LIVINGSTONE now began to make arrangements for perform-
ing another hazardous journey to the East Coast. In the mean
time he was fully occupied in attending to the sick, and his other
missionary duties. He was advised, to wait till the rains had fallen and
cooled the ground ; and as it was near the end of September, and clouds
were collecting, it was expected that they would soon commence. The
heat was very great : the thermometer, even in the shade of his wagon^
was at 100°, and, if unprotected, rose to 110° ; during the night it sank
Among other routes which were proposed, he selected that by the north
bank of the Zambesi. He would, however, thus have to pass through
territories in the possession of the Matabele, who, under their powerful
chief, had driven away the Makololo, its original possessors. Notwith-
standing this he had no fears for himself, as that chief looked upon Mr>
Moffatt, his father-in-law, as his especial friend. A considerable district^
also, of the country was still inhabited by the Makololo, and by them he
was sure to be kindly treated. The Makololo, it must be understood, are
a mixed race, composed of tribes of Bechuanas who formerly inhabited
the country bordering the Kalahara Desert. Their language, the Bechu-
ana, is spoken by the upper classes of the Makololo, and into this tongue,
by the persevering labors of Mr. Moffatt, nearly the whole of the Scrip-
tures have been translated. The bulk of the people are negroes, and are
an especially fine, athletic, and skilful race.
As soon as Livingstone announced his intention of proceeding to the
east, numerous volunteers came forward to accompany him. From
among them he selected a hundred and fourteen trustworthy men, and
Sekeletu appointed two, Sekwebu and Kanyata, as leaders of the company.
Sekwebu had been captured, when a child, from the Matabele, and his
tribe now inhabited the country near Tete ; he had frequently travelled
along the banks of the Zambesi, and spoke the various dialects of the
people residing on them, and was, moreover, a man of sound judgment
and prudence, and rendered great service to the expedition.
A Fearful Storm.
On the 3rd of November Livingstone, bidding farewell to his frienas at
Linyanti, set out, accompanied by Sekeletu and two hundred followers.
On reaching a patch of country infested by troublesome flies it became
necessary to travel at night. A fearful storm broke forth, sometimes
the lightning, spreading over the sky, forming eight or ten branches like
those of a gigantic tree. At times the light was so great that the whole
country could be distinctly seen, and in the intervals between the flashes
it was as densely dark. The horses trembled, turning round to search for
each other, while the thunder crashed with tremendous roars, louder than
is heard in other regions, the rain pelting down, making the party feel
miserably cold after the heat of the day. At length a fire, left by some
previous travellers, appeared in the distance. The doctor's baggage
having gone on before, he had to lie down on the cold ground, when
Sekeletu kindly covered him with his own blanket, remaining without
shelter himself. Before parting at Sesheke, the generous chief supplied
the doctor with twelve oxen, three accustomed to be ridden on, hoes and
beads to purchase a canoe; an abundance of fresh butter and honey ; and,
indeed, he did everything in his power to assist him in his journey.
Bidding farewell to Sekeletu, the doctor and his attendants sailed down
the river to its confluence with the Chobe. Having reached this spot, he
prepared to strike across the country to the north-east, in order to reach
the northern bank of the Zambesi. Before doing so, however, he deter-
mined to visit the Victoria Falls, of which he had often heard. The
meaning of the African name is: " Smoke does sound there," in reference
to the vapor and noise produced by the falls.
After twenty minutes sail from Kalai they came in sight of five columns
of vapor, appropriately called " smoke," rising at a distance of five or six
miles off, and bending as they ascended before the wind, the tops appear-
ing to mingle with the clouds. The scene was extremely beautiful. The
banks and the islands which appeared here and there amid the stream,
were richly adorned with trees and shrubs of various colors, many being
in full blossom. High above all rose. an enormous baobab-tree surrounded
by groups of graceful palms.
As the water was now low, they proceeded in the canoe to an island in
the centre of the river, the further end of which extended to the edge of
the falls. At the spot where they landed it was impossible to discover
where the vast body of water disappeared. It seemed, suddenly to sink
into the earth, for the opposite lip of the fissure into which it descends
was only eighty feet distant. On peering over the precipice the doctor
saw the stream, a thousand yards broad, leaping down a hundred feet and
then becoming suddenly compressed into a space of fifteen or twenty
yards, when, instead of flowing as before, it turned directly to. the right
and went boiling and rushing amid the hills.
The vapor which rushes up from this cauldron to the height of two or
three hundred feet, being condensed, changes its hue to that of dark
smoke, and then comes down in a constant shower. The chief portion
falls on the opposite side of the fissure, where grow a number of ever-
green trees, their leaves always wet. The walls of this gigantic crack are
perpendicular. Altogether, Livingstone considered these falls the most
wonderful sight he had beheld in Africa.
Returning to Kalai the doctor and his party met Sekeletu, and, bidding
him a final farewell, set off northwards to Lekone, through a beautiful
country,, on the 20th of November. The further they advanced the more
the country swarmed with inhabitants, and great numbers came to see the
white man, invariably bringing presents of maize.
An African Salutation.
The natives in this region have a curious way of saluting a stranger.
Instead of bowing they throw themselves on their backs on the ground,
rolling from side to side and slapping the outsides of their thighs, while
they utter the words '' Kina bomba! kma bomba/" In vain the doctor
implored them to stop. They, imagining him pleased, only tumbled
about more fiercely and slapped their thighs with greater vehemence.
These villagers supplied the party abunxiantly with ground nuts, maize,
and corn. Their chief, Monze, came one Sunday morning, wrapped in a
large cloth, when, like his followers, he rolled himself about in the dust,
screaming out " Kina bomba!" He had never before seen a white man,
but had met with black native traders, who came, he said, for ivory, but
not for slaves. His wife would have been good looking, had she not
followed the custom of her country by knocking out her teeth. Monze
soon made himself at home, and presented the travellers with as much
food as they required.
As they advanced, the country oecame still more beautiful, abounding
with large game. Often buffaloes were seen standing on eminences. One
day, a buffalo was found lying down, and the doctor went to secure it for
food. Though the animal received three balls they did not prove fatal,
and it turned round as if to charge. The doctor and his companions
ran for shelter to some rocks, but before they gained them, they found
that three elephants had cut off their retreat. The enormous brutes, how-
ever, turned off, and allowed them to gain the rocks. As the buffalo was
moving rapidly away the doctor tried a long shot, and, to the satisfaction
of his followers, broke the animal's fore leg. The young men soon
brought it to a stand, and another shot in its brain settled it. They had
thus an abundance of food, which was shared by the villagers of the
neighborhood. Soon afterwards an elephant was killed by his men.
Leaving the Elephant Valley, they reached the residence of a chief
named Semalembue, who, soon after their arrival, paid them a visit, and
presented five or six baskets of meal and maize, and one of ground nuts,
saying that he feared his guest would sleep the first night at his vil-
lage hungry. The chief professed great joy at hearing the words of the
Gospel of Peace, replying : " Now I shall cultivate largely, in the hopes
of eating and sleeping in quiet." It is remarkable that all to whom the
doctor spoke, eagerly caught up the idea of living in peace as the proba-
ble effect of the Gospel. This region Sekwebu considered one of the
best adapted for the residence of a large tribe. It was here that Sebit-
uane formerly dwelt.
They now crossed the Kafue by a ford. Every available spot between
the river and hills was under cultivation. The inhabitants selected these
positions to secure themselves and their gardens from their human enemies.
They are also obliged to make pit-holes to protect their grounds from the
hippopotami. These animals, not having been disturbed, were unusually
tame, and took no notice of the travellers. A number of young ones
were seen, not much larger than terrier dogs, sitting on the necks of their
dams, the little saucy-looking heads cocked up between the old one's
ears ; when older they sit more on the mother's back. Meat being
required, a full-grown cow was shot, the flesh of which resembles pork.
Great Numbers of Wild Animals.
The party now directed their course to the Zambesi near its confluence
with the Kafue. They enjoyed a magnificent view from the top of the
outer range of hills. A short distance below them was the Kafue, winding
its way over a forest-clad plain, while on the other side of the Zambesi
lay a long range of dark hills. The plain below abounded in large game.
Hundreds of buffalo and zebras grazed on the open spaces, and there
stood feeding two majestic elephants, each slowly moving its proboscis.
On passing amidst them the animals showed their tameness by standing
beneath the trees, fanning themselves with their large ears. A number
also of red-colored pigs were seen. The people having no guns, they are
A night was spent in a huge baobab-tree, which would hold twenty
men inside. As they moved on, a herd of buffaloes came strutting up to
look at their oxen, and only by shooting one could they be made to retreat.
Shortly afterwards a female elephant, with three young ones, charged
through the centre of their extended line, when the men, throwing down
their burdens, retreated in a great hurry, she receiving a spear for her
They were made aware of their approach to the great river by the vast
number of waterfalls which appeared. It was found to be much broader
than above the falls : a person might attempt in vain to make his voice
heard across it. An immense amount of animal life was seen both around
and in it. Pursuing their down the left bank, they came opposite the
island of Menyemakaba, which is about two miles long and a quarter
broad. Besides its human population it supports a herd of sixty buffalo.
The comparatively small space to which the animals have confined them-
selves shows the luxuriance of the vegetation The only time that the
natives can attack them is when the river is full and part is flooded : they
then assail them from their canoes.
Both buffalo and elephants are numerous. To kill them the natives
form stages on high trees overhanging the paths by which they come
to the water. From thence they dart down their spears, the blades of
which are twenty inches long by two broad, when the motion of the
handle, aided by knocking against the trees, makes fearful gashes which
soon cause death. They form also a species of trap. A spear inserted
in a beam of wood is suspended from the branch of a tree, to which a
cord is attached with a latch. The cord being led along the path when
struck by the animal's foot, the beam falls, and, the spear being poisoned,
death shortly ensues.
At each village they passed, two men were supplied to conduct them
to the next, and lead them through the parts least covered with jungle.
Female Mouths Resembling- Those of Ducks.
The villagers were busily employed in their gardens. Most of the
men have muscular figures. Their color varies from a dark to a light
olive. The women have the extraordinary custom of piercing the upper
lip, and gradually enlarging the orifice till a shell can be inserted. The
hp appears drawn out bey.ond the nose, and gives them a very ugly ap-
pearance. As Sekwebu remarked : " These women want to make their
mouths like those of ducks." The commonest of these rings are made
of bamboo, but others are of ivory or metal. When the wearer tries to
smile, the contraction of the muscles turns the ring upwards, so that its
upper edge comes in front of the eyes, the nose appearing through the
middle, while the whole front teeth are exposed by the motion, exhibiting
the way in which they have been clipped to resemble the fangs of a cat
or a crocodile.
On their next halt Seole, the chief of the village, instead of receiving
them in a friendly way, summoned his followers and prepared for an attack!
The reason was soon discovered. It appeared that an Italian, who had
married the chief's daughter, having armed a party of fifty slaves with
guns, had ascended the river in a canoe from Tete, and attacked several
inhabited islands beyond Makaba, taking large numbers of prisoners and
much ivory. As he descended again with his booty, his party was dis-
persed and he himself was killed while attempting to escape on foot.
Seole imagined that the doctor was another Italian.
Had not the chief with whom they had previously stayed arrived to
explain matters, Seole might have given them much trouble.
Mburuma, another chief of the same tribe, had laid a plan to plunder
the party by separating them, but the doctor, suspecting treachery, kept
his people together. They had on a previous occasion plundered a party
of traders bringing English goods from Mozambique.
Ruins of An Old Town.
On the 14th of January they reached the confluence of the Loangwa
and the Zambesi. Here the doctor discovered the ruins of a town, with
remains of a church in its midst. The situation was well chosen, with
lofty hills in the rear and a view of the two rivers in front. On one side
of the church lay a broken bell, with the letters I. H. S. and a cross..
This he found was a Portuguese settlement called Zumbo.
The conduct of Mburuma and his people gave Livingstone much
anxiety, as he could not help dreading that they might attack him the
next morning. His chief regret was that his efforts for the welfare of the
teeming population in that great region would thus be frustrated by sav-
ages, of whom it might be said: ''They know not what they do." He
felt especially anxious that the elevated and healthy district which he had
now discovered, stretching towards Tete, should become known. It was
such a region as he had been long in quest of as a centre from which,
missionary enterprise might be carried into the surrounding country.
While the party were proceeding along the banks of the river, passing-
through a dense bush, fhree buffaloes broke through their line. The
doctor's ox galloped off, and, as he turned back, he saw one of his
men tossed several feet in the air. On returning, to his satisfaction he
found that the poor fellow had alighted on his face, and, although he had
been carried twenty yards on the animal's horns, he had in no way
suffered. On the creature's approaching him he had thrown down his
load and stabbed it in the side, when it caught him and carried him off
before he could escape.
Soon after this they had evidence that they were approaching the Por-
tuguese settlements, by meeting a person with a jacket and hat on. From
this person, who was quite black, they learned that the Portuguese set-
tlement of Tete was on the other bank of the river, and that the inhabi-
tants had been engaged in war with the natives for some time past.
This was disagreeable news, as Livingstone wished to be at peace with,
As they approached the village of Mpende, that chief sent out his peo-
ple to enquire who the travellers were. The natives, on drawing near
uttered strange cries and waved some bright red substance towards them.
Having lighted a fire, they threw some charms into it and hastened away,
uttering frightful screams, believing that they should thus frighten the
strangers and render them powerless. The Makololo, however, laughed
at their threats, but the doctor, fully believing that a skirmish would take
place, ordered an ox to be killed to feast his men, following the plan
Sebituane employed for giving his followers courage.
At last two old men made their appearance and enquired if the doctor
was a Bazunga, or Portuguese. On showing his hair and white skin,
they replied : " Ah, you must be one of the tribe that loves black men."
Finally the chief himself appeared, and expressed his regret that he had
not known sooner who they were, ultimately enabling them to cross the
river. After this they were detained for some time by the rains on the
Meeting with native traders, the doctor purchased some American
calico in order to clothe his men. It was marked " Lawrence Mills,
Lowell," with two small tusks, an interesting fact.
Game laws existed even in this region. His party having killed an
elephant, he had to send back a considerable distance to give information
to the person in charge of the district, the owner himself living near the
Zambesi. Their messenger returned with a basket of corn, a fowl, and a
few strings of beads, a thank-offering to them for having killed it. The
tusk of the side on which the elephant fell belonged to the owner, while
the upper was the prize of the sportsman. Had they begun to cut up
the animal before receiving permission they would have lost the whole.
The men feasted on their half of the carcass, and for two nights an
immense number of hyaenas collected round, uttering their loud laughter.
Wonderful Instinct of the Elephant.
All travellers in the Tropics are surprised at the remarkable intelli-
gence of this animal, and the varied service it can be made to render.
An elephant can be trained almost as a child is trained, and appears to
know quite as much.
We have seen in some of the foregoing pages one side of the elephant's
nature in his wild state, but it is only fair to remember his gentleness and
friendliness in captivity, which is really voluntary, because he might with
"a bloW of his trunk annihilate his keepers and escape to his native jungle.
In his long life he often changes his master, but his allegiance goes too ;
and he is devoted to each, and figures alike as porter, wood-cutter, errand-
boy, hunter, gladiator in fights with tigers, and artillery-man.
Says a traveller : I have seen in India, elephants let out by their owners
as choppers, working as day-laborers and returning at night to sleep at
home that is, at their master's. These intelligent animals, armed with
long axes, the use of which they have been taught, cut, at otherwise
perfectly impracticable heights, the gigantic trees which are used in the
keels of vessels, carry them to the nearest port, and deliver them to other
elephants to pile a feat which they accomplish with the greatest regular-
ity and with a strength that no number of men can equal. They work
alone, too, without any special oversight on the part of the keeper, who
often comes but once a day to note their progress; and yet there is not a
case on record where one of them has attempted to return to his free life
in the forest, or rejoin his former companions enjoying themselves in the
neighboring ravines, while he is working hard on the hills above. Indeed,
they grow to hate their untamed cousins, and fight them and usually
successfully at every opportunity, bearing them away in bondage to their
A Grateful Beast.
The English have made use of their enormous strength in all the wars
in India and, more recently, in Africa, where without them the troops
would have been helpless to move the artillery, even the lighter pieces,
which these dumb allies carried bravely into action on their backs, while
their courage under fire has been attested by special mention in the re-
ports from the English officers. One of them says :
"In our marches across Bengal we used elephants in the baggage train,
so well disposed to us that, without waiting for a command from the
keeper, if a wagon stuck, one of them would hurry up, put his mighty
shoulder to the wheel, and never rest till it was rolling on smoothly again.
Then he would return to his own proper place and duty in the line again.
One morning, in the press of wagons and animals, one of the elephants
was hurt by the heavy wheel of a cart running over his foot. I happened
to be near, and bound it up with a towel dipped in camphorated brandy,
and tightened the bandage as well as I could, and off he limped to his
stable. In the afternoon I went to see how he was getting on. He was
lying on a bed of straw; he recognized me at once, and held out his
wounded foot for me to see. I renewed the bandage each day ; and after
that the grateful animal never passed my tent without a peculiar ciy which
he used for that occasion alone, and when he met me he always gently rub-
bed my back or shoulders with his trunk, uttering little sniffs of pleasure."
Major Skinner, of the English Army, vouches for the following story,
which shows on the part of the elephant intelligence, memory, comparison,
judgment, and good-nature.
Riding along a very narrow trail near Kandy, in Ceylon, where he hap-
pened to be stationed, he heard the heavy tread of an approaching
elephant, uttering discontented grunts which frightened his rather ner-
vous horse, and made him rear and plunge. He says :
"I soon saw whence these sounds proceeded. A tame elephant had
undertaken the difficult task of transporting a long girder, resting on his
tusks, over the narrow road. Between the trees on either side there was
not room for this to pass, and he could only advance by turning his head
from side to side and avoiding each tree as he went. It was a slow
business, and no wonder he complained; but on seeing how his trumpet-
ings frightened my horse, he ceased instantly, threw down his load,
and pressed his huge body close up against the trees on one side of the
road to allow us to pass. My horse trembled all over, and refused to
move, seeing which, the elephant drew still farther back and tried to en-
courage the coward by a gentler note.
"Finally the latter plucked up enough heart to dash by on his way,
when the faithful elephant resumed the laborious errand in which we had
found him engaged.
"This elephant had, before the campaign, been used as a watchman by
his owner, whose estates bordered on a river. Marauders would drop
down the stream in their craft, and rob the gardens and orchards, and be
off again without leaving any trace of their coming than the empty trees
and ravaged beds. Tired of losing the fruits of his labor, the owner had
trained this elephant to perform sentinel duty along the bank ; and, when
danger threatened, the animal would growl like a dog, and filling his
huge trunk with water from the stream, would play upon the rascals like
a fire-engine, drowning them out of their boats like rats, until they were
glad to hoist sail and make off to the best of their ability."
How Elephants are Captured.
The art of hunting the elephant, although of most ancient origin, is
practiced to-day on a larger scale than ever before, because of the ser-
vices which the English have found he can perform for them. As long
as elephants were used simply to add splendor to the suite of a rajah, or
dignity to one of the religious processions, it sufficed to hunt single
animals, capturing them by a decoy elephant ridden by a native, who
provoked and held the attention of the game, while another ran up
behind and cleverly passed a chain around one of his legs. Bound in
this way the elephant was sure, under the influence of starvation, and the
example of his former companions, to yield eventually to his captors.
Now the country is divided into "preserves," over which a royal officer
is appointed, and immense hunting parties are made up, and whole herds
captured at once; although it is no easy thing to take alive and
unwounded an animal that has at once such strength and such intelli-
gence as the elephant. It could not be done without the aid of other
?elephants, who bring their attachment to their masters to this high point,
and having assisted in the capture, go still farther and instruct the cap-
tives in their future duties. The trait of obedience is, however, rather the
result of affection than fear, and in this regard the elephant's docility is
more like that of the dog than of the horse. It even leads them to bear
the pain of the worst surgical operations, like the burning out with a hot
iron of tumors or ulcers, or the taking of the most bitter medicines at
the hands of their " approved good masters."
Returning to our narrative, the people inhabiting the country on this
side of the Zambesi are known as the Banyai ; their favorite weapon is a
huge axe, which is carried over the shoulder. It is used chiefly for ham-
stringing the elephant, in the same way as the Hamran Arab uses his
sword. The Banyai, however, steals on the animal unawares, while the
Hamran hunter attacks it when it is rushing in chase of one of his com-
rades, who gallops on ahead on a well-trained steed.
Those curious birds, the " honey guides," were very attentive to them,
and, by their means, the Makololo obtained an abundance of honey. Of
the wax, however, in those districts no use appears to be made. Though
approaching the Portuguese settlement, abundance of game was still
found. The Makololo killed six buffalo calves from among a herd which
was met with.
They were warned by the natives that they ran a great risk of being
attacked by lions when wandering on either side of the line of march in
search of honey. One of the doctor's head men, indeed, Monahin, hav-
ing been suddenly seized with a fit of insanity during the night, left the
camp, and as he never returned, it was too probable that he was carried
off by a lion.
This shows the appalling dangers attending travel in Africa, another
instance of which is here related.
As the particulars were vouchsafed by spectators of the drama, it may
be relied upon as true. A lion had been pursued, and had taken refuge
in a patch of green reeds. This the hunting party surrounded. " We
now," sa);s the narrator, " ranged ourselves within pistol-shot of the reeds,
taking care to have a clear view all around us ; we then rent the air with
deafening shouts, and pierced the brake with numerous bullets. All in,
vain; the animal remained motionless. The fire which we had originally-
lighted was now, however, quickly approaching the spot on which all
eyes were fixed, and we hoped that it might effect what we had been un-
able to accomplish, when to our great vexation and disappointment, a
slight veering of the wind drove the flames in another direction.
Lion Routed by Flames.
"We should now have been fairly baffled if the ingenuity of a native
had not come to our aid. Collecting a number of dry reeds, with other
inflammable matter, and setting fire to the same, this intelligent native
seized the fagots at one end, and, running at the top of his speed, hurled
the whole lighted mass into the very centre of the lion's hiding-place.
The effect was almost instantaneous, for in a very few minutes afterward
we had the satisfaction of seeing the enemy dash through the flames. It
had been previously agreed on that, upon his first appearance, those who
possessed double-barreled guns should fire only one barrel, reserving the
other for the charge should he turn upon us. The mere sight, however,,
of the lion seemed to have frightened several of the party and their bar-
rels were indiscriminately fired in every direction, and some even blazed
away in the empty air.
"On receiving our fire the animal made straight for us, on which every-
one, with the exception of another and myself, took to his heels. The
former gentleman, who had never seen a lion in its wild state, became so
terrified that he was unable even to fire or to attempt to make his escape.
He remained fixed and motionless on the spot, like one entranced. I had
by this time taken a few steps backward, yet without ever averting my
eyes from our foe, who, having approached to within a few paces, prepared
himself to make the fatal spring. I had already fired when he burst out
of his cover; but one barrel still remained to me, and seeing my friend's
imminent danger, I no longer hesitated. Clapping the gun to my shoulder,
I took a steady aim at the side of his head; unfortunately just as I pulled
the trigger he made a slight movement, and the consequence was that
instead of smashing his skull the bullet merely grazed it, passing in the
same manner all along the left side of his body.
In the Jaws of the Infuriated Beast.
" Quick as thought, the enraged animal left his first intended victim,,
and turned with a ferocious growl upon me. To escape was impossible.
I thrust, therefore, no other resource being left me, the muzzle of my gun
into the extended jaws opened to devour me. In a moment the weapon
was demolished. My fate seemed inevitable, when, just at this critical
juncture, I was unexpectedly rescued. One of my nien fired, and broke
the lion's shoulder. He fell, and, taking advantage of this lucky incident,
I scampered away at full speed. But my assailant had not yet done with
me. Despite his crippled condition he soon overtook me. At that
moment I was looking over my shoulder, when, unhappily, a creeper caught
my foot and I was precipitated headlong to the ground. In another in-
stant the lion had transfixed my right foot with his murderous fangs.
Finding, however, my left foot disengaged, I gave the brute a severe kick
on the head, which compelled him for a few seconds to suspend his attack.
" He next seized my left leg, on which I repeated the former dose on
his head with my right foot; he once more, thereupon, let go his hold,
but seized my right foot for a second time. Shortly afterward he drop-
ped the foot and grasped my right thigh, gradually working his way up
to my hip, where he endeavored to plant his claws. In this he partially
succeeded, tearing, in the attempt, my trowsers and body linen, and grazing
the skin of my body. Knowing that if he got a firm hold of me here it
would surely cost me my life, I quickly seized him by his two ears, and,
with a desperate effort, managed to roll him over on his side, which gave
me a moment's respite.
Hair-breadth Escape from a Terrible Death.
"He next laid hold of my left hand, which he bit through and through,
smashing the wrist, and tearing my right hand seriously. I was now
totally helpless, and must inevitably have fallen a speedy victim to his fury
had not prompt assistance been at hand. In my prostrate position I ob-
served, and a gleam of hope sprung up, my friend advancing quickly to-
ward me. The lion saw him too, and, with one of his paws on my
wounded thigh, throwing his ears well back, he crouched, ready to spring
at his new assailant. Now, if my friend had fired, in my present position
I should have run great risk of being hit by the bullet; I hallooed out to
him, therefore, to wait until I could veer my head a little. In time I suc-
ceeded, and the next instant I heard the click of a gun, but no report.
"Another moment, and a well-directed ball, taking effect in his fore-
head, laid the lion a corpse alongside my own bruised and mutilated body.
Quick as lightning, I now sprang to my feet, and darted forward toward
my companions, whom I saw at no great distance. Once or twice I felt
excessively faint, but managed, nevertheless, to keep my head up.
"No sooner had my companion so successfully finished the lion than he
mounted a horse hard by, and galoped off in the direction of our camp.
In the meantime I was lifted upon a tame ox, which was led by a man
preceding us. At about half-way to our camp two of my men came to
meet me, bringing with them, to refresh me, some water and a bottle of
eau-de-cologne. A drinking-cup we had not, but the crown of a wide-
awake hat was a good substitute for one, and I drank the mixture of the
two Hquids greedily off A few minutes afterward we were met by some
of the servants carrying a door. Exchanging then my ox for this more
commodious conveyance, I was carefully borne into camp. Up to this
time I had retained perfect self-possession, but the moment my wounds
were washed and dressed I swooned, and for three entire weeks re-
mained in a state of complete unconsciousness. I have since per-
fectly recovered health, but, as you see, I am totally crippled in my left
" I must not omit to mention that my brave dog, although shot through
one of his fore-legs, on seeing the lion rush upon me, came forward at
the best of his speed, and in his turn sprang upon my grim assailant, and
clung desperately to him until my companion's bullet put an end to the combat."
Encounters similar to this are the fate of all travellers in some parts of
Africa, and many were Livingstone's narrow escapes upon this journey.
It was not till the 2nd of March that the neighborhood of Tete was
reached. Livingstone was then so prostrated that, though only eight
miles from it, he could proceed no further. He forwarded, however, the
letters of recommendation he received in Angola to the commandant. The
following morning a company of soldiers with an officer arrived, bringing
the materials for a civilized breakfast, and a litter in which to carry him.
He felt so greatly revived by the breakfast, that he was able to walk the
He was received in the kindest way by Major Sicard, the commandant
of Tete, who provided also lodging and provision for his men. Tete is a
mere village, built on a slope reaching to the water, close to which the
fort is situated. There are about thirty European houses; the rest of the
buildings, inhabited by the natives, are of wattle and daub.
Town Destroyed by Fire.
Formerly, besides gold-dust and ivory, large quantities of grain, coffee,
sugar, oil, and indigo were exported from Tete, but, on the establishment
of the slave trade, the merchants found a more speedy way of becoming
rich, by selling off their slaves, and the plantations and gold washings
were abandoned, the laborers having been exported to the Brazils. Many
of the white men then followed their slaves. After this a native of Goa,
Nyaude by name, built a stockade at the confluence of the Luenya and
Zambesi, took the commandant of Tete, who attacked him, prisoner, and
sent his son Bonga with a force against that town and burned it. Others
followed his example, till commerce, before rendered stagnant by the
slave trade, was totally obstructed.
On the north shore of the Zambesi several fine seams of coal exist,
which Livingstone examined. The natives only collect gold from the
neighborhood whenever they wish to purchase calico. On finding a piece
or flake of gold, however, they bury it again, believing that it is the seed
of gold, and, though knowing its value, prefer losing it rather than, as
they suppose, the whole future crop.
Livingstone found it necessary to leave most of his men here, and
Major Sicard liberally gave them a portion of land that they might culti-
vate it, supplying them in the mean time with corn. He also allowed the
young men to go out and hunt elephants with his servants, that they
might purchase goods with the ivory and dry meat, in order that they
might take them back with them on returning to their own homes. He
also supplied them with cloth. Sixty or seventy at once accepted his
offer, delighted with the thoughts of engaging in so profitable an enter-
prise. He also supplied the doctor with an outfit, refusing to take the
payment which was offered.
Hunters in the Bushes.
The forests in the neighborhood abound with elephants, and the natives
attack them in the boldest manner. Only two hunters sally forth together
one carrying spears, the other an axe of a peculiar shape, with a long
handle. As soon as an elephant is discovered, the man with the spears
creeps among the bushes ni front of it, so as to attract its attention, during
which time the axe-man cautiously approaches from behind, and, with a
sweep of his formidable weapon, severs the tendon of the animal's hock.
The huge creature, now unable to move in spite of its strength and sa-
gacity falls an easy prey to the two hunters.
Among other valuable productions of this country is found a tree allied
to the cinchona. The Portuguese believe that it has the same virtues as
quinine. As soon as the doctor had recovered his strength he prepared
to proceed down the river to Kilimane, or Quillimane, with sixteen of his
faithful Makololo as a crew. Many of the rest were out elephant hunting,
while others had established a brisk trade in fire-wood. Major Sicard
lent him a boat, and sent Lieutenant Miranda to escort him to the coast.
On their way they touched at the stockade of the rebel, Bonga, whose
son-in-law, Manoel, received them in a friendly way.
They next touched at Senna, which was found in a wretchedly ruinous
condition. Here some of the Makololo accepted employment from
Lieutenant Miranda to return to Tete with a load of goods. Eight
accompanied the doctor, at their earnest request, to Quillimane.
He reached that village on the 20th of May, when it wanted but a few
days of being four years since he started from Cape Town. He was hos-
pitably received by Colonel Nunes. A severe famine had existed among
the neighboring population, and food was very scarce. He therefore
advised his men to turn back to Tete as soon as possible, and await his
return from England. They still earnestly wished to accompany him, as
Sekeletu had advised them not to part with him till they had reached
Ma-Robert, as they called Mrs. Livingstone, and brought her back with
A Native Bound for England.
With the smaller tusks he had in his possession he purchased calico
and brass wire, which he sent back to Tete for his followers, depositing
the remaining twenty tusks with Colonel Nunes, in order that, should he'
be prevented from visiting the country, it might not be supposed that he
had made away with Sekeletu's ivory. He requested Colonel Nunes, in
case of his death, to sell the tusks and deliver the proceeds to his men,
intending to purchase the goods ordered by Sekeletu in England with
his own money, and, on his return, repay himself out of the price of the
ivory. He consented, somewhat unwillingly, to take Sekwebu with him
After waiting about six weeks at Quillimane, the brig " Frolic " ar-
rived, on board which he embarked. A fearful sea broke over the bar,
and the brig was rolling so much that there was great difficulty in reaching
her deck. Poor Sekwebu looked at his friend, asking : " Is this the way
you go?" The doctor tried to encourage him ; but, though well ac-
quainted with canoes, he had never seen anything like it.
Having been three and a half years, with the exception of a short
interval in Angola, without speaking English, and for thirteen but par-
tially using it, the doctor found the greatest difficulty in expressing him-
self on board the " Frolic."
The brig sailed on the 12th of July for the Mauritius, which was reached
on the 12th of August. Poor Sekwebu had become a favorite both with
men and officers, and was gaining some knowledge of English, though
all he saw had apparently affected his mind. The sight of a steamer,
which came out to tow the brig into the harbor, so affected him that
durine the night he became insane and threatened to throw himself into
the water. By gentle treatment he became calmer, and Livingstone tried
to get him on shore, but he refused to go. In the evening his malady
returned ; and, after attempting to spear one of the crew, he leaped over-
board and, puUing himself down by the chain cable, disappeared. The
body of poor Sekwebu was never found.
After remaining some time at the Mauritius, till he had recovered from -
the effects of the African fever, our enterprising traveller sailed by way of
the Red Sea for old England, which he reached on the 12th of December,
Dr. Livingstone, in the series of journeys which have been described, had
already accomplished more than any previous traveller in Africa, besides
having gained information of the greatest value as regards both mission-
ary and mercantile enterprise. He had as yet, however, performed only
a small portion of the great work his untiring zeal and energy prompted
him to undertake.
Livingstone's visit to England was one of great interest to himself and
to the general public. Multitudes had followed his career in the Dark
Continent, had journeyed with him in all his wanderings, had shared in
imagination his sufferings and victories, and were ready to greet him
with enthusiasm upon his return. To the Christian public the Dark
Continent presented itself as a missionary field ; to the commercial public
the same continent presented itself as a mart for business and a market
for trade. Thus the interest awakened by the great explorer's discover-
ies in the far land was almost universal. Livingstone was a renowned
character, was invited to participate in various public meetings, was
sought after by men of celebrity, was a kind of social lion throughout
the country, while high hopes were entertained of future exploits, and
free offers of support constantly poured in upon him.
The value of his discoveries can never be estimated. It will take many-
ages to fully understand what was attempted by this one man and what
was achieved. He may be considered as a benefactor of his race ; while
devoted to exploration and scientific discovery, he took a higher view of
his mission. The fact that the benighted continent of Africa has within
the last few years been brought into close relations with the civilized parts
of the world will form the brightest page in modern history.
AFLOAT ON THE RIVER ZAMBESI
Continued at ERBzine 6099_08