A WORLD of surprises, of captivating wonders, opens before us as
we approach the Continent of Africa. Before relating in detail
the great achievements of Stanley, particularly his world-re-
nowned achievement of finding Livingstone, it will be interesting
to the reader to have some account of the life and travels of the cele-
brated explorer whom Stanley sought and found. The journeys of Liv-
ingstone have a thrilling interest and are here narrated.
David Livingstone was a sturdy Scotchman. There appeared to be
somewhat of the granite in him which belongs to the highlands of his
native country. His child-life was at Blantyre, by the beautiful Clyde,
above Glasgow, in Scotland. He was born there in the year 1813. The
humble home entertained some proud traditions, treasured through eight
generations of the family. The young David listened with bounding
lieart and glowing spirit while his grandfather told the histories and
legends of the olden time. Culloden was in the story. His great-grand-
father fell there, fighting for the old line of kings ; and " Ulva Dark," the
fainily home, had been there. Old Gaelic songs trembled off the lips
of his grandmother, beguiling the social hours. There Avas the spirit of
heroism in the home.
And among the traditions there were those of singular virtue and in-
tegrity. He classed the dying precept of a hardy ancestor the proudest
distinction of his family ; that precept was, " Be honest." Honesty is a
matchless birthright; he claimed it; he was not proud of anything else.
His father was a man of " unflinching honesty," and was employed by
the proprietors of Blantyre Works, in conveying very large sums of
money from Glasgow, and by the honorable kindness of the firm his
integrity was so rewarded that his declining years were spent where he
had lived, in ease and comfort. He was a man who kept the hearts of
his children. His kindness and real love were sweeter to them than all
that wealth sometimes bestows as its peculiar gift. He brought his
children up religiously; it was in connection with the Kirk of Scot-
It is a beautiful tribute of his illustrious son : "My father deserved my
lasting gratitude and homage for presenting me from my infancy with a
continuously consistent pious example. I revere his memory." The
mother of the man appears briefly, and passes from the public view. She
was a quiet, loving, industrious, self-denying, praying mother. God
knows how to choose mothers for the chosen men. This mother was
the mother of a great and good man. She was a woman who, by her
virtue and modesty, and fortitude and courage, could bear a hero and
inspire him for his destiny. " An anxious house-wife, striving to make
both ends meet," found time and place to exert a true woman's singular
and mighty influence upon her little boy. We will not presume to esti-
mate the magnitude of that influence. We will not say how much his
home had to do with the singular thoughtfulness and distinguished pre-
cocity of the child that toiled all day long in the mill with the hundreds
who worked there, David Livingstone was only ten years old when he
was put into the factory.
People ought not to despise little factory-boys. He worked from six
in the morning until eight at night ; that makes fourteen hours a day,
and a child just ten years of age. There were very good schools at
Blantyre ; the teachers were paid one hundred and twenty-five dollars a
year. The schools were free to the children of the working people.
David had been in one of these schools. He rtiust have been well
advanced for his age. The impulse that his mind received in the com-
mon school was aided by the attractions of the great University at
A Lover of Heroic Deeds.
Boys in the neighborhood of great colleges have earlier and loftier
aspirations perhaps. Anyhow we are informed that a part of David
Livingstone's first week's wages went for " Ruddiman's Rudiments of
Latin," and that he pressed the study of that language with peculiar
ardor, in an evening school, from eight to ten o'clock, during a number
of years. There are many grown men who mourn over their ignorance
whose work does not fill fourteen hours a day. In those evening hours,
with a little tired child-body, Livingstone mastered the Latin language,
and accomplished much in general reading. When he was sixteen years
old, he was quite in advance of his age. The diligence and self-control
of the boy was the prophecy of the man. At this early age, too, the
peculiar tastes and talents which rendered his subsequent life singularly
successful and vested his work with singular interest began to appear.
He did not love novels : he loved facts. He was not charmed with the
woven fancies of effeminacy. ' He delighted in stories of adventure; he
was always glad to put his hand in the hand of the historian, and be led
away from familiar scenes to the new and the strange and the difficult.
The hero spirit was in him. This love of the new and eagerness fpr
travel were tempered and sanctified by an appreciation of the real and
the useful. He had delight in scientific books and experiments. The
home of his childhood was admirably adapted for the development of
noble character. There was a population of nearly three thousand.
The people were "good specimens of the Scottish poor," as he tells us
himself, "in honesty, morality and intelligence." There were all sorts of
people, of course; they were generally awake to all public questions;
their interest was intelligent; there were some characters of uncommon
worth; these persons felt peculiar interest in the thoughtful, studious lad.
There were near at hand many spots hallowed in Scottish history spots
with venerable associations. The Scottish people love old associations;
they treasure the dear memorials of the past. The ancient domains of
Bothwell stood with open door to these respected villagers. David
Livingstone was one of the people, and loved these scenes; he knew
their history, all their old traditions were in his heart. Even the boy
$eemed to be more than a boy; the man stood in the background, and
was outlined clearly in the character of the youth.
Departure for Africa.
At this early age David gave sign of rising above his mates, gaining
distinction in some honorable calling, and becoming an illustrious exam-
ple of self-reliance and energy. When promoted at the age of nineteen
to cotton-spinning, he took his books to the factory, and read by placing
one of them on a portioij of the spinning-jenny, so that he could catch
sentence after sentence as he passed at his work. He was well paid,
however, and having determined to prepare himself for becoming a med-
ical missionary abroad, was enabled, by working with his hands in
summer, to support himself while attending medical and Greek classes in
Glasgow in winter, as also the divinity lectures of Dr. Wardlow. He
was thus able to pass the required examinations, and was at length ad-
mitted a licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons.
Having been charged by the Directors of the London Missionary So-
ciety to carry on and extend the work of Moffat, Livingstone arrived in
Cape Town in the summer of 1840, and, after a short rest, started for the
interior by way of Algoa Bay. A journey of seven hundred miles, of which,
so far as we have been able to ascertain, no record has been published,
brought him to Lattaku, then the furthest missionary station of South
Africa. Here he remained only long enough to recruit his oxen before
he pressed on northwards to that part of the country inhabited by the
section of the Bechuana tribe known as the Bakwains, Having satisfied
himself of the existence of a promising field for missionary effort, he re-
turned to the Kuruman station, rested there for three months, and then
took up his quarters in the Bakwain countiy itself, at the present Litu-
baruba, at that time known as Lepelole.
Determ.ined to neglect nothing which could in any way promote his
success with the natives, Livingstone now cut himself off from all inter-
course with Europeans for six months, devoting himself to acquiring an
insight into the habits, ways of thinking, laws, and language of the
Bechuanas, and in laying the foundations of a settlement by making a
canal for irrigation purposes from a river near by.
A Man Stronger Than He looked.
These preliminaries being well advanced, our hero paid a visit to the
Bakaa, Bamangwato, and the Makalaka. The greater part of this trip
was performed on foot, the draught oxen being ill, and some of the na-
tives forming the escort observed in Livingstone's hearing, not knowing
that he understood them " He is not strong; he is quite slim, and only
seems stout because he puts himself into those bags [trousers]; he will
break down." Stung by these derogatory remarks on his appearance,
Livingstone revenged himself by keeping the whole party at highest
speed for several days, and was rewarded later by hearing them speak
more respectfully of his pedestrian powers.
Having, without knowing it, approached to within ten days' journey
of Lake N'gami, afterwards discovered by him, our hero went back to
Kuruman to bring his luggage to the site of his proposed settlement, but
before he could do so, came the disappointing news that the Bakwains,
with whom he had become friendly, had been driven from Lepelole by
the Baralongs, rendering it impossible for him to carry out his original
plan. With the courage and energy which distinguished him from the
first, Livingstone at once set about looking for some other site, and after
a journey to Bamangwato, to restore to chief Sekomi several of his peo-
ple who had come down with him to the Kuruman, and for whose safety
he felt responsible, he selected the beautiful valley of Mabotsa, the home
of the Makatla branch of the Bechuana tribe, where he removed in 1843.
Here the chief difficulty to contend with at first was the number and
ferocity of the lions, which not only leaped into the cattle pens of the
village of Mabotsa at night, but sometimes attacked the herds in broad
daylight. Expeditions sent out against the marauders returned without
having achieved any success, and knowing that if but one of the troop of
lions were killed the others would take alarm and leave the country,
Livingstone determined himself to join a sortie against them.
Great was the consternation of the natives, who firmly believed that a
neighboring tribe had given them into the power of these merciless
animals. Their attacks upon them were feeble and half-hearted, so
that hitherto the lions had come off victors. Livingstone now came to
their aid, and the cry was
"Mount! mount for the hunting ! the lion is near !
The cattle and herdsmen are quaking with fear.
Call the dogs ! light the torches ! away to the glen !
If needs be, we'll beard the fierce brute in his den."
They discovered their game on a small tree-covered hill. The circle
of hunters, at first loosely formed around the spot, gradually closed up,
and became compact as they advanced towards it. Mebalwe, a native
schoolmaster, who was with Livingstone, seeing one of the lions sitting
on a piece of rock within the ring, fired but missed him, the ball striking
the rock by the feet of the animal, which, biting first at the spot struck,
bounded away, broke through the circle, and escaped, the natives not
having the courage to stand close and spear him in the attempt, as they
should have done. The circle re-formed, having yet within it two other
lions, at which the pieces could not be fired, lest some of the men
on the opposite side should be hit. Again there was a bound and a
roar, and yet again ; and the natives scattered and fled, while the lions
went forth free to continue their devastations.
"He is Shot! He is Shot!"
But they did not seem to have retreated far, for as the party was
going round the end of* a hill on their way home to the village, there
was one of the lordly brutes sitting quietly, as though he had purposely
planted himself there to enjoy their defeat, and wish them " Good-day."
It was but a little distance from Livingstone, who, raising his gun, fired
both barrels. " He is shot ! He is shot ! " is the joyful cry, and the
people are about to rush in ; but their friend warns them, for he sees the
tail raised in anger. He is just in the act of ramming down his bullets
for another fire, when he hears a shout of terror, and sees the lion in
the act of springing on him. He is conscious only of a blow that makes
him reel and fall to the ground ; of two glaring eyes, and hot breath
upon his face; a momentary anguish, as he is seized by the shoulder and
shaken as a rat by a terrier ; then comes a stupor, which was afterwards
described as a sort of drowsiness, in which there was no sense of pain
nor feeling of terror, although there was a perfect consciousness of all
that was happening.
Being thus conscious, as one in a trance might be, Livingstone knew
that the lion had one paw on the back of his head, and, turning round to
reheve himself of the pressure, he saw the creature's eyes directed to
Mebalwe, who, at a distance of ten or fifteen yards, was aiming his gun
at him. It missed fire in both barrels, and immediately the native
teacher was attacked by the brute and bitten in the thigh. Another
man also, who attempted to spear the lion, was seized by the shoulder ;
but then the bullets which he had received took effect, and, with a quiver
through all his huge frame, the cattle-lifter rolled over on his side dead.
All this occurred in a few moments ; the death-blow had been inflicted
by Livingstone before the Lion sprang upon him in the blind fury of his
dying efforts. No less than eleven of his teeth had penetrated the flesh
of his assailant's arm, and crushed the bone ; it was long ere the wound
was healed, and all through life the intrepid missionary bore the marks
of this deadly encounter, and felt its effects in the injured limb. The
tartan jacket which he had on, wiped, as he believed, the virus from the
lion's teeth, and so preserved him from much after-suffering, such as was
experienced by the others who were bitten and had not this protection.
These ferocious beasts are a constant menace to travellers in some
parts of Afiica. Of course, if one goes out for the purpose of indulging
in sport and shooting game, he is not disconcerted when he meets the
king of the forest in his native lairs. Cumming's account of his en-
counters with lions is so graphic and interesting that it is here inserted
in connection with the thrilling story, already related, of Livingstone
and the lion.
Mr. Gumming first describes the appearance and habits of the noble
beast. This is the account of one of the world's most famous hunters,
whose journeys in the Tropics in pursuit of adventure, have attracted
universal attention, and have awakened the most eager interest. The
dignified and truly monarchical appearance of the lion, says Mr. Gum-
ming, has long rendered him famous among his fellow quadrupeds.
There is something so noble and imposing in the presence of the lion,
when seen walking with dignified self-possession, free and undaunted, on
his native soil, that no description can convey an adequate idea of his
striking appearance. The lion is exquisitely formed by nature for the
predatory habits which he is destined to pursue. Gombining in compara-
tively small compass the qualities of power and agility, he is enabled, by
means of the tremendous machinery with which nature has gifted him,
easily to overcome and destroy almost every beast of the forest, however
superior to him in weight and stature.
Though considerably under four feet in height, he has little difficulty
in dashing to the ground and overcoming the lofty and apparently pow-
erful giraffe, whose head towers above the trees of the forest, and whose
skin is nearly an inch in thickness. The lion is the constant attendant of
the vast herds of buffaloes which frequent the interminable forests of the
interior; and a full-grown one, so long as his teeth are unbroken, gener-
ally proves a match for an old bull buffalo, which in size and strength
greatly surpasses the most powerful breed of American cattle ; the lion
also preys on all the larger varieties of the antelopes, and on both varie-
ties of the gnoo. The zebra, which is met with in large herds through-
out the interior, is also a favorite object of his pursuit.
Lions do not refuse, as has been asserted, to feed upon the venison that
they have not killed themselves. I have repeatedly discovered lions of
all ages which had taken possession of, and were feasting upon, the car-
cases of various game quadrupeds which had fallen before my rifle.
The lion is very generally diffused throughout the secluded parts of
Southern Africa. He is, however, nowhere met with in great abund-
ance, it being very rare to find more than three, or even two families of
lions frequenting the same district and drinking at the same fountain.
When a greater number were met with, I remarked that it was owing to
long-protracted droughts, which, by drying nearly all the fountains, had
compelled the game of various districts to crowd the remaining, springs,
and the lions, according to their custom, followed in the wake.
Beauty of the Lion.
It is a common thing to come upon a full-grown lion and lioness asso-
ciating with three or four large ones nearly full grown ; at other times,
full-grown males will be found associating and hunting together in a
happy state of friendship ; two, three, and four full-grown male lions may
thus be discovered consorting together.
The male lion is adorned with a long, rank, shaggy mane, v/hich in
some instances almost sweeps the ground. The color of these manes
varies, some being dark, and others of a golden yellow. This appear-
ance has given rise to a prevailing opinion among the Boers that there
are two distinct varieties of lions, which they distinguish by the respec-
tive names of " Schwart fore life " and " Chiel fore life ; " this idea, how-
ever, is erroneous. The color of the lion's mane is generally influenced
by his age. He attains his mane in the third year of his existence. I
have remarked that at first it is of a yellowish color ; in the prime of life
it is blackest, and when he has numbered many years, but still is in the
full enjoyment of his power, it assumes a yellowish-gray, pepper-and-salt
sort of color.
These old fellows are cunning and dangerous, and most to be dreaded.
The females are utterly destitute of a mane, being covered with a short,
thick, glossy coat of tawny hair. The manes and coats of lions frequent-
ing open-lying districts utterly destitute of trees, such as the borders of
the great Kalahari desert, are more rank and handsome than those inhab-
iting fertile districts.
The Roar of the Forest King.
One of the most striking things connected with the lion is his voice,
which is extremely grand and peculiarly striking. It consists at times of
a low, deep moaning, repeated five or six times, ending in faintly audible
sighs ; at other times he startles the forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn
roars, repeated five or six times in quick succession, each increasing in
loudness to the third or fourth, when his voice dies away in five or six
low, muffled sounds, very much resembling distant thunder.
At times, and not unfrequently, a troop may be heard roaring in con-
cert, one assuming the lead, and two, three, or four more regularly taking
up their parts, like persons singing a catch. Like Scottish stags, they
roar loudest in cold, frosty nights ; but on no occasions are their voices to
be heard in such perfection, or so intensely powerful, as when two or three
strange troops of lions approach a fountain to drink at the same time.
When this occurs, every member of each troop sounds a bold roar of de-
fiance at the opposite parties ; and when one roars, all roar together, and
each seems to vie with his comrades in the intensity and power of his voice.
The power and grandeur of these nocturnal forest concerts is inconceiv-
ably striking and pleasing to the hunter's ear. The effect, I may remark,
is greatly enhanced when the hearer happens to be situated in the depths
of the forest, at the dead hour of midnight, unaccompanied by any attend-
ant, and ensconced within twenty yards of the fountain which the sur-
rounding troops of lions are approaching. Such has been my situation
many scores of times ; and though I am allowed to have a tolerably good
taste for music, I consider the catches with which I was then regaled as
the sweetest and most natural I ever heard.
As a general rule, lions roar during the night ; their sighing moans
commencing as the shades of evening envelop the forest, and continuing
at intervals throughout the night. In distant and secluded regions, how-
ever, I have constantly heard them roaring loudly as late as nine and ten
o'clock on a bright sunny morning. In hazy and rainy weather they are
to be heard at every hour in the day, but their roar is subdued.
It often happens that when two strange male lions meet at a fountain a
terrific combat ensues, which not unfrequently ends in the death of one of
them. The habits of the lion are strictly nocturnal; during the day he
lies concealed beneath the shade of some low bushy tree or wide-spread-
ing bush, either in the level forest or on the mountain side. He is also
partial to lofty reeds, or fields of long, rank yellow grass, such as occur
in low-lying vales. From these haunts he sallies forth when the sun goes
down, and comitiences his nightly prowl. When he is successful in his
beat and has secured his prey, he does not roar much that night, only
uttering occasionally a few low moans ; that is, provided no intruders
approach him, otherwise the case would be very different.
Lions are ever most active, daring and presuming in dark and stormy
nights, and consequentlv, on such occasions, the traveler ought more par-
ticularly to be on his guard. I remarked a fact connected with the lions'
hour of drinking peculiar to themselves : they seemed unwilling to visit
the fountains with good moonlight. Thus, when the moon rose early,
the lions deferred their hour of watering until late in the morning; and
when the moon rose late, they drank at a very early hour in the night.
By this acute system many a grisly Hon saved his bacon, and is now lux-
uriating in the forest of South Africa, which had otherwise fallen by the
barrels of my gun.
The Lion's Fearlessness.
Owing to the tawny color of the coat with which nature has robed him,,
he is perfectly invisible in the dark; and although I have often heard
them loudly lapping the water under my very nose, not twenty yards from
me, I could not possibly make out so much as the outlinesof their forms.
When a thirsty lion comes to water he stretches out his massive arms,
lies down on his breast to drink, and makes a loud lapping noise in drink-
ing not to be mistaken. He continues lapping up the water for a long
while, and four or five times during the proceeding he pauses for half a
minute as if to take breath.
One thing conspicuous about them is their eyes, which, in a dark night,
glow like two balls of fire. The female is more fierce and active than the
male, as a general rule. Lionesses which have never had young are-
much more dangerous than those which have. At no time is the lion so
much to be dreaded as when his partner has got small young ones. At
that season he knows no fear, and, in the coolest and most intrepid man-
ner, he will face a thousand men. A remarkable instance of this kind
came under my own observation, which confirmed the reports I had
before heard from the natives.
One day, when out elephant-hunting in the territory of the Baseleka,
accompanied by two hundred and fifty men, I was astonished suddenly to
behold a majestic lion slowly and steadily advancing towards us with a
dignified step and undaunted bearing, the most noble and imposing that
can be conceived. Lashing his tail from side to side, and growling
haughtily, his terribly expressive eye resolutely fixed upon us, and dis-
playing a show of ivory well calculated to inspire terror among the timid
Bechuanas, he approached.
A Lion Puts to Fligrht 250 Men.
A headlong flight of the two hundred and fifty men was the immediate
result ; and, in the confusion of the moment, four couples of my dogs,
which they had been leading, were allowed to escape in their couples.
These instantly faced the lion, who, finding that by his bold bearing he
had succeeded in putting his enemies to flight, now became solicitous for
the safety of his little family, with which the lioness was retreating in the
back-ground. Facing about, he followed after them with a haughty and
independent step, growling fiercely at the dogs which trotted along on
each side of him. Three, troops of elephants having been discovered
a few minutes previous to this, upon which I was marching for the
attack, I, with the most heartfelt reluctance, reserved my fire. On run-
ning down the hill side to endeavor to recall my dogs, I observed, for
the first time, the retreating lioness with four cubs. About twenty
minutes afterward two noble elephants repaid my forbearance.
Among Indian Nimrods, a certain class of royal tigers is dignified with
the appellation of "man-eaters." These are tigers which, having once
tasted human flesh, show a predilection for the same, and such charac-
ters are very naturally famed and dreaded among the natives. Elderly
gentlemen of similar tastes and habits are occasionally met with among
the lions in the interior of South Africa, and the danger of such neigh-
bors may be easily imagined. I account for lions first acquiring this
taste in the following manner: some tribes of the far interior do
not bury their dead, but unceremoniously carry them forth, and leave
them lying exposed in the forest or on the plain, a prey to the lion and
hyaena, or the jackal and vulture; and I can readily imagine that a lion,
having thus once tasted human flesh, would have little hesitation, when
opportunity presented itself, of springing upon and carrying off the
unwary traveler or native inhabiting his country.
The Man-Eater at Work.
Be this as it may, man-eating occurs; and on my fourth hunting expe-
dition, a horrible tragedy was acted one dark night in my little lonely
; camp by one of these formidable characters, which deprived me, in the far
wilderness, of my most valuable servant. In winding up these observations
on the lion, I may remark that lion-hunting, under any circumstances, is
decidedly a dangerous pursuit. It may nevertheless be followed, to a
certain extent, with comparative safety by those who have naturally a
: turn for that sort of thing. A recklessness of death, perfect coolness
and self-possession, an acquaintance with the disposition and manners
of lions, and a tolerable knowledge of the use of the rifle, are indis-
pensable to him who would shine in the overpoweringly exciting
pastime of hunting this justly celebrated king of beasts.
Livingstone himself narrates minutely his dreadful encounter with a
lion. He always regarded it as one of his most thrilling experiences in
I Africa, and he had occasion to remember it from the fact that he was
. so severely injured. The wonder is that when the ferocious beast had
the great explorer in his power and might easily have taken his life, he
should have been prevented from doing it. A few moments more and
the life of one of the world's greatest heroes would have been terminated.
LIVINGSTONE AMONG SAVAGES.
Continued at ERBzine 6099_03