THE dark forebodings expressed were not to be realized. The
world was not yet to mourn the loss of one of her grandest ex-
plorers. In the latter part of December, 1888, less than ten days
from the time the startling prophecies of Stanley's death were
made public, reliable news came that the intrepid hero had reached Emin
Pasha, and that his expedition was a complete success. On the 3d of
April, 1889, a letter from Mr. Stanley's own hand was published, giving
a graphic description of his journey, and proving that all the fears and
predictions concerning his fate were happily groundless.
His letter to the chairman of the Emin Pasha Relief Committee was
dated at Bungangeta Island, Aruwimi River, August 28th, 1888, and ran
A short dispatch briefly announcing that we had placed the first
installment of relief in the hands of Emin Pasha on the Albert Nyanza
was sent to you by couriers from Stanley Falls, along with letters to
Tipo-tipo, the Arab governor of that district, on the 17th inst., within
three hours of our meeting with the rear column of the expedition.
I propose to relate to you the story of our movements since June 28th,
I had established an intrenched and palisaded camp at Yambuya, on
the Lower Aruwimi, just below the first rapids. Major Edmund Bartte-
Hot, being senior of these officers with me, was appointed commandant.
Mr. J. S. Jamieson, a volunteer, was associated with him. On the arrival
of all men and goods from Bolobo and Stanley Pool, the officers still
believed Messrs. Troup, Ward, and Bonny were to report to Major
Barttelot for duty. But no important action or movement (according to
letter of instructions given by me to the Major before leaving) was to be
made without consulting with Messrs. Jamieson, Troup, and Ward.
The columns under Major Barttelot's orders mustered two hundred and
As I requested the Major to send you a copy of the instructions issued
to each officer, you are doubtless aware that the Major was to remain at
Yambuya until the arrival of the steamer from Stanley Pool with the
officers, men, and goods left behind; and if Tipo-tipo's promised contin-
gent of carriers had in the meantime arrived, he was to march his column
and follow our track, which so long as it traversed the forest region
would be known by the blazing of the trees, by our camps and zaribas,
etc. If Tipo-tipo's carriers did not arrive, then, if he (the Major) pre-
ferred moving to staying at Yambuya, he was to discard such things as
mentioned in letter of instructions, and commence making double and
triple journeys by short stages, until I should come down from the
Nyanza and relieve him. The instructions were explicit and, as the offi-
cers admitted, intelligible,
Skirmisli with the Natives.
The advance column, consisting of three hundred and eighty-nine offi-
cers and men, set out from Yambuya June 28th, 1887. The first dav we
followed the river bank, marched twelve miles, and arrived in the large
district of Yankonde. At our approach the natives set fire to their vil-
lages, and, under cover of the smoke, attacked the pioneers who were
clearing the numerous obstructions they had planted before the first
village. The skirmish lasted fifteen minutes. The second day we fol-
lowed a path leading inland but trending east. We followed this path
for five days through a dense population. Every art known to native
minds for molesting, impeding, and wounding an enemy was resorted to;
but we passed through without the loss of a man. Perceiving that the
path was taking us too far from our course, we cut a northeasterly
track, and reached the river again on the 5th of July. From this date
until the 18th of October we followed the left bank of the Aruwimi.
After seventeen days' continuous marching we halted one day for rest.
On the twenty-fourth day from Yambuya we lost two men by desertion.
In the month of July we made four halts only. On the ist of August
the first death occurred, which was from dysentery ; so that for thirty-
four days our course had been singularly successful. But as we now
entered a wilderness, which occupied us nine days in marching through
it, our sufferings began to multiply, and several deaths occurred. The
river at this time was of great use to us ; our boat and several canoes
relieved the weary and sick of their loads, so that progress, though not
brilliant as during the first month, was still steady.
On the 13th of August we arrived at Air-Sibba. The natives made a
bold front; we ]ost five men through poisoned arrows ; and to our great
grief, Lieutenant Stairs was wounded just below the heart; but, though
he suffered greatly for nearly a month, he finally recovered. On the 15th
Mr. Jephson, in command of the land party, led his men inland, became
confused, and lost his way. We were not re-united until the 21st.
On the 25th of August we arrived in the district of Air-jeli. Opposite
our camp was the mouth of the tributary Nepoko.
On the 31st of August we met for the first time a party of Manyema,
belonging to the caravan of Ugarrowwa, alias Uledi Balyuz, who turned
out to be a former tent-boy of Speke's. Our misfortunes began from
this date, for I had taken the Congo route to avoid Arabs, that they
might not tamper with my men, and tempt them to desert by their pres-
ents. Twenty-six men deserted within three days of this unfortunate
On the 16th of September we arrived at a camp opposite the station at
Ugarrowwa's. As food was very scarce, owing to his having devastated
an immense region, we halted but one day near him. Such friendly
terms as I could make with such a man I made, and left fifty-six men
with him. All the Somalis preferred to rest at Ugarrowwa's to the con-
tinous marching. Five Soudanese were also left. It would have been
certain death for all of them to have accompanied us. At Ugarrowwa's
they might possibly recover. 'Five dollars a month per head was. to be
paid to this man for their food.
Attempt to Ruin the Expedition.
On September 19th, we left Ugarrowwa's, and on the 18th of October
entered the settlement occupied by Kilinga-Longa, a Zanzibari slave
belonging to Abed bin Salim, an old Arab, whose bloody deeds are
recorded in " The Congo and the Founding of its Free State." This
proved an awful month to us ; not one member of the expedition, white
or black, will ever forget it. The advance numbered two hundred and
fifty-eight souls on leaving Ugarrowwa's, because out of three hun-
dred and eighty we had lost sixty-six men by desertion and death
between Yambuya and Ugarrowwa's, and had left fifty-six men sick at the
Arab station. On reaching Kilinga-Longa's we discovered we had lost
fifty-five men by starvation and desertion. We had lived principally on
wild fruit, fungi, and a large, flat, bean-shaped nut. The slaves of Abed
bin Salim did their utmost to ruin the expedition. Short of open hos-
tilities, they purchased rifles, ammunition, clothing, so that when we left
their station we were beggared, and our men were absolutely naked.
We were so weak physically that we were unable to carry the boat
and about seventy loads of goods ; we therefore left these goods and
boat at Kilinga-Longa's under Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson, the
datter of whom was unable to march, and after twelve days' march we
arrived at a native settlement called Ibwiri. Between Kilinga-Longa's
and Ibwiri our condition had not improved. The Arab devastation had
reached within a few miles of Ibwiri — a devastation so complete that
there was not one native hut standing between Ugarrowwa's and Ibwiri,
.and what had not been destroyed by the slaves of Ugarrowwa and Abed
bin Salim the elephants had destroyed, and turned the whole region into
a horrible wilderness. But at Ibwiri we were beyond the utmost reach
of the destroyers ; we were on virgin soil in a populous region abound-
ing with food.
Our suffering from hunger, which began on the 31st of August, termi-
nated on the 1 2th of November. Ourselves and men were skeletons.
Out of three hundred and eighty-nine we now only numbered one hun-
dred and seventy-four, several of whom seemed to have no hope of life
left. A halt was therefore ordered for the people to recuperate. Hitherto
our people were skeptical of what we told them, the suffering had been
so awful, calamities so numerous, the forest so endless apparently, that
they refused to believe that by and by we should see plains and cattle
and the Nyanza and the white man, Emin Pasha.
Ravages of Hunger.
We felt as though we were dragging them along with a chain around
our necks. " Beyond these raiders lies a country untouched, where food
is abundant and where you will forget your miseries, so cheer up, boys ;
be men, press on a little faster." They turned a deaf ear to our prayers
and entreaties, for, driven by hunger and suffering, they sold their rifles
and equipments for a few ears of Indian corn, deserted with the ammuni-
tion, and were altogether demoralized. Perceiving that prayers and
entreaties and mild punishments were of no avail, I then resorted to visit
upon the wretches the death penalty. Two of the worst cases were
accordingly taken and hung in presence of all.
We halted thirteen days in Ibwiri, and reveled on fowls, goats,
bananas, corn, sweet potatoes, yams, beans, etc. The supplies were inex-
haustible, and the people glutted themselves ; the effect was such that I
had a hundred and seventy-one — one was killed by an arrow — mostly
sleek and robust men, when I set out for the Albert Nyanza on the 24th
We were still a hundred and twenty-six miles from the lake ; but,
with a supply of food, such a distance would seem as nothing.
On the 1st of December we sighted the open country from the top of
a ridge connected with Mount Pisgah, so named from our first view of
the land of promise and plenty. On the 5th of December we emerged
upon the plains, and the deadly gloomy forest was behind us. After a
hundred and sixty days of continuous gloom we saw the light of broad
day shining all around us, and making all things beautiful. We thought
we had never seen grass so green or country so lovely. The men liter-
ally yelled and leaped with joy, and raced over the ground with their
burdens. Ah ! this was the old spirit of former expeditions, successfully
completed, all of a sudden revived.
A Battle Imminent.
Woe betide the native aggressor we may meet, however powerful he
may be ; with such a spirit the men will fling themselves like wolves on
sheep. Numbers will not be considered. It had been the eternal forest
that had made the abject, slavish creatures, so brutally plundered by
Arab slaves at Kilonga-Longa's.
On the 9th we came to the country of the powerful chief Mozamboni.
The villages were scattered over a great extent of country so thickly that
there was no other road except through their villages or fields. From a
long distance the natives had sighted us and were prepared. We seized
a hill as soon as we arrived in the centre of a mass of villages about 4
p. M. on the 9th of December and occupied it, building a zariba as fast as
bill-hooks could cut brushwood. The war cries were terrible from hill
to hill, they were sent pealing across the intervening valleys, the people
gathered by hundreds from every point, war-horns and drums announced
that a struggle was about to take place. Such natives as were too bold
we checked with but little effort, and a slight skirmish ended in us cap-
turing a cow. the first beef tasted since we left the ocean.
The night passed peacefully, both sides preparing for the morrow. On
the morning of the loth we attempted to open negotiations. The natives
were anxious to know who we were, and we were anxious to glean news
of the land that threatened to ruin the expedition. Hours were passed
talking, both parties keeping a respectable distance apart. The natives
said they were subject to Uganda ; but that Kabba-Rega was their real
King, Mozamboni holding the country for Kabba-Rega. They finally
accepted cloth and brass rods to show their King Mozamboni, and his
answer was to be given next day. In the meantime all hostilities were
to be suspended.
The morning of the nth dawned, and at 8 a.m. we were star-
tled at hearing a man proclaiming that it was Mozamboni's wish that we
should be driven back from the land. The proclamation was received
by the valley around our neighborhood with deafening cries. Their word
" kanwana," signifies to make peace, " kurwana " signifies war. We were
therefore in doubt, or rather we hoped we had heard wrongly. We sent
an interpreter a little nearer to ask if it was kanwana or kurwana. Kur-
wana, they responded, and to emphasize the term two arrows were shot
at him, which dissipated all doubt.
Sharp-shooters Drive the Natives.
Our hill stood between a lofty range of hills and a lower range, On
one side of us was a narrow valley two hundred and fifty yards wide ;
on the other side the valley was three miles wide. East and west of us
the valley broadened into an extensive plain. The higher range of hills
was lined with hundreds preparing to descend ; the broader valley was
already mustering its hundreds. There was no time to lose. A body of
forty men were sent, under Lieutenant Stairs, to attack the broader val-
ley. Mr. Jephson was sent with thirty men east ; a choice" body of sharp-
shooters was sent to test the courage of those descending the slope of
the highest range. Stairs pressed on, crossed a deep and narrow river in
the face of hundreds of natives, and assaulted the first village and took
it. The sharp-shooters did their work effectively, and drove the descend-
ing natives rapidly up the slope until it became a general flight. Mean-
time Mr. Jephson was not idle. He marched straight up the valley east,
driving the people back, and taking their villages as he went. By 3 p.m.
there was not a native* visible anywhere, except on one small hill about
a mile and a half west of us.
On the morning of the 12th we continued our march; during the day
we had four little fights. On the 13th marched straight east ; attacked
by new forces every hour until noon, when we halted for refreshments.
These we successfully overcame.
At 1 p.m. we resumed our march. Fifteen minutes later I cried out,
" Prepare yourself for a sight of the Nyanza." The men murmured and
doubted, and said, " Why does the master continually talk to us in this
way? Nyanza, indeed! Is not this a plain, and can we not see moun-
tains at least four days' march ahead of us." At 1.30 p.m. the Albert
Nyanza was below them. Now it was my turn to jeer and scoff at the
doubters, but as I was about to ask them what they saw, so many came
to kiss my hands and beg my pardon, that I could not say a word.
This was my reward. The mountains, they said, were the mountains of
Unyoro, or rather its lofty plateau wall. Kavali, the objective point of
the expedition, was six miles from us as the crow flies.
We were at an altitude of five thousand two hundred feet above the
sea. The Albert Nyanza was over two thousand nine hundred below
us. We stood in 1° 20' N. lat. the south end of the Nyanza lay largely
mapped about six miles south of this position. Right across to the
eastern shore every dent in its low, flat shore was visible, and traced like
a silver snake on a dark ground was the tributary Laniliki, flowing into
the Albert from the southwest
After a short halt to enjoy the prospect, we commenced the rugged
and stony descent. Before the rear-guard had descended one hundred
feet, the natives of the plateau we had just left poured after them. Had
they shown as much courage and perseverance on the plain as they now
exhibited, we might have been seriously delayed. The rear-guard was
kept very busy until within a few hundred feet of the Nyanza plain. We
camped at the foot of the plateau wall, the aneroids readings two thou-
sand five hundred feet above sea-level. A night attack was made on us,
but our sentries sufficed to drive these natives away.
At 9 A. M. of the 14th we approached the village of Kakongo, situate
at the southwest corner of the Albert Lake. Three hours were spent by
us attempting to make friends. We signally failed. They would not
allaw us to go to the lake, because we might frighten their cattle. They
would not exchange blood-brotherhood with us, because they never
heard of any good people coming from the west side of the lake. They
would not accept any present from us, because they did not know who
we were. They would give us water to drink, and they would show us
our road up to Nyam Sassic. But from these singular people we learned
that they had heard there was a white man at Unyoro, but they had
never heard of any white men being on the west side, nor had they seen
any steamers on the lake. There were no canoes to be had, except such
as would hold the men, etc.
Building a Fort.
There was no excuse for quarrelling ; the people were civil enough,
but they did not want us^near them. We therefore were shown the path
and followed it a few miles, when we camped about half a mile from the
lake. We began to consider our position, with the light thrown
upon it by the conversation with the Kakongo natives. My couriers
from Zanzibar had evidently not arrived, or, I presume, Emin Pasha with
his two steamers would have paid the southwest side of the lake a visit
to prepare the natives for our coming. My boat was at Kilonga-Longa's,
one hundred and ninety miles distant.
There was no canoe obtainable, and to seize a canoe without the
excuse of a quarrel my conscience would not permit. There was no tree
anywhere of a size to make canoes. Wadelai was a terrible distance off
for an expedition so reduced as ours. We had used five cases of car-
tridges in five days of fighting on the'plain. A month of such fighting
must exhaust our stock. There was no plan suggested which seemed
feasible to me, except that of retreating to Ibwiri, build a fort, send a
party back to Kilonga-Longa's for our boat, store up every load in the
fort not conveyable, leave a garrison in the fort to hold it, and raise corn
for us ; march back again to the Albert Lake, and send the boat to
search for Emin Pasha. This, was the plan which, after lengthy discus-
sions with my officers, I resolved upon.
On the 15th we marched to the site of Kavali, on the west side of the
lake. Kavali had years ago been destroyed. At 4 p. m. the Kakongo
natives had followed us and shot several arrows into our bivouac, and
disappeared as quickly as they came. At 6 p. m. we began a night march,
and by 10 a. m. of the i6th we had gained the crest of the plateau once
more, Kakongo natives having persisted in following us up the slope of
the plateau. We had one man killed and one wounded.
Illness of Stanley.
By January 7th we were in Ibwiri once again, and after a few days'
rest Lieutenant Stairs, with a hundred men, sent to Kilonga-Longa's to
bring the boat and goods up, also Surgeon Parke and Captain Nelson.
Out of the thirty-eight sick in charge of the officers, only eleven men
were brought to the fort, the rest had died or deserted. On the return
of Stairs with the boat and goods he was sent to Ugarrowwa's to bring
up the convalescents there. I granted him thirty-nine days' grace. Soon
after his departure I was attacked with gastritis and an abscess on the
arm, but after a month's careful nursing by Dr. Parke I recovered, and
forty-seven days having expired, I set out again for the Albert Nyanza,
April 2d, accompanied by Messrs. Jephsqn and Parke. Captain Nelson,
now recovered, was appointed commandant of Fort Bodo in our absence,
with a garrison of forty-three men and boys.
On April 26th we arrived in Mozamboni's country once again, but
this time, after solicitation, Mozamboni decided to make blood-brother-
hood with me. Though I had fifty rifles less with me on this second
visit, the example of Mozamboni was followed by all the other chiefs
as far as Nyanza, and every difficulty seemed removed. Food was sup-
plied gratis ; cattle, goats, sheep, and fowls were also given in such
abundance that our people lived royally. One day's march from the
Nyanza the natives came from Kavali, and said that a white man named
" Maleja" had given their chief a black packet to give to me, his son.
Would I follow them ? " Yes, to-morrow," I answered, " and if your
words are true I will make you rich."
STANLEY FINDS EMIN PASHA,