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Volume 1154

ERB References for the
The War Chief ~ The Apache Devil

Source: The ERB Personal Library Collection

Argosy All-Story: April 16, 1927 - War Chief 1/5Argosy All-Story - May 19, 1928 - The Apache Devil 1/6


Burroughs drew upon his personal experiences from when he served as a trooper
with the U.S. 7th Cavalry at Fort Grant, Arizona.

He also cited the following books and periodicals 
as being among the reference materials he used:
Part I in ERBzine 1153

The Marvellous Country: Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico, the Apache's Home by Samuel Woodworth Cozzens 1873
Thrilling Days in Army Life by General. George. A. Forthsyth 1900
Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs by Norman B. Wood
The Frontier Trail by Colonel Homer W. Wheeler
The Land of Poco Tiempo by Charles. F. Lummis

Part II in ERBzine 1154 (below)

Geronimo's Story of His Life by S.M. Barrett, 1907
Trailing Geronimo: The Outbreak of the White Mountain Apaches, 1881 - 1886  by Anton Mazzanovich
Life Among the Apaches by John Carey Cremony
Apache Medicine-Men by John G. Bourke

More ERB Apache References in ERBzine

S. M. Barrett
Geronimo's Story of His Life ~ 1906 ~ NY: Duffield ? Co.~ T he soul, rituals and history of the Apache people told in the words of Geronimo to S.M. Barrett and published in 1906.  This story is a sterling example of the valiant but losing battle First Nations cultures fought against the seemingly unstoppable European way of life.
This was one of the books ERB used to gather background information for his Apache novels.
Online eText Edition
Cited by ERB as reference material for his Apache novels

Geronimo, a Bedonkohe Apache leader of the Chiricahua Apache, led his people's defense of their homeland against the U.S. military after the death of Cochise. In the early 1870s, Lieutenant Colonel George F. Crook, commander of the Department of Arizona, had succeeded in establishing relative peace in the territory. The management of his successors, however, was disastrous. In 1874, some 4,000 Apaches were forcibly moved by U.S. authorities to a reservation at San Carlos, a barren wasteland in east-central Arizona. Deprived of traditional tribal rights, short on rations and homesick, they revolted. Spurred by Geronimo, hundreds of Apaches left the reservation to resume their war against the whites. In 1882, Crook was recalled to Arizona to conduct a campaign against the Apaches. Geronimo surrendered in January 1884, but took flight from the San Carlos reservation in May 1885, accompanied by 35 men, 8 boys and 101 women. Crook, along with scouts Al Sieber, Tom Horn and Mickey Free (the white child Cochise was falsely accused of abducting) set out in pursuit, and 10 months later, on March 27, 1886, Geronimo surrendered at Ca?on de Los Embudos in Sonora, Mexico. Near the border, however, fearing that they would be murdered once they crossed into U.S. territory, Geronimo and a small band bolted. As a result, Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles replaced Crook as commander on April 2. During this final campaign, at least 5,000 white soldiers and 500 Indian auxiliaries were employed at various times in the capture of Geronimo's small band. Five months and 1,645 miles later, Geronimo was tracked to his camp in Mexico's Sonora mountains. At a conference on Sept. 3, 1886, at Skeleton Canyon in Arizona, Miles induced Geronimo to surrender once again, promising him that, after an indefinite exile in Florida, he and his followers would be permitted to return to Arizona. The promise was never kept. Geronimo and his fellow prisoners were put to hard labor, and it was May 1887 before he saw his family. Moved to Fort Sill in the Oklahoma Territory in 1894, he at first attempted to "take the white man's road." He farmed and joined the Dutch Reformed Church, which expelled him because of his inability to resist gambling. He never saw Arizona again, but by special permission of the War Department, he was allowed to sell photographs of himself and his handiwork at expositions. Before he died at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Feb. 17, 1909, he dictated to S.S. Barrett his autobiography, "Geronimo: His Own Story."
Geronimo:(Goyathlay) (c. 1829-1909) Encyclopedia of North American Indians

S.M. Barrett: During 1905 and 1906, Geronimo, the legendary Apache warrior and honorary war chief, dictated his story through a native interpreter to S.M. Barrett, then superintendent of schools in Lawton, Oklahoma. As Geronimo was by then a prisoner of war, Barrett had made appeals all the way up the chain of command to President Teddy Roosevelt for permission to record the words of the "Indian outlaw." Geronimo came to each interview knowing exactly what he wanted to cover, beginning with the telling of the Apache creation story. When, at the end of the first session, Barrett posed a question, the only answer he received was a pronouncement-"Write what I have spoken." 

Anton Mazzanovich
Trailing Geronimo: The Outbreak of the White Mountain Apaches, 1881 - 1886 ~ 1926 ~ Mazzanovich was with  Troop F. 6th U.S. Cavalry ~ A book cited by ERB as a research source for his Apache novels. Some hitherto unrecorded incidents bearing upon the outbreak of the White mountain Apaches and Geronimo's band in Arizona and New Mexico. 
Online Version with scanned pages ~ Many great photos: Arizona Apaches Cavalry
The story of September 1886 and the surrender of the Chiricahua Apache Geronimo. Marking the end of centuries of warfare between European-Americans and the desert Indians in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, Geronimo's surrender is recorded here. This is an account of the struggle by a soldier who was there, up to and including the final scene in Skeleton Canyon. 

Anton Mazzanovich and Winnifred Kingston in the film The Light of Western Stars by Zane Grey

Anton Mazzonovich  Cavalry Camp on the Bank of the Gila 1881 ~ Near Fort Thomas

                              Cavalry Encampment                                            Apache Kid

Commanding Officer's Quarters Fort Grant

Fort Grant Parade Ground ~ Graham Mountains in background

Veterans of Indian Wars

John Carey Cremony   1815-1879 
Life Among the Apaches  1868
A first-hand account of John C. Cremony's personal adventures with Apache indians in the latter part of the 19th century, in particular the Chiricahua Apaches. Although this effort's original purpose was to induce more effective military suppression of the Apaches (it was first published in 1868), it has all of the fast-paced action and excitement of a novel and the authenticity of an ethnographic and historical document. It is informative about Apache beliefs, tribal life, and fighting tactics.
Online Edition in PDF:
Online Sample in HTML
Cremony's book inspired many a Hollywood screenwriter, and for years his words have been taken as gospel. Scholars have since shown that Cremony was habitually inflating his own importance and his knowledge of Apache ways and history. Of particular note are his highly fictionalized accounts of the life of Mangas Coloradas -- a man far more important to history than Cremony. But this work remains an extremely telling document of a time and place -- and all the strange attitudes that made up "white" perceptions. It is a  refreshingly open and objective look at the Apache culture before the reservations. Cremony wrote the first dictionary of the Apache language and earned their grudging respect. He shows admiration for their amazing courage, endurance, and skills of warfare and survival. But, since this was written a century before the political correctness Victorianism we now are censored by, Cremony is able to share his concerns about their interesting work ethic (it is dishonorable for a man to work besides hunting and stealing) and their cruelty. Cremony makes some polite comments about the extreme attractiveness of some of the Apache women which suggests, at a minimum, an emotional involvement -- which adds a touching romantic side to this well written account. 

John G. Bourke
Apache Medicine-Men
Read the eText
Classic of 19th-century anthropology covers role of medicine-men in treating disease, superstitions, paraphernalia, medicine-women, the use of tule pollen as sacrificial powder, clay-eating, sacred breads and cakes, the izze-kloth or medicine cord, medicine hat, spirit or ghost dance headdress, amulets and talismans, more. Also analogous objects, rites, ceremonies in other cultures.

On the Border With Crook ~ reprinted by Univ of Nebraska Pr (June 1971) 
John Bourke writes of General George Crook, a legendary Indian fighter in post-Civil War Arizona, Wyoming, and Montanna. Bourke, who for most of the time was Crook's aide-de-camp, is an unabashed admirer of the General, but the book goes far beyond flattery and sycophancy. Bourke makes the reader admire Crook as much as he himself does, for Crook truly did possess unmatched stamina, experience, attention to detail and equal measures of sympathy for the Indians he was fighting and ruthlessness in his ambition to drive them onto the reservations. Bourke too admires the Indians, especially the Apaches. In fact, one of the book's high points is its almost anthropological descriptions of Apache life, the Arizona landscape, life in the frontier Army, and the social milieu of old Tuscon. The descriptions of Crook's campaigns against the Sioux and Cheyenne flag just a little, but only in comparison to Bourke's own rapturous discussions of life in the Southwest. The book that this compares best to is Eugene Ware's "The Indian War of 1864" (which I've also reviewed for Amazon). Ware, like Bourke, was a serving Army officer with a keen, sympathetic eye for all he saw in the old West. Both were involved in more hair-raising episodes than a dozen Hollywood action heroes combined. I too am a serving Army officer, and I can testify that none of my peers today has seen as much or writes so well. 

The concept of Manifest Destiny took root during the Mexican American War, and assumed grander proportions following the Civil War. Gen. Crook had been a calvery officer whose services proved to be of considerable value, as much for his ability as for his compassion for the Indians. His job was to protect the settlers and subdue the Indians by locating them on reservations. The author was with Crook during his first and second Southwest campaigns as well as that of the Northern Plains. His love for his commander and appreciation of the Indians made him the perfect writer for the topic. Gen. Crook seems the ideal officer for the job, but was defeated, not by the Indians but Agents assigned, after the army had done its work, to reservations by Washington. The book is a wonderful description of the duty performed by Gen. Crook who, had his system been utilized, would have led to a better life for all. In the end, Bourke feels, Crook died of a broken heart. Important history, and a story too beautifully told to miss. 

The Snake Dance of the Moquis of Arizona: Being a Narrative of a Journey from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Villages of the Moqui Indians of Arizona ~ reprinted by Kessinger Publishing (August 2003)
1884. The author has endeavored to present a truthful description of religious rites of the Moqui, the very existence of which is known to but a few of our people, and a narrative of incidents which may serve to entertain and amuse, if they do not instruct, those into whose hands this book may fall. The Moqui Indians inhabit seven different villages, situated a few leagues apart. In treating them all, it was impossible to avoid a seeming repetition of description, where the same apparel, food, arms and ceremonies were to be explained. This work is a narrative of a journey from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the villages of the Moqui Indians of Arizona. Illustrated.

The Diaries of John Gregory Bourke: November 20, 1872, to July 28, 1876 ~ reprinted by University of North Texas Press (March 2003)

Captain John G. Bourke's Influence on Edgar Rice Burroughs
ERBzine 3482

Captain John Bourke's
Illustrations and Text from the First Editions
Related Reference Links from ERBzine
ERBzine 3483
Edgar Rice Burroughs Comments On The War Chief

Danton Burroughs found the following note with the manuscript for The War Chief:

"I have gone over the 'copy' carefully and have indicated a number of phrases, sentences and paragraphs deleted by them, which I wish to have retained.

The preparation of the manuscript required considerable research work and as it is necessary for the reader to be able to understand the viewpoint of the Indian, if he is to be in sympathy with the principal character, it is essential that much of the matter deleted should remain even though it draws comparisons that may be odious to some people of our own race and sometimes shocking to people whose religious convictions are particularly strong. 

I should also call your attention to an Indian name and an Indian word concerning which the magazine editor and I seem not to agree. 

The name is that of a famous Apache Chief, Mangas Colorado, variously spelled Mangus and Magnus. From a very old book I obtained the suggestion of the derivation of this name, which in Spanish means colored sleeves. The author supposed that the name may have been given to him by the Mexicans, either because of the garment he wore with colored sleeves or from the fact that his sleeves or arms were stained with the blood of his victims. 

The other word to which I refer is Izzo-Kolth, which the magazine editor insisted on changing to Izze-Colth. My authority for this spelling is an article by John G. Bourke, THE MEDICINE MAN OF THE APACHES, which appeared in the annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology for 1887 and 1888. 

The magazine editor deleted what evidently appeared to him tiresome descriptions of Indian customs, such as burial ceremonies and the decoration of the bodies of medicine men, but as there is not a great of this and I believe that it is all based on good authority, it should be permitted to remain."

"Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution"
"Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology"

Indians of the Enchanted Desert by Leo Crane
 Southwest Indian history Navajo ? Hopi Indians (Little/Brown, 1925)

Tuba City Runkes party - Thomas E. Thacker, Traylor, Leo Crane 1916

Columbian Exposition in Chicago 1893
Numerous books from the World's Fair in which
Ed paraded as a MMA Cadet and drove Chicago's first electric car during the summer of 1893.
Much of his time was spent at Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show and visiting the Native American attractions.

Captain (General) Charles King
The ERB / Charles King Connection
The Charles King Bibliography
A good selection of books by Indian Fighter, MMA Commandant, and  best-selling author:
Cadet Days
The True U.S. Grant
Campaigning With Crook: 
Read King in ERBzine:
Custer's Last Battle by Captain Charles King I
Excerpts from the writings of Captain Charles King II
More Excerpts from the writings of Captain Charles King III

King, who was credited with seventy years of active military service, was the only soldier in American history to serve in five American wars: The Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection and World War I.

King was author of over 60 books and hundreds of articles and short stories.
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20

His novels, although they all follow virtually the same plot, draw from personal experience and are exciting narratives full of accurate, detailed descriptions of army life and Indian wars in the American West.

Norton's American Indian Vol 1?2 by George Cackman ~ 1926 
North American Indians (2 volumes) by Cathus
North American Indians: Being Letters and Notes on Their Manners, Customs, and Conditions, Written During Eight Years Travel Amongst The Wildest Tribes of Indians in North America, 1832-1839. 2 volumes. by George Catlin ~ 1926.
Indians of the Enchanted Desert by Leo Crane ~ 1925

ERBzine 3482
Captain Bourke's Influence
On the Border with Crook
ERBzine 3483
Text and Illustrations
ERB References
ERBzine 3484
Scrapbook: Art and Photos 
Indian Wars and Apaches
ERBzine 3484a
Apache 3-D Photos
28 Stereoviews
For more background information on the Apache Novels in ERBzine see:
Robert "Tarak" Woodley Discusses The War Chief (an ERBapa reprint)
ERB Time Line Bio

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