PAUL B. DU CHAILLU has made himself famous, not only by
his travels extending into new and hitherto unknown regions, but
also by his adventures with the animals of the Tropics. Espec-
ially are we indebted to Du Chaillu for his graphic account of the
gorilla, and for the captures he made at the risk of his own life and the
lives of those who shared his exploits. This remarkable animal has
been made known to the world mainly by the thrilling accounts of Du
The following is Du Chaillu's narrative of the capture of his first
Suddenly, as we were yet creeping along, in a silence which made a
heavy breath seem loud and distinct, the woods were at once filled with
the tremendous barking roar of the gorilla.
Then the underbrush swayed rapidly just ahead, and presently before
us stood an immense male gorilla. He had gone through the jungle on
ihis all-fours; but when he saw our party he erected himself and looked
us boldly in the face. He stood about a dozen yards from us, and was a
sight I think never to forget. Nearly six feet high, at least so ap-
pearing, with immense body, huge chest, and great muscular arms, with
iiercely- glaring large deep gray eyes, and a hellish expression of face,
which seemed to me like some nightmare vision: thus stood before us
sjthis king of the African forests.
He was not afraid of us. He stood there, and beat his breast with his
huge fists till it resounded like an immense bass-drum, which is their
mode of offering defiance : meantime giving vent to roar after roar.
The roar of the gorilla is the most singular and awful noise heard in
these African woods. It begins with a sharp bark, like an angry dog,
then glides into a deep bass roll, which literally and closely resembles the
roll of distant thunder along the sky, for which I have sometimes been
tempted to take it where I did not see the animal. So deep is it that it
seems to proceed less from the mouth and throat than from the deep
chest and vast paunch.
A Formidable Monster.
His eyes began to flash fiercer fire as we stood motionless on the defen-
sive, and the crest of short hair which stands on his forehead began to
twitch rapidly up and down, while his powerful fangs were shown as he
again sent forth a thunderous roar. And now truly he reminded me of
nothing but some hellish dream creature a being of that hideous order,
half man, half beast, which we find pictured by old artists in some repre-
sentations of the infernal regions. He advanced a few steps then
stopped to utter that hideous roar again advanced again, and finally
stopped when at a distance of about six yards from us. And here, as he
began another of his roars and beating his breast in rage, we fired and
With a groan which had something terribly human in it, and yet was-
full of brutishness, it fell forward on its face. The body shook convul-
sively for a few minutes, the limbs moved about in a struggling way,
and then all was quiet, death had done its work, and I had leisure to
examine the huge body. It proved to be five feet eight inches high, and
the muscular development of the arms and breast showed what immense
strength it had possessed.
My men, though rejoicing at our luck, immediately began to quarrel,
about the apportionment of the meat for they really eat this creature.
I saw that we should come to blows presently if I did not interfere, and
therefore said I should myself give each man his share, which satisfied
all. As we were too tired to return to our camp of last night, we deter-
mined to camp here on the spot, and accordingly soon had some shel-
ters erected and dinner going on. Luckily, one of the fellows shot a
deer just as we began to camp, and on its meat I feasted while my men
I noticed that they very carefully saved the brain, and was told that
charms were made of this charms of two kinds. Prepared in one way,.
the charm gave the wearer a strong hand for the hunt, and in another it
gave him success with women. This evening we had again gorilla sto-
ries but all to the same point already mentioned, that there are gorillas
inhabited by human spirits.
The young athletic Negroes, in their ivory hunts, well know the hab-
its of the gorilla. He does not, like the lion, sullenly retreat on seeing
them, but swings himself rapidly down to the lower branches, courting
the conflict, and clutches at the foremost of his enemies. The hideous
aspect of his visage, his green eyes with their glaring fire, his open
mouth and fierce-looking teeth,the savage hand-like claws which form
the end of his lower extremities, all render him an object of terror. When
he is pursued, as he is sometimes by daring natives who are his natural
enemies, he will defend himself with the utmost courage, and has been
known to attack his foes with indescribable fury.
Continuing his account of the adventures of the chase, Du Chaillu
narrates what happened to one of his men. It is a wonder the poor
native did not lose his life.
Hunter Tossed by a Bull.
I started out early to try and get a shot at some buffalo which were
said to be in the prairie back of the town. Ifouta, a hunter, accompanied
me, and met with an accident through losing his presence of mind. We
had been out about an hour, when we came upon a bull feeding in the
midst of a little prairie surrounded by a wood which made our approach
easy. Ifouta walked around opposite to where I lay in wait, that if the
animal took alarm at him it might fly toward me ; and then began to
crawl, in the hunter fashion, through the grass toward his prey. All
went well till he came near enough for a shot. Just then, unluckily, the
bull saw him. Ifouta immediately fired. The gun made a long fire, and
he only wounded the beast, which, quite infuriated, as it often is at the
attack of hunters, immediately rushed upon him.
It was now that poor Ifouta lost his presence of mind. In such cases,
which are continually happening to those who hunt, the cue of the hun-
ter is to remain perfectly quiet till the beast is within a jump of him, then
to step nimbly to one side and let it rush past. But Ifouta got up
Of course, in a moment the bull had him on his horns. It tossed
him high into the air once, twice, thrice, ere I could run up, and,
by my shouts, draw it fury to myself Then it came rushing at me.
But my guns do not hesitate, and, as I had a fair shot, I killed it
Ifouta proved to be considerably bruised, but, on the whole, more
scared than hurt ; and when I had washed him off in a creek near by, he
was able to walk home.
When Du Chaillu was among the tribe called Camma, he had a curi-
ous experience with a doctor who was celebrated for detecting evil spir-
its and healing the sick. He says :
Ishungui, the man who had faithfully taken care of my house, lay at
death's door. He had gone out on a fishing excursion, caught cold, and
had now a lung fever. I knew when I saw him that he must die, and
tried to prepare his mind for the change. But his friends by no means
gave him up. They sent for a distinguished doctor, and under his aus-
pices began the infernal din with which they seek to cure a dying
Infernal Looking Doctor.
The Camma theory of disease is that Okamboo (the devil) has got
into the sick man. Now this devil is only to be driven out with noise,
and accordingly they surround the sick man and beat drums and kettles
close to his head; fire off guns close to his ears; sing, shout, and dance
all they can. This lasts till the poor fellow either dies or is better
unless the operators become tired out first, for the Camma doctors either
kill or cure.
Ishungui died. He left no property, and his brother buried him with-
out a coffin in a grave in the sand, so shallow that, when I chanced upon
it some days after, I saw that the wild beasts had been there and eaten
the corpse. The mourning lasted but six days ; and, as there were no
wives or property, so there was no feast. The relatives of the deceased
slept one night in his house, as a mark of respect ; and then all that
remained was to discover the person who had bewitched the dead man.
For that a young man, generally healthy, should die so suddenly in
course of nature was by no means to be believed.
A canoe had been dispatched up to the lake to bring down a great
doctor. They brought one of the chief's sons, a great rascal, who had
been foremost in selling me an idol, and who was an evident cheat.
When all was ready for the trial, I went down to look at the doctor, who
looked literally " like the devil." I never saw a more ghastly object.
He had on a high head-dress of black feathers. His eyelids were painted
red, and a red stripe, from the nose upward, divided his forehead in two
parts. Another red stripe passed round his head. The face was painted
white, and on each side of the mouth were two round red spots. About
his neck hung a necklace of grass and also a cord, which held a box
against his breast. This little box is sacred, and contains spirits. A.
number of strips of leopard and other skins crossed his breast and were-
exposed about his person ; and all these were charmed, and had charms
attached to them. From each shoulder down to his hands was a white
stripe, and one hand was painted quite white. To complete this horrible
array, he wore a string of little bells around his body.
A Huge Fraud.
He sat on a box or stool, before which stood another box containing
charms. On this stood a looking-glass, beside which lay a buffalo-horn
containing some black powder., and said, in addition, to be the refuge of
many spirits. He had a little basket of snake-bones, which he shook
frequently during his incantations ; as also several skins, to which little
bells were attached. Near by stood a fellow beating a board with two
sticks. All the people of the village gathered about this couple, who,,
after continuing their incantations for quite a while, at last came to the
climax. A native was told to call over the names of persons in the vil-
lage, in order that the doctor might ascertain if any one of those named
did the sorcery. As each name was called the old cheat looked in the
glass to see the result.
During the whole operation I stood near him, which seemed to trouble
him greatly. At last, after all the names were called, the doctor declared,
that he could not find any "witch-man," but that an evil spirit dwelt in
the village, and many people would die if they continued there. I have
a suspicion that this final judgment with which the incantations broke up
was a piece of revenge upon me. I had no idea till next day how seri-
ously the words of one of these Ouganga doctors is taken.
The next morning all was excitement. The people were scared : they
said their chief was not willing to have them live longer here ; that he
would kill them, etc. Then began, the removal of all kinds of property
and the tearing down of houses; and by nightfall I was actually left alone
in my house with my boys, both of whom were anxious to be off.
Adventures of Andersson.
Another explorer who has gained a world-wide fame and deserves to>
be ranked with such heroes as Stanley, Emin Pasha, Speke and Grant,,
and others, is Andersson, who gives us a graphic account of his travels.
Several of his remarkable experiences we here reproduce, and the reader
will doubtless confirm the opinion that these are of special interest. One
extraordinary part of his travels in the Tropics relates to the privations
and sufferings which he and his party underwent from lack of water.
The reader must remember that travellers in the Tropics very often suffer
from extreme thirst. Andersson's experience in this respect is one of
the most remarkable on record. The following is his vivid account of it:
On the second evening, or on the third after leaving Okaoa, I saw the
guides suddenly halt and look about them, as if undecided how to pro-
ceed. They had a short time previously declared that we should reach
water that night. My suspicions were therefore at once aroused, or
rather my heart misgave me. "Surely," I muttered to myself, " the fel-
lows are trying to deceive us, or they have lost their way ! " The one
conjecture was as bad as the other. For a few seconds I remained
silent; but, seeing them still wavering, I advanced, and in a voice tremb-
ling with rage and distress, thundered out, " Where is the water, men ? "
adding, with my fowling-piece presented at the head of the acting guide,
"If you doh't bring us to water before noon to-morrow, you die. Proceed."
It soon became obvious, however, that they had lost themselves, and
that, under such circumstances, threats would only tend still more to
confuse them. I consequendy, as they were wandering to and fro like
men groping in the dark, and the night was fast closing upon us,
sounded a halt to bivouac. That night was perhaps the most painful
one in my life. I felt most keenly that not only the issue of the under-
taking, but the lives of my party, were at stake. The agony I suffered
is indescribable; yet, lest I should frighten my attendants, I did not
betray the deep emotions that agitated me. They had, nevertheless,
already taken the alarm ; dismay nay, despair was depicted on every
countenance, but, be it said to their credit, not a murmur escaped them.
Supposing the place we were in search of should not be found, the
nearest water, Okaoa, was three long days' journey off. Could this
place be reached in safety in our present weak state ? I dared scarcely
answer the questio\i. The possible answer seemed too awful to dwell
Lost in the Wilderness.
Sleep was that night, of course, out of the question, and before break
of day I was in the saddle in search of water, having first dispatched
three different parties on fhe same errand in as many directions. I
returned to the camp after eight hours sharp riding and walking, my
horse completely done up unsuccessful ! My approach was watched
by the men at the wagon with feverish anxiety ; there was no need of
words ; my face told but too plainly my complete failure. One of my
men who had also been absent on a similar mission, soon joined us,
equally successless. Two parties were still absent, and on their efforts
rested now all our hopes ; but hour after hour elapsed without any news.
The sun set, yet no men. The shadows of evening crept upon us, yet no
men. The moon rose, yet no men.
Our anxiety was at its height. Had the men found the water, or had
they lost themselves in this fearful and death-boding wilderness ? Should
I wait for the return of daylight before finally deciding on what course
to pursue, or should I face back at once? These and many others were
the distracting thoughts that crowded in raoid succession on my giddy
brain. The delay of a night would occasion the loss of another day, and
then, just suppose the absent parties unsuccessful in finding water, what
would be the result ? Apparently inevitable destruction.
The oxen had now been four days without water, and their distress
v/as already very great. Their hollow flanks, drooping heads, and low,
melancholy moans, uttered at intervals, told but too plainly their misery,
and went to my heart like daggers. My poor horse was no longer an
animated creature, but a spectre of himself a gaunt, staggering skeleton.
The change that had come upon him during the last twenty-four hours
was incredible. From time to time he would put his head into the
wagon, into anyone's hands, and, looking wistfully and languidly into
his face, would reproachfully (his looks conveyed as much) seem to say,
Cruel man, don't you see I am dying ; why don't you relieve my burn-
ing thirst?" The dogs, again, ceased to recognize my caresses. Their
eyes were so deeply sunken in their sockets as to be scarcely per-
ceptible. They glided about in spectral silence; death was in their
faces. The wagon was heavily laden, the soil exceedingly heavy, the
sun in the daytime like an immense burning-glass, and the oppressive-
ness of the atmosphere was greatly increased by the tremendous fires,
which, ravaging the country far and wide, made it like a huge fiery
Under such circumstances the oxen could never hold out for seven
days the time which must, I calculated, elapse before I could reach
Okaoa without water! Well, then, with all these ominous facts and
forebodings before me, would it be advisable to await the return of the
absent men ? A few moments of anxious self-communion determined
me not to do so, but to retrace my steps without farther delay. This res-
olution was, of course, the death-blow to the expedition. Before starting
on our backward course I fired a number of shots, which received no
answer, to attract the notice of the absentees.
I had yet a small supply of water in the wagon, having taken the pre-
caution at starting to take the entire stock under my immediate charge.
I now served out a few mouthfuls to each individual, left a small quan-
tity, together with a few biscuits, on a bush for the absent men, should
they find their way back, and then began the return journey at a brisk
pace, but with a heavy heart.
Health and strength, time and the season, had been thus wasted and
lost, heavy pecuniary sacrifices made, the life of men and valuable beasts
jeopradized, bright prospects blighted, and all all to so little purpose!
My feelings on this memorable occasion may be more easily imagined
We had proceeded but a comparatively short distance, and were just
escaping out of a thorn-thicket when we were suddenly startled by a
grand, but to us appalling sight.
The whole country before us was one huge lake of flames. Turning
to one of the natives, I exclaimed, " Good God, our return is cut
off! " I had seen many wood and grass fires, but nothing to equal
this. Immediately in front of us lay stretched out like a sea a vast pas-
ture prairie, dotted with occasional trees, bounded in the distance by
groves of huge giraffe thorns, all in a blaze ! Through the very midst of
this lay our path. By delaying a few hours the danger would have been con-
siderably diminished, if not altogether over ; but delay in our case seemed al-
most more dangerous than going forward, and so on we pushed, trusting to
some favorable accident to bring us, through the perils we had to face.
As we advanced we heard distinctly the sputtering and hissing of the in-
flamed grasses and brushwood, the cracking of the trees as they reluctantly
yielded their massive forms to the unrelenting and all-devouring element, the
screams of startled birds and other commingling sounds of terror and devastation.
There was a great angle in our road, running parallel, as it were, to the raging fire,
but afterward turning abruptly into a burning savanna.
By the time we had reached this point, the conflagration,
still in its glory on our right, was fast receding on our left, thus
opening a passage, into which we darted without hesitation, although the
ground was still smouldering and reeking, and in some places quite alive
with flickering sparks from the recent besom of hot flames that had swept
Tired as our cattle were, this heated state of the ground made the poor
brutes step out pretty smartly. At times we ran great risk of being
crushed by the falling timbers. Once a huge trunk, in flames from top
to bottom, fell athwart our path, sending up millions of sparks, and scat-
tering innumerable splinters of lighted wood all around us, while the
numerous nests of the social grossbeaks in the ignited trees looked like
so many lamps suspended in designs at once natural, pleasing, and splen-
did. It was altogether a glorious illumination, worthy of Nature's pal-
ace with its innumerable windows and stately vaulted canopy. But the
danger associated with the grand spectacle was too great and too immi-
nent for us thoroughly to appreciate its magnificence. Indeed, we were
really thankful when once our backs were turned on the awful scene.
At break of day we halted for a few minutes to breathe and to change
oxen, then continued to journey on. I dispatched all the loose cattle ahead,
giving the men orders to return with a fresh team as soon as they had
drunk, fed, and rested a little. We arrived at the ravine a little before
midnight, but on attemping to kraal the oxen, notwithstanding their fa-
tigue, the thirsty brutes leaped over the stout and tall thorn fences as if
they had been so many rushes, and with a wild roar set off at full speed
for Okaoa fountain, which they reached the following day, having
then been more than one hundred and fifty hours without a single drop of
Before reaching the water the men in charge of the loose cattle had be-
come so exhausted with long and incessant marching, suffering all the
time from burning thirst, that one by one they had sunk down. The cat-
tle, unherded, found their way to the fountain without much difficulty;
but the wretched horse missed his, and kept wandering about until he
dropped from sheer exhaustion. Some natives fortunately found the
brute, and reporting the discovery to their chief, he good-naturedly
brought the dying beast some drink and fodder, by which means
he gradually recovered. The animal, when found, had been seven
days without water. I had no idea that a horse was capable of
enduring fatigue and thirst to the extent experienced by this hack of mine.
The poor dogs were by this time in a fearful state. What was once a
'dear perspicuous eye now appeared like a mere lustrous speck under a
shaggy brow. Blood flowed at times from their nostrils ; and it was
with difficulty they dragged along their worn and emaciated carcasses.
Sometimes they tried to give vent to their great sufferings in dismal
howls, half stifled in the utterance.
Some of the men were nearly as much affected. One was more than once speechless
from thirst, and it was quite pitiful to see him, like a man despairing of life, chew old coffee-
tobacco and withered tea-leaves. For my own part, I am thankful to say I suffered on this try-
ing occasion, in a bodily sense at least, less perhaps than the rest of my party.
The day after our arrival at the water-course the lost men suddenly and unexpectedly made
o their appearance, and, to my great surprise, I f learned that they had accidentally stumbled
upon the very water we had so long searched for in vain. In retracing their steps to the
wagon to report the good news they had unfortunately lost their way, and, after a fruitless
search, were obliged to bivouac on the waste. Like myself, they had repeatedly discharged
guns, but as this was done long after dark, it is probable the wagon had by that time taken its
departure, so that their signals were unheard and unanswered.
On the eighth day, late in the evening, I reached Okaoa in safety, without the loss of a
single man or beast, all, however, being in a dreadful state of prostration,
not only from fatigue and hardship, but from torn and lacerated feet.
This, coupled with the impossibility of procuring trustworthy guides,
with the evident dearth of water, the absence of game, and many other
formidable hinderances, induced me to face homeward without any
further delay than was necessary to recruit in a measure the strength and
vigor of bipeds and quadrupeds.
By a careful computation, I found that the distance was 115 hours
actual travel, which is equivalent to 300 English miles in round numbers,
while in our last two fruitless attempts to push northward we had trav-
elled one hundred and twenty hours, that is, about three hundred and
thirty English miles a distance more than sufficient to have brought us
to the Cunene nay, there and back again had we been able to hold
our course directly for that river.
If I had been travelling in the North of Africa, for instance, crossing
the Nubian Desert, I could have availed myself of an animal that under-
goes privation arising from want of water better than horses or oxen.
The camel is celebrated for its endurance. It seems to be constructed
for the purpose of carrying sufficient water to last it for a number of
days. It can drink and then go a long time without any apparent incon-
venience. The Arabs, who cross tropical deserts, also have a way of
carrying water in skin bags, which, although not very palatable after a
number of days' journey, is, nevertheless, better than none at all. The
accompanying engraving shows a traveller in the desert leading his
camel, and among the various articles with which the beast is loaded, we
may be sure there is a supply of water.
Andersson mentions another remarkable animal, sometimes sought by
the hunter : Wild boars were rather numerous along the Omuramba, and
frequently afforded us excellent coursing. The speed of these animals is
surprisingly great. On open ground, when fairly afoot, I found the dogs
no match for them, and yet some of my curs were rather swift of foot.
The dogs, nevertheless, dodged them at times successfully; at others
they came willingly to bay. They fight desperately. I have seen wild
boars individually keep off most effectually half a dozen fierce assailants.
I have also seen them, when hotly pursued, attack and severely wound
their pursuers. We killed occasionally two, and even three of them, in
the course of a day. When young and fat they proved capital eating,,
and from their novelty were quite a treat.
Other game was almost daily secured, and my party gorged to their
hearts' content on animal food. Indeed, we had plenty to spare. The
animals we usually killed were a kind that can abstain long from drink-
ing, for water is exceedingly scarce in this country so much so that it
was only with very great difficulty we could obtain a sufficiency for our
One night I encounted a troop of lions under circumstances which
exhibited these royal beasts in a somewhat new light.
In the early part of the night I had observed several animals gliding
noiselessly to the water, but considerably out of range. Not being able
to make out what they were, I slipped quietly out, and approached
the spot where they were drinking. I got, from the nature of
the ground, pretty close to them unperceived, yet was still unable to
name them. From the sound q£ lapping at the water, I concluded that
I had hyenas before me, and as one of three animals was leaving the
water-way I fired. The bullet took effect, and, uttering a growl, the beast
disappeared. Whereupon, " Surely not lions ! " I muttered to myself.
The remaining two had in the mean time also ceased drinking, and were
moving lazily away, when a low shrill whistle from me at once arrested,
I leveled and pulled the trigger; in vain this time, the ball went too
high in short, right over the object aimed at. The animal did not,,
however, budge an inch, and I now clearly saw a lion. Rising to my
feet, I shouted, in order to drive him off; but he remained stationary. I
did not at all like his appearance, and hastened at once back to my
ambush to reload. When again quite ready and on the look-out for
him, he was gone ; but almost imm.ediately afterward two others resem-
bling the first approached the water. Having drunk their fill, they were
about to retrace their steps, when suddenly- my person being purposely
exposed to view they seemed to espy me, and eyeing me for a few
seconds, one the largest made straight for my ambush.
An Exciting Duel.
This seemed strange ; but, to make quite sure of his intentions, I stood
up, and when the brute was within about forty yards of me, shouted. To
my utter surprise, instead of moving off he came quickly on, till at a dis-
tance of twenty-five paces or thereabouts he suddenly squatted, evidently
intending to spring on me. " Nay, old fellow," I muttered to myself, " if
that's the ticket, I will be even with you;" and, dropping the double-
barreled gun which I held in my hands at the moment, I seized the ele-
phant rifle, leveled, took a very steady aim at his chest, and fired. The
bullet sped true, and I thought I had killed him outright ; but not so,
for after rolling over two or three times, he scrambled up and decamped.
However, I had no doubt in my own mind that the wound would prove
fatal. On receiving the shot he gave a startling growl, and in making
his escape was johied by his associate, who had, while the duel was pend-
ing, remained a passive spectator.
Death in the Jungle.
At break of day, taking up the trail of the wounded animal, I had only
proceeded about two hundred yards when the dogs gave tongue at a
small bush, where immediately afterward I saw a stately lion rise to his
feet and limp forward two or three paces. But the exertion was too
much for him; he halted, and, turning half round, looked fiercely at his
assailants. Not being myself in a favorable position, I shouted to my
men to fire.
One responded to the call, and the lion dropped to rise no more. In
an instant the dogs were clinging to his ears, throat, and head. The
brute, still alive, grappled bravely with his assailants. The next moment
half a dozen spears were quivering in his body, and a hundred more or
so would soon have been similarly sheathed had I not promptly ridden
up and stopped the natives, who were rushing in upon. the prostrate foe
like maniacs. I wished the dogs to finish him, and they did so ; but three
of the best were wounded in the scuffle, only one, however, at all seri-
ously. The aim which had killed this lion had been most perfect. The
bullet had entered exactly the centre of his chest, and, traversing the
entire length of his body, had taken its egress through the right hind
quarter. It was really, therefore, to me a matter of great surprise that
the beast had survived the wound so long.
This was decidedly the most exciting huntmg scene I have ever wit-
nessed. Besides my own people, more than one hundred natives were
ill the field, vociferating frightfully, and waving and darting their ox-tail
plumaged spears with a ferocity and earnestness that Avould have made
a stranger think they were preparing for some dreadful battle.
Another name on the illustrious roll of tropical heroes is that of
Cameron. Cameron shares the distinction with Stanley of having
crossed the Dark Continent from sea to sea. His expedition was a
^remarkable illustration of perseverance and heroic endurance. His route
lay through Central Africa, and the reader has probably been made
aware of the fact that this is the most interesting portion of the Dark
Continent, for the reason that it is the portion which has been explored
:the least, and also from the fact that it contains the sources of the Nile.
The problem of many centuries has been "Where does the Nile rise?""
This question has been asked by scientific societies, by individual ex-
plorers and by the world in general. It was very natural that Speke
and Grant, Stanley and Livingstone, and then Cameron should make
this region the field of observation and exploit. Raker started from
Cairo and came south through the White Nile Valley. His name is
associated with the Soudan and the regions adjacent. It was left for
Cameron to place his name beside that of Stanley by making an expedi-
tion from one ocean to the other. This he did, and accompanying this
sketch of his achievements is an accurate map showing the region he
Cameron has rendered important service to physical science and
geography. His discoveries have been of a very important character,
and these have only confirmed the discoveries which were made before
his expedition and since. In fact it is noticeable that the great African
explorers who liave traversed realms widely apart and then have been
brought together at some point of conjunction, have agreed almost per-
fectly concerning the physical characteristics of the continent. While
jealousy has, of course, been excited on the part of their friends, and
many absurd claims have been made, the men themselves have been
comparatively free from this petty spirit.
Stanley was doubted, was called in question, and there were those who
at first disbelieved that he had ever seen Livingstone, but when they came
to obtain the evidence of his wonderful triumph, which could not be
denied, they gracefully yielded and gave to him the unqualified praise he
deserved. From this time on Stanley's fame was assured ; no one
doubted that he was the foremost hero of the age in tropical discovery^
THE CELEBRATED EMIN PASHA.