment: Messengers travel through a long tunnel from the temple of Issus to Matai Shang's temple.
4. Population control for the First Born who are thought to live forever: The men die through combat and the women are removed when their men tire of them and bring in someone new.
5. Reason why Martians from the outside do not live beyond 1000: At that age tradition dictates that they make their voluntary pilgrimage down the River Iss.
6. Why they decided to use Xodar's private ship: It is nearby, holds five and is geared for speed.
7. What made the lad's escape easier: He, like Carter, can jump to great heights.
8. Reason for their wait at the top of the jail structure: They wait for the sentry to pass before descending to the ground.
9. Carter's actions while his companions waited in the water: He retrieves weapons from the guard house.
10. Fate of the guard who discovered Carter in the guardhouse: He is shot.
11. Burdens carried by the swimmers: Carter carries three swords and Xodar carries the Martian boy.
12. The problem they faced when they reached the ship: The sentry on the nearby battleship detects them and fires an alarm gun.
13. Carter's strategy when a cruiser blocked their way to the mouth of the shaft: He rams the ship's keel, sending ship and crew into the sea.
14. Carter's method of rising through the shaft faster than the pursuing ships with larger buoyancy tanks: He points the prow of the ship upward and flies straight up under full power.
15. Reference point that Carter used to guide the ship through the unlighted shaft: The circle of light from the shaft entrance below.
16. Speed at which Carter's flier travelled through the two-mile-long vertical shaft: 200 mph
17. Reason for no visible stars or moons in the sky: It is summer at the south pole at which time the melting ice cap creates clouds -- a meteoric phenomenon seldom seen elsewhere on Mars.
18. Carter's strategy for losing his pursuers: He flies through the clouds then rises above them.
19. What they have accomplished that never has been done: They have escaped from the land of the First Born.
20. Revelation at chapter's end: The red Martian boy is John Carter's son.


1. Carter's first words to his son: "Tell me of your mother"
2. Event held each year on the anniversary of Carter's disappearance: A great festival honouring him as the saviour of the planet.
3. Meaning of the boy's name of Carthoris: Chosen by his parents before his birth -- a combination of their two names.
4. Problem with the ship: One of the forward ray tanks was ruptured when they rammed the cruiser.
5. Expected result of the damage: The craft will soon be helpless in the air.
6. Main occupants of the ancient cities that dotted the Martian landscape below: The great white apes
7. Event corresponding with the sunrise: The ship becomes unmanageable and they have to abandon the derelict craft.
8. The first sustenance of the day: Huge "milk"-giving shrubs, a green Martian food staple.
9. Where Thuvia found Carter and his companions at mid-afternoon: Sleeping under the milk shrubs.
10. Why Thuvia and Tars Tarkas abandoned their flier: They did not know how to control it and decided to carry on to Helium by foot.
11. Tars Tarkas' attackers in the abandoned city: Warhoons
12. What Thuvia observed from her hiding place: After an hour-long battle Tars Tarkas was overwhelmed and carried off severely wounded.
13. Carter's plan for that night: To enter the Warhoon city alone to find Tars Tarkas.
14. Where the Warhoon thoats and zitidars grazed: In city court yard on the moss-like ocher vegetation that overgrows most of Mars
15. Carter's means of entry into the main building in city centre: He leaps to second floor balcony and enters an unlit corridor.
16. How Carter found Tars Tarkas: He follows the guards to the pits below the building where the Thark is chained.
17. Why Carter was unable to follow Tars Tarkas and his captors: He becomes lost in the maze of dark corridors.
18. What Carter could see of his attackers in the Stygian darkness of the pits: Only 4 pair of eyes.
19. Where Carter had come in contact with a beast like this 20 years before: While a prisoner in the Warhoon dungeons.
20. Carter's predicament at chapter's end: A creature leaps onto his back and something cold, moist and slimy fastens on his throat.
SPELLING: gate for gait


1. Why Carter's mysterious attackers retreated: They backed off from the light and noise of the approaching party of green Martians escorting Tars Tarkas back to his cell.
2. Tars Tarkas' ruse after he was freed by Carter: Wearing Warhoon harness he poses as one of his guards, Tan Gama.
3. Escape route taken by Carter and the Thark: They retrace the route Carter took upon entering the building.
4. Number of years since Carter had first met his now dear friend Tars Tarkas: 20 years.
5. Reason for entering the court-yard: To steal thoats for their escape.
Appearance of the fearsome Warhoon war steeds:
6. . . . neck and head: long massive necks with huge gaping mouths
7. . . . height: 10 feet at the shoulder
8. . . . hide: sleek and hairless ~ dark slate colour on back and sides shading down to vivid yellow ~ white belly
9. . . . legs: eight legs with huge, padded, nailless feet
10. . . . tail: broad and flat ~ larger at the tip than at the root
11. . . . rider control over the beasts: by telepathic means rather than with rein or bridle
12. What passed through the courtyard gates: Carter and Tars Tarkas mounted on two tharks and herding three more.
13. Reason for the non-stop northward race of Carter's party: A great body of pursuing green warriors.
14. The calamity that slowed them down before they could reach the hills: Thuvia must share Carter's mount after her thoat collapses from exhaustion.
15. Thuvia's sacrifice: She slips off Carter's thoat so that he will have a better chance of escaping.
16. Party's response to Thuvia's actions: They join Carter and send her on alone while they prepare to battle the oncoming green horde.
17. Reason for the sudden death of 100 of the Warhoons: A shell burst
18. The effect upon the other Warhoons: They retreat in panic.
19. Origin of the unexpected attack upon the Tharks: Cannon fire from approaching battleship.
20. Identifying insignia on the rescue ship: The device of Helium upon her bow.
SPELLING: speer for spear


1. The welcome sight in the sky: A fleet of ships of the Helium navy.
2. Circumstance that tempered the jubilation over the return of Carter and Carthoris: That they have returned from the Valley Dor ~ a forbidden act.
3. Significance of swords being thrown at Carter's feet: An oath of fealty normally paid only to a great Jeddak
4. Reason for sending out a search party: To find Thuvia who Carthoris had sent off on a thoat to escape the Warhoon attack.
5. The commander of the ship Xavarian to which Carter was taken: Carter's old friend Kantos Kan
6. Why Carter was not queried as to where he has been for 10 years: Everyone fears that he has returned from the Valley Dor which would be his death sentence.
7. Reason for Dejah Thoris' grief: Loss of Carter followed by the loss of Carthoris . . . and possibly her father and grandfather.
8. News of Mors Kajak and Tardos Mors: Rumoured dead after leading a search expedition across the northern hemisphere.
9. The powerful suitor spurned by Dejah Thoris: Zat Arrras, Jed of Zodanga (appointed to the position after Carter refused the honour following Zodanga's defeat by the green hordes and Helium forces)
10. Surmised explanation for Dejah Thoris' disappearance: The Princess, Sola and a dozen servants have probably left to take the pilgrimage down the River Iss.
11. Result of the search for Thuvia: Unsuccessful
12. Orders brought by a flier from Zat Arrras on the fleet's flagship: To bring "the prisoners" before him.
13. Zat Arrras' newly conferred authority: Following the loss of Helium leaders he is highest in command in the government of Helium.
14. Zat Arrras' breach of good taste and chivalry: He should have come to greet Carter with honours due the saviour of Barsoom.
15. Carter's response to Zat Arrras' charges of blasphemy: He attacks and starts to choke him.
16. Reason for Carter's retreat: Kantos Kan reminds him of the consequences which would lead to revolution.
17. Effect upon Zat Arrras: No one has come to his defence and he stands white, trembling and the object of scorn among his officers.
18. What devout followers of age-old religious superstition felt must be Carter's fate: A terrible death, as he is a fugitive from the Valley Dor and a lying heretic.
19. Carter's concern that over rode his own possible fate: That Dejah Thoris has taken the pilgrimage on the River Iss.
20. Most prominent building in greater Helium: The mile-high scarlet tower.
21. Helium building to which the Carter party were escorted: Temple of Reward where justice -- honor or punishment is bestowed.
22. Site Carter saw as he overlooked the Temple Plaza and Avenue of Ancestors: Great throngs of people.
23. Event planned for the next morning: A trial by an impartial body of nobles in the great hall of the temple.
24. Length of a Martian day: 24 hours, 37 minutes Earth time.
25. Time units into which a Barsoomian day is divided: Zodes, xats and tals (10 zodes per day ~ 50 xats in each zode ~ 200 tals in each xat)


1. What Carter saw at the end of the temple's Aisle of Hope: The 31 "impartial" judges are all unfriendly Zodangans.
2. Name of the platform to which they were led: Throne of Righteousness which contains the Pedestal of Truth.
3. The presiding magistrate: Zat Arrras.
4. Man who came to Carter's defence after the judge's call for death: Kantos Kan.
5. Result of the audience's shouts for justice: Carter is allowed to make a two-hour appeal to the men of Helium in his own defence.
6. Reaction of the audience to the judges' demand for the death penalty: They crowd around Carter and throw their swords at his feet and rally to his defence.
7. Carter's reason for asking for a delay in the conclusion of the trial for a year or until the return of Tardos Mors or Mors Kajak: To avert a civil war in Helium.
8. Place to which Carter was escorted: The royal palace.
9. Reaction of the crowds along the way: Outpourings of love and allegiance to Carter and Carthoris.
10. How Tars Tarkas' reaction to news of Sola's pilgrimage differed from others of his race: Because of his human feelings he suffers great grief.
11. Significance a three-sided dining table: A place for each family member: John Carter, Dejah Thoris and Carthoris.
12. Significance of Tars Tarkas' seat at the table: Specially built for his size at the place of honour on the hostess' right.
13. Others who took places of honour at the table: Kantos Kan to Carter's right ~ Hor Vastus to Carthoris' right.
14. Messenger who brought news of Dejah Thoris: Sola on a thoat.
15. Fate of Dejah Thoris: Captured by the black pirates of Barsoom -- "She is gone forever." "a captive upon the lesser moon."


1. Dejah Thoris' actions seven days earlier after her meeting with Zat Arrras: She slipped out of the palace with Woola to travel south to the River Iss.
2. Sola's reaction: She gathered together 12 guards and they caught up with her
3. Fate of the pilgrimage party: Attacked by warriors from a black pirate fleet -- only Dejah Thoris and Sola survived to be taken prisoner.
4. Identity of another red woman prisoner the pirates had recently captured: Thuvia
5. The mission of the black pirate's air fleet: To recapture a party of fugitives who had escaped several days earlier.
6. Dejah Thoris' reason for cursing Zat Arrras after hearing Thuvia's story: Because of him she had left Helium while Carter and Carthoris still lived.
7. Details of Sola's escape: She was of no use to the pirates who shoved her off the ship -- she landed on soft moss at the top of a high hill and survived her fall.
8. Why the predicted six months to prepare an invasion fleet was not of great concern: Dejah Thoris and Thuvia would most certainly be chosen by Issus to serve a year's term as her slaves.
9. Why they believed that mission wouldn't be opposed by Zat Arrras: Carter's departure will bring him closer to assuming the title of Jeddak.
10. Hor Vastus' whispered plan to thwart Zat Arrras: "John Carter, Jeddak of Helium."
11. Unwelcome visitor: One of Zat Arrras' spies eavesdropping on their plans.
12. Why Zat Arrras probably would not welcome the return of Dejah Thoris: She would stand between him and the throne.
13. Person in charge of refitting the rescue ships with water propellers in Hastor: Xodar who had done this many times.
14. Tars Tarkas' part in the rescue plan: To try to assemble the green hordes to be transported to the Valley Dor and Temple of Issus.
15. Zat Arrras' act of treachery:  Carter's kidnapping ~ he orders a team of kidnappers to capture Carter while asleep and carry him out of the palace through the maze of corridors in the subterranean pits.


1. Zat Arrras' conditions for Carter's release: That none of the royal family are ever to return to Helium and that he be made Jeddak.
2. Probable result of Carter's refusal to enter this dishonourable alliance: Death of Carter and Dejah Thoris. . . with honour.
3. What the guards' radium hand-light revealed in Carter's dungeon in the pits: human skeletons chained to the walls.
4. Carter's only respite from darkness and silence for the next 330 days: Twice daily visits from a guard bringing prison food and Zat Arrras' orders that he accept his ultimatum.
5. Reason for Carter's offer to reward Parthak, his guard, with some of his personal trappings and weapons: To get a message to Carthoris indicating that he still lives.
6. Result of Carter's deal with his prison guard: The guard is replaced.
7. Carter's surprise after his desperate attack on his jailer: The man is actually Carthoris.
8. Parthak's fate when he wouldn't reveal information about Carter to Carthoris: He was chained in a dungeon until he talked.
9. Hor Vastus' reason for posing as an imprisoned Zodangan soldier in Parthak's cell: To pry information from him.
10. Reason the rescue fleet had not yet left for the Land of the First Born: Because they had to work in secret the preparations took much longer than planned.
11. What was prepared to leave Hastor that tonight: 1,000 mighty battleships, each fitted with water propellers and a small fleet of cruisers and scouts.
12. What was the nature of the fleet assembled at Thark: many hundreds of large troop ships to carry 250,000 green warriors from every part of Barsoom.
13. Size of Hor Vastus' force of red men from Helium's districts: One million warriors vowed to secrecy.
14. Identity of the spy the guards had killed: A Holy Thern disguised with red skin die and a black wig.
15. Reason for the sudden haste in launching the attack: The escape of a Holy Thern spy and the discovery that half the gate guards were therns in disguise.


1. Reason why it was too late to save Dejah Thoris: 365 days - a year -- have passed.
2. What Carter now hoped to gain from the attack: Revenge and a means of proving that their religion is false which will save countless lives in the future.
3. How might the farmers of Barsoom benefit: The Valley Dor and Land of Lost Souls have vast supplies of water and rich farmland that needs no irrigation.
4. Reason that radio-aerograms were not often used for important messages: Wireless communication is not secure and can be easily intercepted despite having tried every known wave length
5. Type of craft encircling the main fleet of battleships and transports: one-man air scouts.
6. Nature of the opposing force from the south-south-east: a fleet of thousands of battleships.
7. Mission of the ten battleships sent to the entrance to Omean: To let no hostile vessel enter or leave the shaft, thus bottling up the great fleet of the First Born.
8. Formation taken by Carter's main fleet: Battleships in a V pointing south-south-east with the transports and their convoys behind.
9. Destination of the troop transports: The temples and gardens of the therns.
10. Position taken by the Helium fleet after the first breakthrough encounter: They encircle the enemy fleet moving at high speed to make them difficult targets.
11. Commander of another attacking fleet of 5,000 ships:  The treacherous Zat Arrras, "Jeddak of Helium" who sends a message by radio-aerogram ordering Carter's fleet to surrender.
12. Effect upon the retreating thern fleet who intercepted the Zat Arrras' message: They resume the battle.
13. Identity of a third attacking fleet: The fleet of the First Born who had started leaving the Omean entrance shaft before the ten Helium guard ships had arrived.
14. Response of the Heliumetic crewmen in Zat Arrras' fleet when they saw the colours of the Prince of Helium unfurled: they change allegiances and break out the colors of the Prince of Helium.
15. Fate of Zat Arrras after Carter led a boarding party onto his flagship: He leaps to his death.
16. Carter's strategy in ordering his fleet to retreat: To leave the therns and First Born to fight each other.
17. Destination of a fleet of battleships and transports led by Xodar: Temple of Issus.
18. Destination of the remainder of the fleet: To descend to the Sea of Omean.
19. Obstacle placed by Carthoris in the Omean entrance shaft: Captured First Born ships are wedged in the shaft.
20. News of Dejah Thoris from the sub commander: Issus and her followers knew her to be the wife and mother of the only two men to escape the First Born.
21. Where the sub commander last saw Dejah Thoris: The day before at the monthly rites were she served at the foot of Issus.
22.  Reason for Carter's miscalculation of the year's length:  Barsoomian days are 24 hours and 41 minutes while the years number 687 days.
23. The place where Issus will imprison Dejah Thoris for 687 days when she learns that Carter approaches: The Temple of the Sun.
24. One possible fate of those locked in the chamber: Execution at a predetermined time by an accompanying executioner.
25. . . .  another possible fate: Starvation from lack of food.


1. Number of Carter's men shuttled by submarine to the mouth of the tunnels leading to the pits of Issus:  5,000
2. Concern over the water levels in the pool chamber: The water is steadily rising and will soon fill the chambers.
3. Reason for the water rise: The pumps of Omean have stopped.
4. Carter's decision when the waters reached waist level in the tunnel: He orders half the force to file into a higher side tunnel.
5. Obstacle to the front of the column: The First Born have lit a chemical fire in the passage producing a wall of flames and smoke.
6. Carter's reason for approaching the flames after directing his men into an alternate tunnel: To make sure none are left behind.
7. Obstacle faced upon his return: An invisible foe has lowered a massive steel grate to block one of the escape routes.
8. Carter's good fortune upon returning to the main corridor: There is enough air space above the water for him to swim along the passage.
9. Problem posed by a dip in the tunnel: Carter has to swim blindly underwater hoping he can make it to the air pocket.
10. Occupant of the magnificent room Carter finally enters: Dejah Thoris, Princess of Helium.


1. Reason for Dejah Thoris' presence in this chamber: Issus had ordered her here just before the fighting began.
2. Dejah Thoris' hiding place while Carter joined the battle: In the pits beyond the chamber door.
3. Carter's actions accompanying his shout of "For Helium!": He attacks the temple guards from the rear.
4. Historic significance of this battle between the red and black races: Battle between old and new ~ a victory by the red men would bring about a new order on the planet.
5. An amazing sight in the gardens of Issus that demoralized the First Born: A great horde of attacking green warriors mounted on thoats followed by waves of red Martians warriors.
6. Commander of the green warriors: Tars Tarkas
7. Sight that met Carter and Carthoris when they rush into Dejah Thoris' apartment: Signs of a struggle and the door to the pits ajar.
8. Reason for their great disappointment and panic: Dejah Thoris has vanished.
9. The hostage Carter took after battling his way through the throne room: Issus
10. Retribution brought against the invaders by the "Goddess of Death and Life Eternal," the all-powerful "Daughter of the Lesser Moon": None, only insane babble and hysterical laughter.
11. Fate of Dejah Thoris, Thuvia and Phaidor: A year's imprisonment and starvation in the Temple of the Sun.
12. Fate of Issus, the false god: Carter tosses her to her betrayed and vengeful followers.
13. Act of revenge of the First Born necessitating the immediate evacuation of everyone: They set fire to the Temple of Issus.
14. The women's chances for survival: Their prison chamber will protect them from smoke and flames ~ Xodar has brought them a year's supply of food.
15. The last scene Carter saw before the chamber sealed for a year: Phaidor attacking Dejah Thoris with a dagger and Thuvia trying to intervene.

The Hillman Log Notes & Study Guide Series
ERB's Mars Trilogy ~ 1350 QA-Notes
Princess of Mars I
520 Visible Answers
Princess of Mars II
520 Visible Answers
Gods of Mars I
425 Visible Answers Version
Gods of Mars II
425 Visible Answers Version
The Warlord of Mars I
405 Visible Answers
The Warlord of Mars II
 405 isible Answers
Tarzan the Ape Man: Film Log Notes

The Gods of Mars ~ eText Edition
The Gods of Mars ~ ERB C.H.A.S.E.R Encyclopedia
Chronology Charts for The Gods of Mars
A Princess of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs ~ eText Edition
A Princess of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs ~ ERB C.H.A.S.E.R. Encyclopedia
A Princess of Mars ~ Illustrated Adaptation of ERB's Novel by James Killian Spratt
Chronology For the Princess of Mars Trilogy
1921 Newspaper Serialization with Illustrations

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