also reprinted (without original marginal notes) in:
|§ I.||ANDREW BATTELL, his voyage to the River of Plate, who being taken on the coast of Brazil, was sent to Angola.|
|§ II.||His trading on the coast, offer to escape, imprisonment, exile; escape, and new imprisonment: his sending to Elambo, and Bahia Das Vaccas; many strange occurrences.|
|§ III.||Discovery of the Gagas; their wars, man-eating; overunning countries: his trade with them, betraying, escape to them, and living with them, with many strange adventures. And also the rites and manner of life observed by the Jagges or Gagas, which no Christian could ever know well but this author.|
|§ IIII.||His return to the Portuguese: invasions of divers countries, abuse, flight from them, and living in the woods divers months: His strange boat, and coming to Loango.|
|§ V.||Of the Province of Engoy, and other regions of Loango, with the customs there observed by the king and people.|
|§ VI.||Of the provinces of Bongo, Calongo, Mayombe, Manikesocke, Motimbas: of the ape-monster Pongo, their hunting, idolatries; and divers other observations.|
|§ VII.||Of the zebra and hippopotamus: The Portuguese wars in those parts: The fishing, grain, and other things remarkable.|
The strange adventures of Andrew Battell . . .
The strange adventures of ANDREW BATTELL of Leigh in Essex, sent by the Portuguese prisoner to Angola, who lived there, and in the adjoining regions, near eighteen years. In the year 1589, Abraham Cocke of Limehouse,(1) began his voyage toward the River of Plate, with two pinnaces of fifty tons apiece: The one was called, the May-morning; the other, the Dolphin. We sailed from the River of Thames, the twentieth of April; and the twenty-sixth of the same month, we put into Plymouth, where we took in some provision for the voyage. The seventh of May we put to sea, and with foul weather were beaten back again into Plymouth, where we remained certain days, and then proceeded on our voyage: and running(2) along the coast of Spain, and Barbary, we put into the road of Sancta Cruz, and there set our light-horseman together, which we carried in two pieces; Abraham Cocke made great (3) account hereof, thinking that this boat should have made his voyage. This done, we put to Sea, and running along the coast of Guinea, we were becalmed; because we were so near the coast.
Here our men fell sick of the scurvy, in such sort, that there were very few sound. (4) And being within three or four degrees of the equinoctial line, we fell with the Cape de las Palmas, (5) where we had some refreshing, wherewith our men recovered. The people of the Cape de las Palmas (6) made much of us, saying, that they would trade with us: but it was but to betray us. For they are very treacherous, and were like to have taken our boat, and hurt some of our men. From this Cape we lay southwest off, but the current and the calms deceived us; so that we were driven down to the Isle of Saint Thome, thinking that we had been farther off to the sea then we were. And being in distress for wood and water, we went in on the south end (7) between San Tome, and the Islands das Rolas: where we rode very smooth, and with our light-horseman (8) went on shore, thinking to have watered: but we found none in the island. Here we had great store of plantains and oranges. We found a village of Negroes, which are sent from San Tome, for the Portuguese of San Tome do use, when their slaves be sick or weak, to send them thither to get their strength again. For the Islands are very fruitful; and though there be no fresh water, yet they maintain themselves with the wine of the palm trees. Having refreshed ourselves with the fruit of this Island,(9) we burned the village. And running on the east side of San Tome, we came before the town; but we durst not come near: for the castle shot at us,(10) which has very good ordinance in it.
Then we lay east and by south toward the Main, and in twenty-four hours, we had sight of he Cape de lopo Gonsalues: and being within three leagues of the said Cape, we cast (11) about and stood again toward the Island of San Tome, and turned up on the west side of the Island: and coming to a little river, which runs out of the mountains, we went on shore with our Light-horseman, with six or seven buts to fill with water. But the governor had imbosked one hundred men of the island; and when we were on shore, they came upon us, and(12) killed one of our men, and hurt another: wherefore we retired to our boat, and got aboard.
Then Abraham Cocke determined to fetch the coast of Brazil, and lay west-south-west into (13) the Sea: and being some fifty leagues off, we fell into a scull of dolphins, which did greatly relieve us: for they did follow our ship all the way, till we fell with the land: which was some thirty days. And running along the coast of Brazil, till we came to Illha Grande, which stands(14) in five degrees southward of the line: we put in betwixt the island and the Main, and haled our ships on shore, and washed them, and refreshed ourselves, and took in fresh water. In this island are no inhabitants, but it is very fruitful. And being here some twelve days, there came in a little pinnace, which was bound to the River of Plate, which came in to water, and to get some refreshment: and presently we went aboard, and took the Portuguese merchant out of the pinnace, which told Abraham Cocke that within two months there should two pinnaces come from the River of Plate, from the town of Buenos Ayres. (15) From this Town there come every year four or five caravels to Bahia in Brazil, and to Angola in Africa: which bring great store of treasure, which is transported over land out of Peru, into the River of Plate. Then Abraham Cocke desirous to make his voyage, took some of the Dolphin's men into his ship, and sent the Dolphin home again, which had not as yet made any (16) voyage. This Portuguese merchant carried us to a place in this island, where there was a banished man, which had planted great store of plantains; and told us, that we might with this fruit (17) go to the River of Plate: for our bread and victuals were almost all spent.
With this hard allowance we departed from this Island, and were six and thirty days before we came to the Isle of Labos Marinos, which is in the mouth of the River of Plate. This island (18) is half a mile long, and has no fresh water; but doth abound with seals and sea-morses: in such sort, that our light-horseman could not get on shore for them, without we did beat them with our oars: and the island is covered with them. Upon these seals we lived some(19) thirty days, lying up and down in the River, and were in great distress of victuals. Then we determined to run up to Buenos Aires, and with our Light-horseman to take one of the pinnaces (20) that rid at the town. And being as high up the River as the town, we had a mighty storm at south-west, which drove us back again, and we were fain to ride under Isla Verde, (21) that is, the Green Island, which is in the mouth of the river on the north side.
Here we were all discomforted for lack of victuals, and gave over the voyage, and came to the (22) northward again, to the Isle of Sant Sebastian, lying just under the Tropic of Capricorn. There we went on shore to catch fish, & some went up into the woods to gather fruit: for we were (23) all in a manner famished. There was at that time a canoe fraught with Indians, that came from (24) the Town of Spiritu Sancto. These Indians landed on the west side of the Island, and came through the woods, and took five of us, and carried us to the River of Janeiro. After this mischance, (25) our captain Abraham Cocke went to sea, and was never heard of more.
When we that were taken had remained four months in the River of Janeiro, I and one (26) Torner were sent to Angola in Africa to the City of Saint Paul, which stands in nine degrees to the southward of the equinoctial line. Here I was presently taken out of the ship, (27) and put into prison, and sent up the River Quansa to a town of Garrison, which is one hundred and thirty miles up the river. And being there two months, the pilot of the governor's pinnace died: then I was commanded to carry her down to the City, where I presently fell(28) sick, and lay eight months in a poor estate: for they hated me because I was an Englishman. But being recovered of my sickness, Don John Hurtado de Mendoça, who then was governor, (29) commanded me to go to the River of Congo, called Zaire, in a pinnace, is to trade for elephant's (30) teeth, wheat, and oil of the palm-tree. The River Zaire is fifty leagues from the city (31) to the northward, and is the greatest river in all that coast. In the mouth of this river is an island, called the Isle de Calabes, which had at that time a town in it. Here we loaded our pinnace with elephant's teeth, wheat, and oil of the palm, and so returned to the city (32) again.
Then I was sent to Longo, which is fifteen leagues to the northward of the River Zaire: and carried all commodities fit for that country; as long glass-beads, and round blue beads, and seed beads, and looking-glasses, blue and red coarse cloth, (33) and Irish rugs, which were very rich commodities. Here we sold our cloth at a great rate, for we had for one yard of cloth, three elephant's teeth, that weighed one hundred and twenty pound: and we bought great store of palm-cloth, and elephant's tails. So in little time, we landed our pinnace. For this voyage I was very welcome to the governor; who promised me my liberty, if I would serve him. So I went in his pinnace two years and a half upon the coast.
Then there came a ship of Holland to the city, the merchant of which ship promised to (34) carry me away. And when they were ready to depart, I went secretly aboard; but I was betrayed by Portuguese, which sailed in the ship, and was fetched on shore by the sergeants of (35) the city, and put in prison, and lay with great bolts of iron two months, thinking that the governor would have put me to death: but at last, I was banished forever, to the fort of Massangano, (36) to serve in the conquest of those parts. Here I lived a most miserable life for the space (37) of six years, without any hope to see the sea again.
In this fort there were Egyptians and Moriscoes, that were banished as myself. To one of these Egyptians I broke my mind, and told him, that it were better for us to venture our lives for our liberty, than to live in that miserable place. This Egyptian was as willing as myself, and told me, he would procure ten of his consorts to go with us. So we got three Egyptians, (38) and seven Portuguese. That night, we got the best canoe that we could find, and went down the River Coanza: and being as far down as Mani Cabech, which is a little lord in the (39) province of Elamba, we went on shore with our twelve muskets, powder, and shot. Here (40) we sunk our canoe, because they should not know where we went on shore. We made a little fire in the wood, and scorched Guinea wheat, which we brought from Massangano to relieve us, for we had none other food.
As soon as it was night, we took our journey all that night, and the next day without any water at all. The second night, we were not able to go, and were fain to dig and scrape up roots of trees, and suck them to maintain life. The third day, we met with an old Negro,(41) which was travelling to Mani Cabech, we bound his hands behind him, and made him lead (42) us the way to the Lake of Casansa. And travelling all the day in this extremely hot country, (43) we came to the bansa, or town of Mani Casansa, which lies within the land twelve leagues from the City of San Paulo. Here we were forced to ask water: but they would give us none. Then we determined to make them flee their houses with our shot: but seeing that we were desperately bent, they called their Lord Mani Casansa, who gave us water and fair speeches, desiring us to stay all night, only to betray us: but we departed presently, and rested that night in the Lake of Casansa.
The fourth day at night, we came to the river which is toward the north, and passed it (44) with great danger. For there are such abundance of crocodiles in this river, that no man dare (45) come near the river side, where it is deep. The fifth day at night, we came to the River Dande, and travelled so far to the Eastward, that we were right against the Sierras, (46) or Mountains of Manibangono, which is a lord that wars against the king of Congo, whither we intended to go. Here we passed the river, and rested half the night. And being two leagues (47) from the river, we met with Negroes, which asked us, whither we travelled. We told them, that we were going to Congo. These Negroes said, that we were in the wrong way, and that they were Masicongos, and would carry us to Bambe, where the Duke of Bambe lay.
So we went some three miles east up into the Land, till we perceived that we were the wrong way: for we travelled by the sun, and would go no farther that way: and turned back again to the westward, they stood before us with their bow, arrows and darts, ready to shoot at us. But we determining to go through them, discharged six muskets together, and killed four; which did amaze them, and made them to retire. But they followed us four or five miles, and hurt two of our company with their arrows. The next day, we came (48) into the borders of Bamba, and travelled all that day. At night, we heard the surge of the sea. The seventh day in the morning, we saw the captain of the city come after us with horsemen, and great store of negroes. Hereupon our company being dismayed, seven of our faint-hearted Portuguese hid themselves in the thickets. I and the four Egyptians thought to have escaped: but they followed us so fast, that we were fain to go into a little wood. As soon as the captain had overtaken us, he discharged a volley of shot into the wood, which made us lose one another.
Thus being all alone, I bethought myself, that if the Negroes did take me in the woods, (49) they would kill me: wherefore, thinking to make a better end among the Portuguese and Mullatos
I came presently out of the Wood with my Musket ready charged, making none account of my life. But the Captain, thinking that we had been all twelve together, called to me, and said, fellow soldier, I have the governor's pardon, if you will yield yourselves, you shall have no hurt. I having my musket ready, answered the Captain, that I was an Englishman, and had served six years at Massangono, in great misery; and came in company with eleven Portuguese and Egyptians, and here am left all alone; and rather then I will be hanged, I will die amongst you. Then the Captain came near unto me, and said; deliver thy musket to one of the soldiers, and I protest, as I am a gentleman, and a soldier, to save thy life, for thy resolute(50) mind. Whereupon I yielded up my musket and myself.
Then the Captain commanded all the soldiers and Negroes to search the woods, and to bring them out alive or dead; which was presently done. Then they carried us to the City of San Paulo: where I, and the three Egyptians lay in prison three months, with collars of iron, and great bolts upon our legs, and hardly escaped.
At that time the Governor sent four hundred men, that were banished out of Portugal, up (51) into the country of Elambe. Then I was with proclamation through the city banished forever to the wars, and marched with them to Sowonso, which is a lord, that obeys the Duke of Bambe: from thence to Samanibansa, and then to Namba Calamba, which is a great lord, who did resist us: but we burned his town, and then he obeyed us, and brought three thousand(52) warlike Negroes to us. From thence to Sollancango a little lord, that fought very desperately with us, but was forced to obey: and then to Combrecaianga, where we remained two years. From this place we gave many assaults, and brought many lords to subjection. We were fifteen thousand strong, and marched to the Outeiro, or Mountain of Ingombe. But first we burned all Ingasia, which was his country, and then we came to the chief town of Ingombe, which is half a day's journey to go up.
This Lord came upon us with more then twenty thousand boys, and spoiled many of our men. But with our shot we made a great spoil among them, whereupon he retired up into the mountain, and sent one of his captains to our general; signifying, that the next day he would obey him. The next day he entered our camp in great pomp with drums, petes, and pongoes, or waytes, and was royally received: and he gave great presents, and greatly enriched the general, and them which marched up. Upon the top of the mountain is a great plain, where he has his chief town; very fresh, full of palm-trees, sugar-canes, potatoes, and other roots, and great store of oranges and lemons. Here is a tree that is called Engeriay, that bears a fruit as big as a pome-water, and has a stone in it, present remedy for the wind(53) colic, which was strange to the Portuguese. Here is a river of fresh water, that springs out of the mountain, and runs all along the town. We were here five days, and then we marched up into the country, and burned and spoiled for the space of six weeks; and then returned to Engombe again with great store of slaves, sheep and goats, and great store of Margarite stones, which are current money in that land. Here we pitched our camp a league from this pleasant mountain, which remained twelve months: but I was shot in my right leg, and many Portuguese and Mullatos, were carried to the city to be cured.
Then the Governor sent a frigate to the southward with sixty soldiers, myself being (54) one of the company, and all kind of commodities. We turned up to the southward till we came into twelve degrees. Here we found a fair sandy bay. The people of this place brought us cows and sheep, wheat and beans; but we stayed not there, but came to Bahia das Vaccas, that is, the Bay of Cows, which the Portuguese call, Bahia de Torre, because it has a rock like a tower. Here we rode on the northside of the rock in a sandy bay; and bought great store of cows, and sheep bigger then our English sheep, and very fine copper. Also (55) we bought a kind of sweet wood, called Cacongo, which the Portuguese esteem much, and great store of wheat and beans. And having loaded our bark we sent her home: but fifty of us stayed on shore, and made a little fort with rafters of wood, because the people of this place(56) are treacherous, and not to be trusted. So in seventeen days we had five hundred head of cattle: and within ten days the governor sent three ships and so we departed to the city.
In this Bay may any ship ride without danger, for it is a smooth coast. Here may any ship (57) that comes out of the East Indies refresh themselves. For the Portuguese carracks now of late come along that coast, to the city to water and refresh themselves. These people are called, Endallanbondos, and have no government among themselves: and therefore they are very treacherous,(58) and those that trade with these people must stand upon their own guard. They are very (59) simple and of no courage, for thirty or forty men may go boldly up into the country, and fetch down whole herds of cattle. We bought the cattle for blue glass-beads of an inch long, which are called, Mopindes; and paid fifteen beads for one cow.
This province is called, Dombe, and it has a ridge of high sierras, or mountains, that (60) stretch from the sierras, or mountains of Cambambe, wherein are mines; and lie along that (61) coast south and by west. Here is great store of fine copper, if they would work in their mines: but they take no more, then they wear for a bravery. The men of this place wear skins about their middles, and beads about their necks. They carry darts of iron, and bow and arrows in their hands. They are beastly in their living, for they have men in women's(62) apparel, whom they keep among their wives.
Their women wear a ring of copper about their necks, which weighs fifteen pounds (63) at the least, about their arms little rings of copper, that reach to their elbows, about their middles a cloth of the Insandie Tree, which is neither spun nor woven, on their legs rings of copper, that reach to the calves of their legs.
In our second voyage turning up along the coast, we came to the Morro, or Cliff of Benguele, which stands in twelve degrees of southerly latitude. Here we saw a (64) mighty camp of men on the southside of the River Coua. And being desirous to know what they were, we went on shore with our boat; and presently there came a troop of (65) five hundred men to the water side. We asked them, Who they were? then they told us, that they were the Gagas, or Gindes; that came from Sierra Leone, and passed through the city of Congo; and so travelled to the eastward of the great city of Angola, which is called Dongo.(66) The great Gaga, which was their general, came down to the waters side to see us. For he had never seen white men before. He asked, wherefore we came? we told him, that we came (67) to trade upon the coast: then he bade us welcome, and called us on shore with our commodities: we loaded our ship with slaves in seven days, and bought them so good cheap, that many did not cost one Rial apiece, which were worth in the city twelve millie-reys.
Being ready to depart the great Giaga stayed us, and desired our boat to pass his men over the River Coua: for he determined to overrun the realm of Benguele, which was on the northside of the River Coua. So we went with him to his camp, which was very orderly entrenched with piles of wood. We had houses provided for us that night, and many burthens of palm-wine, cows, goats, and flour.
In the morning before day the general did strike his Gongo, which is an instrument of war (68) that sounds like a bell; and presently made an oration with a loud voice, that all the camp (69) might hear, that he would destroy the Benguelas, with such courageous and vehement speeches, as were not to be looked for among the heathen people: and presently they were all in arms, (70) and marched to the river's side, where he had provided gingados. And being ready with our boat and gingados, the general was fain to beat them back, because of the credit who should be first. We carried over eighty men at once; and with our muskets we beat the enemy off, and landed, but many of them were slain. By twelve of the clock all the Gagas were over. Then the general commanded all his drums, tamales, pets, pongees, and all his instruments of warlike music to strike up, and gave the on-set, which was a bloody day to the Benguelas. (71) These Benguelas presently broke and turned their backs, and a very great number of them were slain, and were taken captives, man, woman and child. The Prince Hombiangymbe was slain, which was ruler of this country, and more then one hundred of his chief lords, and their heads presented, and thrown at the feet of the great Gaga. The men, women, and children, that were brought in captive alive, and the dead corpses that were brought to be eaten, were (72) strange to behold. For these Gagas are the greatest cannibals and maneaters that be in the world, for they fed chiefly upon man's flesh, having all the cattle of that country.
They settled themselves in this country, and took the spoils of it. We had great trade with these Gagas five months, and gained greatly by them. These Gagas were not contented to stay in this place of Benguela, although they lacked almost nothing. For they had great store of cattle and wheat, and many other Commodities, but they lacked wine: for in these parts there are no Palm-trees.
After the five months were expired, they marched toward the province of Bambala, to a (73) great lord, that is called Calicansamba, whose country is five days journey up into the land. In these five months space we made three voyages to the city of San Paul, and coming the fourth time we found them not.
Being loath to return without trade, we determined to go up into the land after them; So we went fifty on shore, and left our ship riding in the Bay of Benguela to stay for us: and marching two days up into the country, we came to a great lord, which is called Mofarigosat:(74) and coming to his first town, we found it burned to the ground, for the Gagas had passed and taken the spoil. To this lord we sent a Negro, which we had bought of the Gagas, and lived with us, and bid him say, that he was one of the great Gagas men, and that he was left to carry us to the camp. This Lord bade us welcome for fear of the great Gaga: but he delayed the time, and would not let us pass, till the Gaga was gone out of his country. This lord Mofarigosat, seeing that the Gagas were clear of him, began to palter with us, and would not let us go out of his land, till we had gone to the wars with him; for he thought himself a mighty man having us with him. For in this place they never saw white man before, nor guns. So we were forced to go with him, and destroyed all his enemies, and returned to his town again. Then we desired him, that he would let us depart: But he denied us, without we would promise him to come again, and leave a white man with him in pawn.
These Portuguese and Mulatos being desirous to get away from this place, determined to draw lots who should stay: but many of them would not agree to it. At last they consented together that it were fitter to leave me, because I was an Englishman, then any of themselves.(75) Here I was fain to stay perforce. So they left me a musket, powder, and shot; promising this lord Mofarigosat, that within two months they would come again, and bring an hundred men to help him in his wares, and to trade with him: but all was to shift themselves away, for they feared that he would have taken us all captives. Here I remained with this lord till the two months were expired, and was hardly used, because the Portuguese came not according to promise.
The chief men of this town would have put me to death, and stripped me naked, and were (76) ready to cut off mine head. But the lord of the town commanded them to stay longer, thinking that the Portuguese would come. And after that I was let loose again, I went from one town to another, shifting for myself, within the liberties of this lord. And being in fear of my life among them, I ran away, purposing to go to the camp of the Gagas.
And having travelled all that night, the next day I came to a great town, which was called, Cashil, which stood in a mighty overgrown thicket. Here I was carried into the town (77) to the Lord Cashil; and all the town great and small came to wonder at me, for in this place there was never any white man seen. Here were some of the great Gagas men, which I was glad to see, and went with these Gagas to Calicansamba, where the camp was.
This town of the Lord Cashil is very great, and is so overgrown with olicondie trees, cedars, and palm, that the streets are darkened with them. In the middle of the town there (78) is an image, which is as big as a man, and stands twelve foot high: and at the foot of the image there is a circle of elephant's teeth, pitched into the ground. Upon these teeth stand great store of dead menís skulls, which are killed in the wars, and offered to this image. They used to pour palm-wine at his feet, and kill goats, and pour their blood at his feet. This (79) image is called Quesango, and the people have a great belief in him, and swear by him; and do believe when they are sick, that Quesango is offended with them. In many places of this town (80) were little images, and over them great store of Elephant's teeth piled.
The streets of this town were paled with palm-canes very orderly. Their houses were (81) round like a hive, and within hanged with fine mats very curiously wrought. On the southeast end of the town was a Mokiso, which had more then three tons of elephant's teeth piled over him.
From this town of Cashil, I travelled up into the country with the Gagas two days, and (82) came to Calicansamba, where the great Gaga had his camp, and was welcome to him. Among the cannibal people, I determined to live, hoping in God, that they would travel so far to the westward, till we should see the sea again; and so I might escape by some ship. These Gagas remained four months in this place, with great abundance and plenty of cattle, corn, wine, and oil, and great triumphing, drinking, dancing, and banqueting with man's flesh, which was a heavy spectacle to behold.
At the end of four months they marched toward the Sierras, or Mountains of Cashindcabar, which are mighty high, and have great copper-mines, and they took the spoil all the way as they went. From thence they went to the River Longa, and passed it, and settled themselves in the town of Calango, and remained there five or six months. Then we arose, and(83) entered into the province of Toudo, and came to the River Gonsa, and marched on the southside of the River to a lord that was called Makellacolonge, near to the great City of Dongo. Here we passed over mighty high mountains, and found it very cold.
Having spent sixteen months among these Cannibals, they marched to the westward again, and came along the River Goons, or Gunza, to a lord that is called Shillambansa, uncle to the (84) King of Angola. We burned his chief town, which was after their fashion very sumptuously built. This place is very pleasant and fruitful. Here we found great store of wild peacocks, flying up and down the trees, in as great abundance as other birds. The old lord (85) Shillambansa was buried in the middle of the town, and had an hundred tame peacocks kept upon his grave: which peacocks he gave to his Mokeso, and they were called Angello Mokeso, (86) that is, the devil's or idol's birds, and were accounted as holy things. He had great store of copper, cloth, and many other things laid upon his grave; which is the order of that country.
From this place we marched to the westward, along the River Coanza, and came right (87) against the Sierras, or Mountains of Cambanbe, or Sierras de Prata.(88) Here is the great fall of water, (89) that falls right down, and makes a mighty noise, that is heard thirty miles. We entered into the province of Casama, and came to one of the greatest lords, which was called (90) Langere, He obeyed the Great Gaga, and carried us to a lord, called Casoch, which was a great (91) warrior; for he had some seven years before, overthrown the Portuguese camp, and killed eight hundred Portuguese, and forty thousand Negroes, that were on the Portuguese side. This lord did stoutly withstand the Gagas, and had the first day a mighty battle: but had not the victory that day. So we made a sconce of trees after their fashion, and remained four months(92) in the wars with them. I was so highly esteemed with the Great Gaga, because I killed many Negroes with my musket, that I had anything that I desired of him. He would also, when they went out to the wars, give charge to his men over me. By this means I have (93) been often carried away in their arms, and saved my life. Here we were within three daysí (94) journey of Massangano, before mentioned, where the Portuguese have a fort: and I sought means, and got to the Portuguese again with merchant Negroes, that came to the camp to buy slaves.
There were in the camp of the Gagas, twelve captains. The first, called Imbe Calandola, their (95) general a man of great courage. He wars all by enchantment, and takes the devil's counsel in all his exploits. He is always making of sacrifices to the devil, and does know many (96) times what shall happen unto him. He believes that he shall never die but in the wars. There is no image among them, but he uses certain ceremonies. He has straight laws to his (97) soldiers: for, those that are faint-hearted, and turn their backs to the enemy, are presently condemned and killed for cowards, and their bodies eaten. He uses every night to make a warlike oration upon an(98) high scaffold, which dos encourage his people.
It is the order of these people, wheresoever they pitch their camp, although they stay but (99) one night in a place, to build their fort, with such wood or trees as the place yields: so that the one part of them cuts down trees and boughs, and the other part carries them, and builds a round circle with twelve gates. So that every captain keeps his gate. In the middle of the fort is the general's house, entrenched round about, and he has many porters that keep the door. They build their houses very close together, and have their bows, arrows, and darts, standing without their doors: And when they give alarm, they are suddenly all out of the fort. Every company at their doors keep very good watch in the night, playing upon their drums and tavales.
These Gagas told us of a river that is to the southward of the Bay of Vaccas, that has great (100) store of gold: and that they gathered up great store of grains of gold upon the sand, which the fresh water drives down in the time of rain. We found some of this gold in the handles of their hatchets, which they use to engrave with copper, and they called it copper also, and do not esteem it. (101)
These Gagas delight in no country, but where there is great store of palmares, or groves of palms. For they delight greatly in the wine, and in the fruit of the palm, which serves (102) to eat and to make oil: and they draw their wine contrary to the Imbondos. These palm-trees are six or seven fathoms high, and have no leaves but in the top: and they have a device to go up to the top of the tree, and lay no hands on it, and they draw the wine in the top of the tree in a bottle. (103)
But these Gagas cut the palm-trees down by the root, which lie ten days before they will give wine. And then they make a square hole in the top and heart of the tree, and take out of the hole every morning a quart, and at night a quart. So that every tree gives two quarts of wine a day for the space of six and twenty days, and then it dries up.(104)
When they settle themselves in any country, they cut down as many palms as will serve them wine for a month: and then as many more. So that in a little time they spoil the country. They stay no longer in a place, than it will afford them maintenance. And then in harvest(105) time they arise, and settle themselves in the fruitfullest place that they can find; and do reap their enemy's corn, and take their cattle. For they will not sow, nor plant, nor bring up any cattle, more then they take by wars. When they come into any country that is strong,(106) which they cannot the first day conquer, then their general builds his fort, and remains sometimes a month or two quiet. For he says, it is as great wars to the inhabitants to see him settled in their country, as though he fought with them every day. So that many times the inhabitants come and assault him at his fort: and these Gagas defend themselves and flesh them on for the space of two or three days. And when their general minds to give the onset, he will in the night put out some one thousand men: which do embosk themselves about a mile from their fort. Then in the morning the great Gaga goes with all his strength out of the fort, as though he would take their town. The inhabitants coming near the fort to defend their country, being between them, the Gagas give the watch-word with their drums,(107) and then the embosked men arise, so that very few escape. And that day their general (108) overrun the country.
The great Gaga Calando has his hair very long, embroidered with many knots full of Banba shells, which are very rich among them, and about his neck a collar of Maloes, which are also shells, that are found upon that coast, and are sold among them for the worth of twenty shillings a shell: and about his middle he wears landes, which are beads made of the ostrich eggs. He wears a palm cloth about his middle, as fine as silk. His body is carved (109) and cut with sundry works, and every day anointed with the fat of men. He wears a piece of copper cross his nose, two inches long, and in his ears also. His body is always painted red and white. He has twenty or thirty wives, which followed him when he goes abroad; and one of them carries his bow and arrows, and four of them carry his cups of(110) drink after him. And when he drinks, they all kneel down, and clap their hands and sing.
Their women wear their hair with high tromps, full of Bamba shells, and are anointed with civet. They pull out four of their teeth; two above and two below for a bravery: And (111) those that have not their teeth out, are loathsome to them, and shall neither eat nor drink with them. They wear great store of beads about their necks, arms and legs; about their middles, Silk clothes.
The women are very fruitful, but they enjoy none of their children: For as soon as the woman (112) is delivered of her childe, it is presently buried quick; So that there is not one childe brought up in all this generation. But when they take any town, they keep the boys and (113) girls of thirteen or fourteen years of age, as their own children. But the men and women they kill and eat. These little boys they train up in the wars, and hang a collar about (114) their necks for a disgrace, which is never taken off till he proves himself a man, and bring (115) his enemies head to the general: And then it is taken off, and he is a free-man, and is called gonso, or soldier. This makes them all desperate, and forward to be free, and counted men: and so they do increase. In all this camp there were but twelve natural Gagas that were(116) their captains, and fourteen or fifteen women. For it is more then fifty years since they come from Sierra Leone, which was their native country. But their camp is sixteen thousand strong, and sometimes more.
When the great Gaga Calandola, undertakes any great enterprise against the inhabitants of any country, he makes a sacrifice to the devil, in the morning before the sun rises. He sits upon a stool, having on each side of him a man witch: then he has forty or fifty women which stand round about him, holding in each hand a Zevera's, or wild horsesí tail, where(117) with they do flourish and sing. Behind them are great store of petes, ponges, and drums, which always play. In the midst of them is a great fire; upon the fire an earthen pot with white powders, where-with the men witches do paint him on the forehead, temples, thwart the breast and belly, with long ceremonies and enchanting terms. Thus he continues till sun is down. Then the witches bring his Casengala, which is a weapon like an hatchet, and put it into his hand, and bid him be strong against his enemies: for his Mokiso is with him. And presently there is a man-child brought, which forthwith he kills. Then are four (118) men brought before him; two whereof, as it happens, he presently strikes and kills; the other two, he commands to be killed without the fort.
Here I was by the men witches commanded to go away, because I was a Christian. For then the devil doth appear to them, as they say. And presently he commands five cows to be killed in the fort, and five without the fort: And likewise as many goats, and as many dogs; and the blood of them is sprinkled in the fire, and their bodies are eaten with great feasting and triumph. And this is used many times by all the other captains of their army.
When they bury the dead, they make a vault in the ground, and a seat for him to sit. The (119) dead has his hair newly embroidered, his body washed, and anointed with sweet powders. He has all his best robes put on, and is brought between two men to his grave, and set in his seat, as though he were alive. He has two of his wives set with him, with their arms broken, and then they cover the vault on the top. The inhabitants when they die, are buried after the same fashion, and have the most part of their goods buried with them. And every month there is a meeting of the kindred of the dead man, which mourn and sing doleful songs at his grave, for the space of three days; and kill many goats, and pour their blood upon his grave, and palm-wine also; and use this ceremony as long as any of their kindred be alive. But those that have no kindred think themselves unhappy men, because they have none to mourn (120) for them when they die. These people are very kind one to another in their health; but in their sickness they do abhor one another, and will shun their company.
Being departed from the Gagas, I came to Masangano, where the Portuguese have a (121) town of garrison. There was at that time a new governor, which was called, Señor Juan Continbo: who brought authority to conquer the mines or mountains of Cambamba: and to perform that service, the King of Spain had given him seven years custom, of all the slaves and goods that were carried thence to the West-Indies, Brazil, or whithersoever: with condition, that he should build three castles; one in Demba,(122) which are the salt mines; the other, in Cambamba, which are the silver Mines; and the other in Bahia das Vaccas, or The Bay of Cows. This gentleman was so bountiful at his coming, that his fame was spread through all Congo, and many Mulatos and Negroes came voluntarily to serve him. And being some six months in the City, he marched to the Outaba of Tombe: and(123) there shipped his soldiers in pinnaces, and went up the River Consa, or Coanza, and landed at the Outaba of Songo, sixty miles from the sea. This Lord Songo is next to Demba, where the salt mines be. In this place there is such store of salt, that most part of the country are perfect clear salt, without any earth or filth in it: and it is some three foot under the earth (124) as it were ice: and they cut it out in stones of a yard long, and it is carried up into the country, and is the best commodity that a man can carry to buy any thing whatsoever.
Here the governor stayed ten days, and sent a pinnace to Masangano, for all the best soldiers that were there. So the captain of the castle sent me down among an hundred soldiers, and I was very well used by the governor; and he made me a sergeant of a Portuguese company,(125) and then he marched to Machimba; from thence to Cauo, and then to Malombe, a great lord. Here we were four days, and many lords came and obeyed us. From thence we marched to a mighty lord, called Augoykayongo, who stood in the defence of his country, with more then sixty thousand men. So we met with him, and had the victory, and made a great slaughter among them. We took captives all his women and children, and settled ourselves(126) in his town, because it was a very pleasant place, and full of cattle and victuals. And being eight days in this town, the governor sickened and died, and left a captain in his room to perform the service.
After we had been two months in the country of Angoykayongo, we marched toward (127) Cambambe, which was but three days journey, and came right against the Sierras da Prata, and passed the River Coanza, and presently overran the Country, and built a Fort hard by the River's side. Here I served two years. They opened the silver mines: but the Portuguese did not like of them as yet; because they yielded small store of silver. This new up-start governor, was very cruel to his soldiers, so that all his voluntary men left him; and by this means he could go no farther. At this time, there came news by the Jesuits, that the Queen of (128) England was dead; and that King James had made peace with Spain. Then I made a petition to the governor, who granted me license to go into my country: And so I departed with the governor and his train to the city of Saint Paul.
But he left five hundred soldiers in the fort of Cambambe, which they hold still. Then I (129) went with a Portuguese merchant to the Province of Bamba: and from thence to the Onteiro, or (130) city standing upon a mountain of Congo: from thence to Gongon and Batta: and there we sold our commodities, and returned in six months to the city again. Then I purposed to have shipped myself for Spain, and thence homewards. But the governor denied his word, and commanded me to provide myself within two days, to go up to the conquest again. This Governor had served his three years, and the citizens looked every day for another out of Portugal. So I determined to absent myself for ten or twenty days, till the other governor came, and then to come to the city again. For every governor that comes, makes proclamation for all men that be absent, to come with free pardon.
The same day at night, I departed from the city, with two Negro boys that I had, which carried my musket, and six pounds of powder, and an hundred bullets, and that little provision of victuals which I could make. In the morning I was some twenty miles from the city, up along the River Bengo, and there I stayed certain days; and then passed Bengo, and came to the River Dande, which is to the northward; purposing to know what news was in the city, for I was near the highway of Congo: And one of my Negroes(131) inquired of those that passed, and brought me word; that it was certain, that the new governor came not that year. Now I was put to my shifts, whether I would go to the (132) city again and be hanged, or to stay and live in the Woods: for I had run away twice before. So I was forced to live in the wood a month, betwixt the Rivers of Dande and Bengo.
Then I went to Bengo again, to Mani Kaswea, and passed over the River, and went to the lake, of Casansa. (133) Here is the greatest store of wild beasts, that is in any place of Angola. About this lake I stayed six months, and lived only upon dried flesh, as buffles, deer, Mokokes, Impolancas, and Roebucks, and other sorts which I killed with my musket, and dried the flesh, as the savages do, upon an(134) hurdle three foot from the ground, making underneath it a great fire, and laying upon the flesh green boughs, which keep the smoke and heat of the fire down, and dry it. I made my fire with two little sticks, as the savages use to do. I had sometimes Guinea wheat, which my Negro Boy would get of the inhabitants for pieces of dried flesh. This Lake of Casanze does abound with fish of sundry sorts. I have taken up a fish, that has skipped out of the water on shore, four foot long, which the heathen call Sombo. Thus after I had lived six months with dried flesh and fish, and seeing no end of my misery, I wrought means to get away.
In this lake are many little islands, that are full of trees, called Memba; which are as light as (135) cork, and as soft. Of these trees I built a jergado, with a knife of the savages that I had, in the fashion of a boat, nailed with wooden pegs, and railed round about because the sea should not wash me out, and with a blanket that I had, I made a sail, and prepared three oars to row withal. This Lake of Casanza is eight miles over, and issues into the River Bengo. So I entered (136) into my gingado, and my two Negro boys, and rowed into the River Bengo, and so came, down with the current twelve leagues to the bar. Here I was in great danger, because the sea was great, and being over the bar, I rowed into the sea, and then sailed afore the wind along the coast, which I knew very well, minding to go to the Kingdom of Longo, which is toward the north: and being that night at sea, the next day I saw a Pinnace come before the wind, which came from the city, and was bound to San Thomo, and she came near to me. The Master was my great friend, for we had been mates together, and for pity's sake he took (137) me in, and set me on shore in the Port of Longo; where I remained three years, and was well beloved of the king, because I killed him deer and fowl with my musket.
From the Point of the Palmar, which is the north side of the River Zaire, is the (138) Port of Cabenda, where many ships use to water and refresh themselves; and it is five leagues northwards. This place is called Engoy, and is the first province of (139) Longo, and is full of woods and thickets. And seven leagues northwards of that place is the River Cacongo; a very pleasant place and fruitful. Here is great store of elephant's (140) teeth: and a boat of ten tons may go up the River.
The Mombales have great trade with them, and pass the River Zaire in the night, because (141) then it is calm; and carry great store of elephant's teeth to the town of Mani Sonna, and sell them in the port of Pinda to the Portuguese, or any other stranger, that first comes.
And four leagues from Cacongo, is the River of Caye, or Longo Leuyes. This town of Caye (142) is one of the four seats or lordships of Longo: and then the Angra, or Gulf das Almadias. In this gulf or bay are great store of canoes and fishermen, because the sea is smoother there, (143) than upon the coast. And two leagues northward is the Port of Longo. And it is a sandy bay, (144) and a ship may tide within a musket shot of the shore in four or five fathoms.
The town of Mani Longo is three miles from the waters side, and stands on a great plain. This town is full of palm and plantain trees, and very fresh; and their houses are built under the trees. Their streets are wide and long, and always clean swept. The king has his houses on the westside, and before his door he has a plain, where he sits, when he has any feasting or matters of wars to treat of. From this plain there goes a great wide street some musket shot from the place; and there is a great market every day, and it does begin at twelve of the clock.
Here is great store of palm-clothes of sundry sorts, which is their merchandizes: and great store of victuals, flesh, hens, fish, wine, oil and corn. Here is also very fine logwood, (145) which they use to die withal: it is the root of the logwood, which is the best, and Molangos (146) of copper. Here is likewise great store of elephant's teeth, but they sell none in the market (147) place. The king has ten great houses, and is never certain to be found, but in the afternoon, when he comes to sit. And then he keeps always one house. The house is very long, and at twelve of the clock it is full of noblemen. They sit upon carpets upon the ground. The house is always full of people till midnight. The last King Gembe, never used to speak in the day, but always in the night. But this king speaks in the day: howbeit he spends most of the day with his wives. And when the king comes in, he goes to the upper end of the house, where he has his seat, as it were a throne. And when the king is set, they clap their hands and salute him, saying in their language; Byani Pemba, Ampola, Moneya, Quesinge.
On the south side of the king's houses he has a circuit or village, where his wives dwell: (148) and in this circuit no man may come in pain of death. He has in this place one hundred and fifty wives and more. And if any man be taken within this circuit, if he is with a woman, or do but speak to her, they are both brought into the market place, and their heads be cut off, and their bodies quartered, and lie one day in the streets. The last King Gymbe, had four hundred children by his women.
When the king drinks he has a cup of wine brought, and he that brings it has a bell (149) in his hand, and as soon as he has delivered the cup to the king, he turns his face from the king, and rings the bell: and then all that be there fall down upon their faces, and rise not till the king has drunk. And this is very dangerous for any stranger, that knows not the fashions: for if any sees the king drink, he is presently killed, whatsoever he be. There was a boy of twelve years, which was the king's son; This boy chanced to come unadvisedly when his (150) father was in drinking: presently the king commanded he should be well apparelled, and victuals prepared. So the youth did eat & drink: afterward the king commanded that he should be cut in quarters, and carried about the city; with proclamation that he saw the king drink. Likewise for his diet, when it is dinner time, there is an house of purpose, where he always eats; and there his diet is set upon a bensa, like a table: then he goes in and has the door shut. So when he has eaten, then he knocks and comes out. So that none see the king eat nor drink. For it is their belief, that if he be seen eating or drinking, he shall presently die. And this is an order with all the kings that now are, or shall succeed, unless they abolish this cruel custom.
This king is so honoured, as though he were a god among them: and is called Sambe and (151) Pongo, that is, God. And they believe that he can give them rain, when he lists. So once a (152) year when it is time to rain; which is in December, the people come to beg rain, and bring their gifts to the king: for none come empty. Then he appoints the day, and all the lords far and near come to that feast with all their troupes, as they go in the wars. And when all the troupes of men be before the king, the greatest lord comes forth with his bow and arrows, and shows his skill with his weapons, and then he has a merry conceit or jest, that he speaks before the king, and kneel that his feet, and then the king thanks him for his love: and in like manner they do all. The king sits abroad in a great place, and has a carpet spread upon the ground, which is some fifteen fathoms about of fine ensacks, which are wrought like velvet, and upon the carpet his seat, which is a fathomed from the ground. Then he commands his Dembes to strike up, which are drums, so great that they cannot carry them, and others that are very great. He has also eight Pongos, which are his waiters, made of the greatest elephant's teeth, and are hollowed and scraped light: which play also. And with the drums and waiters they make an hellish noise. After they have sported and showed the king pleasure, he arises and stands upon his throne, and takes a bow and arrows in (153) his hand and shoots to the sky, and that day there is great rejoicing, because sometimes they have rain. I was once there when the king gave rain, and it chanced that day to rain mightily, which made the people to have a great belief in their folly.
Here are sometimes borne in this country white children, which is very rare among them, (154) for their parents are Negroes. And when any of them are borne, they be presented unto the king, and are called dondos. These are as white as any white man. These are the king's witches, and are brought up in witchcraft, and always wait on the king. There is no man that dare meddle with these dondos. If they go to the market, they may take what they list, for all men stand in awe of them. The king of Longo has four of them.
This king is also a witch and believes in two idols, which are in Longo. The one is called, (155) Mokisso a Longo, the other is called, Checocke. This last is a little black image, and stands in (156) a little house, at a village that is called, Kinga, which stands in the landing place of Longo. This house of Checocke stands in the highway, and they that go by clap their hands, which is the courtesy of the country. Those that be craftsmen, as fishermen, hunters and witches do, offer to this idol, that they may have good luck. This Checocke does sometimes in the night come and haunt some of his best beloved: sometimes a man, sometimes a boy, or a woman. And then they be frantic for the space of three hours. And whatsoever the frantic person speaks, that is the will of Checock. And they make a great feast and dancing at his house.
There is another Mokisso, which is also in Kinga, and it is called, Gomberi. It is the name of a (157) woman, and is in an house, where an old witch dwells, and she is called, Ganga Gomberi, which is, the priest of Gomberi. Here once a year is a feast made, and Ganga Gomberi speaks under the ground. And this is a common thing every year. I have asked the Negroes what it (158) was, and they told me, that it is a strong Mokisso, that is come to abide with Checocke.
The children in this country are borne white, and change their colour in two days to a perfect black. As for example, the Portuguese which dwell in the kingdom of Congo, have sometimes children by the Negro women, and many times the fathers are deceived, thinking when the child is borne that it is theirs, and within two days it proves the son or daughter of a Negro; which the Portuguese do greatly grieve at: for they rejoice when they have a Mulato child, thought it be a bastard.
The town of Longo stands in the middest of the four lordships; and is governed by (159) four princes, which are the king's sister's sons. For the king's sons never come to be kings. The first is, Mani Cabango. The second, Mani Salag. The third Mani Bock. The fourth, Mani Gay. This Mani Cay is next to be king, and has his train and court as a prince. And when the king dies, he comes presently into the seat of the king. Then Mani Bock comes to Gay: Mani Sabag comes to Bock, and Mani Cabango comes to Salag. And then they provide another to go to Cabango. So there be four princes that wait to be kings, when their turns come. The mother of these princes is called, Mani Lombo: and she is the highest and chief woman in all the land. She makes choice of her husband, and when she is weary of him, she puts him away, and takes another. Her children are greatly honoured; and whosoever passes by them, kneel down and clap their hands, which is the courtesy of the country. These lordships are champaine grounds, and full of corn, and fruit. The men in this kingdom make great store of palm-cloth of sundry sorts, very fine and curious. They are never idle: for, they make fine caps of needle-work, as they go in the streets.
There is a place two leagues from the town of Longo, called Longeri, where all their kings (160) be buried: and it is compassed round about with elephant's teeth pitched in the ground, as it were a pale, and it is ten roods in compass.
These people will suffer no white man to be buried in their land. And if any stranger or (161) Portuguese come thither to trade, and chance to die, he is carried in a boat two miles from the shore, and cast into the sea. There was once a Portuguese gentleman, that came to trade with them, and had his house on shore. This gentleman died, and was buried some four months. That year it did not rain so soon as it was wont, which begins about December: so that they lacked rain some two months. Then their Mokiso told them, that the Christian which was buried, must be taken out of the earth, and cast into the sea. And so he was taken up, and east into the sea; and within three days it rained: which made them have a great belief in the devil.
To the eastward of Longeri is the province of Bongo, and it borders upon Mocoke, (162) the great Angeca is King. In this place is great store of iron, and palm-cloth, and elephant's teeth, and great store of corn. To the northeast, is the province of Cango, and it is fourteen daysí journey from the town of Longo. This place is full of mountains and rocky ground, and full of woods, and has great store of copper. The elephants in this place do excel. Here are so many, that the people of Longo fetch great store of elephant's teeth, and bring them to the port of Longo.
To the northwards of Longo three leagues is, the River Quelle: and on the north side is, the (163) province of Calongo. This country is always tilled, and full of corn: and is all plain and champaine ground, and has great store of honey. Here are two little villages, that show at sea like two hummocks: which are the marks to know the port of Longo. And fifteen miles northward is the River Nombo: but it has no depth for any bark to go in. This province, toward the east, borders upon Bongo; and toward the north, upon Mayombe, which is nineteen leagues from Longo, along the coast.
This province of Mayombe is all woods and groves; so overgrown, that a man may travail (164) twenty daysí in the shadow without any sun or heat. Here is no kind of corn nor grain: so that the people live only upon plantains, and roots of sundry sorts very good, and nuts, nor any kind of tame cattle, nor hens. But they have great store of elephant's flesh, which they greatly esteem; and many kind of wild beasts; and great store of fish. Here is a great sandy bay, two leagues to the southward of Cape Negro, which is the port of Mayombe. (165) Sometimes the Portuguese load logwood in this bay. Here is a great river, called Banna: in the winter it has no bar, because the general winds cause a great sea. But when the sun has his south declination, then a boat may go in: for then it is smooth because of the rain. This river is very great and has many islands, and people dwelling in them. The woods are(166) so covered with baboons, monkeys, apes, and parrots, that it will fear any man to travail in them alone. Here are also two kinds of monsters, which are common in these woods, and very dangerous.
The greatest of these two monsters is called, Pongo, in their language: and the lesser is called, (167) Engeco. This Pongo is in all proportion like a man, but that he is more like a giant in stature; then a man: for he is very tall, and has a mans face, hollow eyed, with long hair upon his brows. His face and ears are without hair, and his hands also. His body is full of hair, but not very thick, and it is of a dunnish colour. He differs not from a man, but in his legs, for they have no calf. He goes always upon his legs, and carries his hands clasped on the nape of his neck, when he goes upon the ground. They sleep in the trees, and build shelters for the rain. They feed upon fruit that they find in the woods, and upon nuts, for they eat no kind of flesh. They cannot speak, and have no understanding more then a beast. The people of the country, when they travail in the woods, make fires where they sleep in the night; and in the morning, when they are gone, the Pongoes will come and sit about the fire, till it goes out: for they have no understanding to lay the wood together. They go many together, and kill many Negroes that travail in the woods. Many times they fall upon the elephants, which come to feed where they be, and so beat them with their clubbed fists, and pieces of wood, that they will run roaring away from them. Those Pongoes are never taken alive, because they are so strong, that ten men cannot hold one of them; but yet they take many of their young ones with poisoned arrows. The young Pongo hang on his mother's belly, with his hands fast clasped about her: so that, when the country people kill any of the females, they take the young one, which hangs fast upon his mother. When they die among themselves, they cover the dead with great heaps of boughs and wood, which is commonly found in the forests.
The Morombes use to hunt with their country dogs, and kill many kinds of little beasts, (168) and great store of pheasants. But their dogs be dumb and cannot bark at all. They hang wooden clappers about their necks, and follow them by the rattling of the clappers. The huntsmen have petes, which they whistle their dogs withal. These dogs in all this country are very little, with pricked ears, and are for the most part red and dun. The Portuguese mastie dog, or any other great dog are greatly esteemed, because they do bark. I have seen a dog sold up in the country for thirty pounds.
In the town of Mani Mayombe is a Fetisso, called Maramba: and it stands in an high basket (169) made like an hue, and over it a great house. This is their house of religion: for they believe only in him, and keep his laws, and carry his reliques always with them. They are for the most part witches, and use their witchcraft for hunting and killing of elephants, and fishing, and helping of sick and lame men: and to fore-cast journeys, whether they shall speed well or evil. By this Maramba are all thefts and murders tried: for in this country they use sometimes to bewitch one another to death. And when any dies, their neighbours are brought before Maramba: and if it be a great man that dies, the whole town comes to swear. The order is, when they come before Maramba, to kneel and clasp Maramba in their arms, and to say; Emeno, eyge bembet Maramba: that is, I come to be tried, O Maramba. And if any of them be guilty, they fall down stark dead forever. And if any of them that swear has killed any man or child before, although it be twenty years past, he presently dies. And so it is for any other matter. From this place as far as it is to Cape de lopo Gonsalves, they are all of this superstition. I was twelve months in this place, and saw many die after this sort.(170)
These people be circumcised, as they be through all Angola, except the kingdom of Congo, (171) for they are Christians. And those that will be sworn, to Maramba, come to the chief Gangas, which are their priests, or men-witches; as boys of twelve years of age, and men and women. Then the Gangas put them into a dark house, and there they remain certain days with very hard diet: after this they are let abroad, and commanded not to speak for certain days, what injury soever they be offered: so that they suffer great penury before they be sworn. Lastly, they are brought before Maramba, and have two marks cut upon both their shoulders before, like an half moon; and are sworn by the blood that falls from them, that they shall be true to him. They are forbidden some one kind of flesh, and some one kind of fish, with many other toys. And if they eat any of this forbidden meat, they presently sicken and never prosper. They all carry a relique of Maramba in a little box, and hang it about their necks, under their left arms. The lord of this Province of Mayombe, has the ensign or shape of Maramba carried before him, whithersoever he goes; and when he sits down, it is set before him; and when he drinks his palm-wine, the first cup is poured at the foot of the (172) Mokiso, or idol; and when he eats any thing whatsoever, the first piece he throws toward his left hand, with enchanting words.
From Cape Negro northward is a great lord, called Mani Seat; which has the greatest store of Elephant's teeth of any lord in the kingdom of Longo: for, his people practise nothing (173) else but to kill elephant's. And two of those Negroes will easily kill an elephant with their darts. And here is great store of logwood.
There is another lord to the eastward, which is called Mani Kesock, and he is eight daysí (174) journey from Mayombe. Here I was with my two Negro boys, to buy elephant's hairs (175) and tails; and in a month I bought twenty thousand, which I sold to the Portuguese for thirty slaves, and all my charges borne. From this place I sent one of my Negro boys to Mani Seat with a looking-glass: he did esteem it much, and sent me four elephant's teeth, (very great) by his own men; and desired me to cause the Portuguese, or any other ship, to come to the northward of the Cape Negro, and he would make fires where his landing place is: For there was never yet any Portuguese, or other stranger in that place.
To the northeast of Mani Kesock, are a kind of little people, called Matimbas; which are (176) no bigger then boys of twelve years old, but are very thick, and live only upon flesh, which they kill in the woods with their bowes and darts. They pay tribute to Mani Kesock, and bring all their elephant's teeth and tails to him. They will not enter into any of the Marombos houses, nor will suffer any to come where they dwell. And if by chance any Maramba, or people of Longo pass where they dwell, they will forsake that place, and go to another. The women carry bow and arrows as well as the men. And one of these will walk in the (177) woods alone, and kill the Pongos with their poisoned arrows. I have asked the Marombos, whether the elephant sheds his teeth or no? And they say no. But sometimes they find (178) their teeth in the woods, but they find their bones also.
When any man is suspected for any offence, he is carried before the king, or before Mani Bomma, which is as it were a judge under the king. And if it be upon matter that he denies, and cannot be proved but by their oath; then the suspected person is thus sworn. They have a kind of root which they call Imbondo. This root is very strong, and is scraped into(179) water. The virtue of this root is, that if they put too much of it into the water, the person that drinks it cannot void urine: and so it strikes up into the brain, as though he were drunk, and he falls down as though he were dead. And those that fall are counted as guilty, and are punished.
In this Country none of any account dies, but they kill another for him: for they believe they die not of their own natural death, but that some other has bewitched them to death: And all those are brought in by the friends of the dead which they suspect, so that many times there come five hundred men and women to take the drink, made of the foresaid root, Imbonda. They are brought all to the high-street or market place, and there the master of the Imbonda sits with his water, and gives every one a cup of water by one measure: and they are commanded to walk in a certain place till they make water, and then they be free: But he that cannot urine, presently falls down, and all the people great and small fall upon him with their knifes, and beat and cut him into pieces. But I think the witch that gives the water is partial, and gives to him whom he will have to die the strongest water, but no man (180) can perceive it that stands by. And this is done in the town of Longo, almost every week in the year.
In this Kingdom there is no kind of tame cattle but goats; for none other cattle will live here. Oxen and kine have been brought hither, but they presently die: The hens in this place do so abound, that a man may buy thirty for the worth of six pence in beads. Here is store of pheasants, and great plenty of partridges, and wild fowl. Here is a kind of fowl that lives in the land bigger then a swan, and (181) they are like an heron, with long legs, and long necks, and it is white and black, and has in her breast a bare place without feathers, where she strikes with her bill. This is the right (182) pelican, and not those sea birds which the Portuguese call pelicans, which are white, and as big as geese, and those abound in this country also.
Here is also the zevera or zebra, which is like an horse; but that his mane, his tail, his strakes (183) of divers colours down his sides and legs, do make a difference. These zeveras are all wild, and live in great herds, and will suffer a man to come within shot of them, and let them shoot three or four times at them before they will run away.
Moreover, there are great store of sea or river horses, which feed always on the land, and (184) live only by grasse, and they be very dangerous in the water. They are the biggest creature in this country, except the elephant: They have great virtue in the claws of their left forefoot, (185) and have four claws on every foot, like the claws of an ox. The Portuguese make rings of them, and they are a present remedy for the flux.
The ZEVERA OR ZEBRA
The Portuguese make war against the Negroes in this manner. They have out of Congo a (186) nobleman, which is known to be a good Christian, and of good behaviour. He brings out of Congo some one hundred Negroes that are his followers. This Macicongo is made tandala, or (187) general over the black Camp; and has authority to kill, to put down lords, and make lords, and has all the chief doings with the Negroes. And when any lord comes to obey; first he comes to the tandala and brings his present; as slaves, kine, and goats: Then the tandala carries him before the Portuguese governor, and brings two slaves for the governor's page before he goes in. Then he must have a great gift for the Governor; which is sometimes, thirty or forty slaves, besides cattle. And when he comes before the governor, he kneels down and claps his hands, and falls down with his face upon the ground, and then he rises and says; I have been an enemy, and now I protest to be true, and never more to lift my hand against you. Then the governor calls a soldier which has deserved a reward, and gives the lord to him. This soldier sees that he have no wrong: and the lord acknowledges him to be his master; and he does maintain the soldier, and makes him rich. Also, in the wars he commands his master's house to be built before his own: and whatsoever he has taken that day in the wars, he parts with his master. So that there is no Portuguese soldier of any account, but he has his Negro sona, or lord.
They use upon this coast to fish with harping irons, and wait upon a great fish that comes (188) once a day to feed along the shore, which is like a grampus. He runs very near the shore, and drives great schools of fish before him: and the Negroes run along the shore, as fast as they are able to follow him, and strike their harping irons round about him, and kill great store of fish, and leave them upon the sand till the fish has done feeding; and then they come and gather their fish up. This fish will many times run himself on ground, but they will presently shove him off again, which is as much as four or five men can do. They call him Emboa, which is in their speech, a dog; and will by no means hurt or kill any of them. Also, they use in the bays and risers, where shoal water is, to fish with mats, which(189) are made of long rush as, and they make them of an hundred fathoms long. The mats swim upon the water, and have long rushes hung upon one edge of the mat, and so they draw the mat in compass, as we do our nets. The fishes fearing the rushes that hang down, spring out of the water, and fall upon the Mat that lies, flat on the water, and so are taken.
They have four sorts of corn in Longo: the first, is called Masarga, and it grows upon (190) a straw as big as a reed, and has an ear a foot long, and is like hemp-seed. The second, is called Masembala. This is of great increase: for of one kernel there springs four or five canes, which are ten foot high, and they bear half a pint of corn apiece. This grain is as big as tares, and very good. Thirdly, they have another that grows low like grasse, and is very like mustard-seed: and this is the best. They have also the great Guinea wheat, which they call Mas-impota. This is the least esteemed.
They have very good Peas, somewhat bigger than ours: but they grow not as ours do. For (191) the pods grow on the roots underneath the ground; and by their leaves they know when they be ripe. They have another kind of Peas, which they call Wandos. This is a little tree; and the first year that it is planted, it bears no fruit: but after it bears fruit three years, and then it is cut down.
Their plantain trees bear fruit but once, and then are cut down: and out of the root thereof spring three of four young ones.
They have great store of honey, which hangs in the Elicondy trees. They gather it with (192) an hollow piece of wood or chest, which they hang in the top of the tree, and once a year it is full, by smoke rewarding the laborious creatures with robbery, exile, death.
This Alicunde or Elicondy tree is very tall, and exceeding great; some as big as twelve men (193) can fathom, spreading like an oak; some of them are hollow, and from the liberal skies receive such plenty of water, that they are hospital entertainers of thousands in that thirsty region. Once have I known three or four thousand remain at one of those trees, and thence receiving all their watery provision for four and twenty hours, and yet not empty. The Negroes climbed up with pegs of hard wood (which that softer easily receives, the smoothness not admitting other climbing) and I think that some one tree holds forty tons of water. This tree affords no less bountiful hospitality to the back then belly, yielding (as her belly to their bellies, so) her back to their backs: excepting that this is better from the younger trees, whose tendered backs being more seasonable for discipline, are soundly beaten (for man's fault, whence came the first nakedness) whereby one fathom cut from the tree, is extended into twenty, and is presently fit for wearing, though not so fine as the Juzanda tree yields. This tree yields excellent cloth from the inner bark thereof by like beating. (194) Of their palm trees, which they keep with watering and cutting every year; they make velvets, satins, taffetas, damasks, sarcenets, and such like: out of the leaves cleansed and purged, drawing long threads, and even for that purpose. They draw wine (as is said) from the palm tree; there is another kind of palm tree, which bears a fruit good for the stomach, and for the liver most admirable.
One crocodile was so huge and greedy, that he devoured an Alibamba, that is, a chained company of eight or nine slaves: but the indigestible iron paid him his wages, and murdered the murderer, found after in his belly. I have seen them watch their prey, haling in gannet, man or other creature into the water. But one soldier thus wrapt in shallower water, drew his knife, took his taker in the belly and slew him.
1. Abraham Cooks' voyage.
2. Santa Cruz.
3. Calms on the coast of Guinea.
4. The scorbut
5. Cape de las Palmas
6. Treacherous people
7. San Tome.
8. Ilhas de Rolas.
9. They burn a village.
10. The town of San Tome
11. Cape de lopo Gonsalves.
12. Some hurt.
13. They depart from San Tome.
14. Illha Grande in five degrees to the south of the line on the coast of Brazil
15. Buenos Ayres, Bahia
16. The Dolphin sent home
17. The benefit of a banished man.
18. Isle de Labos Marinos.
19. Morses and seals.
20. The town of Buenos Ayres
21. Isle Verde.
22. They return northward.
23. The Isle of S. Sebastian
24. The town of Spiritu Sancto.
25. The river of Janeiro.
26. Andrew Battell and four others taken.
27. Andrew Battell sent prisoner to Angola in Africa
28. The city of St. Paul.
30. His pilotage and sickness
31. A trade for elephant's teeth and oil of the palm tree
32. Isle de Calabes
33. Blue and red coarse woolen cloth, and Irish rugs, rich commodities.
34. A ship of Holland on that coast.
36. Massango fort.
37. Six yearsí misery.
38. He flees from Massango.
39. The river Coanza
41. Mani Cabech.
42. Lake of Casansa
43. Mani Casansa, is twelve leagues from the city of San Paulo.
44. The river Bengo.
45. Abundance of dangerous crocodiles.
46. The river Dande.
49. A.B. left alone.
50. He yielded, they were taken prisoners, and sent again to the city of San Paulo.
51. Four hundred banished Portuguese employed in the wars.
52. Sowonso — Namba Calamba — Sollancango — Combricaianga — Ingasia — Ingombe.
53. A fruit good for the colic.
54. Sending to Bahia das Vaccas, or Bahia de Torre
55. Store of cows, great sheep, and fine copper.
56. Cacongo a sweet wood.
57. A good bay and fit refreshing from the East Indies.
59. Cattle bought for blue glass beads of an inch long.
61. Mines of fine copper.
62. Men effeminate.
63. The attire of their women.
65. Lopes was deceived in their origin.
66. `The Gagas, a most warlike people
67. He in discourse with me, called them Jagges, and their chief the Great Jagge. I think he wrote them Gagas for Giagas by false spelling.
68. The Jagges' camp.
69. Their manner of remove.
70. Their vainglory.
71. The Benguelas slaughter.
72. The Gagas are the greatest man-eaters in the World.
73. The province of Bambala
74. Mofarigosat, a great Negro lord.
75. Andrew Battell left with the Andalambands
76. In danger of death.
77. Cashil a great town.
78. A giantly image called Quesango, and their idolatrous rites.
79. Their streets and houses.
80. A mokisso, or Idol.
81. He comes to the camp of the great Gaga.
82. Of these Giagas, read also Pigasetta's book of Congo, translated into English by M. Hartwell, and my Pilgrimage, I.7 But none could so well know them as this author, which lived so long with them.
83. The River Longa. Calango. Tondo. Gonsa River, or Gunza.
84. Great cold in the high mountains.
85. Shillambansa destroyed.
86. Store of wild peacocks.
87. The River Coanza
88. The mountains of silver.
89. A fall of waters heard thirty miles.
91. Casoch a great warrior.
92. The author's dear-bought credit.
93. Massangano fort.
94. He gets again to the Portuguese.
95. Discourse of Calandola, the great Jagge.
96. His dependence of the devil.
97. His severity.
99. Their fortifying.
100. A River having great store of gold, to the south of Bahia das Vacca.
101. They found of this gold.
102. Palm-wine, how drawn.
103. Such difference between wasps and bees.
104. What they do being resisted
105. Fruges consumere ati.
107. His attire.
108. Bamba shells. Maso shells, of great account among the Gagas.
109. Cruel bravery.
110. They use this ceremony in Florida.
111. Foolish gallantry.
112. Generation of vipers.
113. A generation without generation of Gaga.
115. Boys trained up in the wars.
116. These Gagas came from Sierra Leone.
118. Butcherly rites.
119. Burial of their dead. Cruel funerals.
120. Unkind kindness.
121. Masangano, a town of Portugal.
122. Salt Mines. Silver Mines.
123. The River Coanza.
124. Stone-salt, a special commodity. The like is in Poland.
125. Andrew Battle made sergeant of a Portuguese company
126. Señor Juan de Continbo dies.
127. Sierras da Prata.
128. News of the death of the queen of England, 1603.
130. The Ontiero of Congo.
131. The River Bengo.
132. The River Dande.
133. The Lake of Casansa.
134. The manner of the savages drying of their flesh.
135. He made a boat with a knife.
136. The Lake of Casanza falls into Bengo.
137. He was there three years in Longo.
138. Puntada Palmar.
139. Engoy is the first province of Longo.
140. The River Cacongo.
141. The Mombales.
142. The River of Caye.
143. Golfam das Almadias.
144. The Port of Longo.
145. Fine logwood
146. Molangos, or copper.
147. Elephantís teeth.
148. The king Macomas, or wives.
149. Strange custom of drinking.
150. Tyrannical custom.
151. Arrogating to give rain.
152. It rains here in December.
153. Policy of the devil.
154. Some white children born among them.
155. Their Mokisso and Checocke.
156. A village called Kinga.
157. Mokisso Gomberi.
158. Colour of their children when they are born.
159. Four princes in Loango.
160. Burial of their kings.
161. No white man may be buried in Longo.
165. Cape Negro is in sixteen degrees to the south of the line.
166. Banna River.
167. The Pongo, or giant-ape. He told me in conference with him, that one of these Pongos took a Negro boy of his, which lived a month with them. For they hurt not those which they surprise at unawares, except they look on them, which he avoided. He said, their height was like a man's, but their bigness twice as great. I saw the Negro boy. Their strength. What the other Monster should be, he has forgotten to relate: and these papers came to my hand since his death, which otherwise in my often conferences I might have learned. Perhaps he means the pigmy Pongo-killers, mentioned.
168. A dog sold for thirty pounds.
169. The town of Mani Mayombe.
170. The author was twelve months in this country.
171. All Angola circumcised.
172. His travail to Mani Kesock. Mani Seat.
173. Great store of logwood.
174. Mani Kesock.
175. Twenty thousand elephant tails. A trade a little northward of Cape Negro, which is about sixteen degrees to the south of the line.
176. The Matimbas a people of very small stature, a kind of pigmies.
177. Women using bowes and arrows.
178. Elephants, whether they shed their teeth.
179. The virtue of the root Imbondo. He told me that this root makes the water as bitter as gall (he tasted it) and one root will serve to try one hundred. They which have drunk and made water after are cleared, before which if dizziness take them, they cry, Undoke, Undoke, and presently execute them. See my Relat. l. 7. c. 10. which I wrote from his mouth. Neither may this be ascribed to the virtue of the herb, but to the vice of the devil, a murderer and his Instruments. The Ganga or priest.
180. And therefore that conjecture seems unprobable. For how could an ordinary trial of life where are so many so perilous; and therefore curious (more then) spectators, not perceive this in so long and frequent experience, which costs so many their dearest friends their dearest life? I think rather that this was the transcribers conjecture. I remember no such scruple in his narrations to me, who knows not the devilís ambition of deity, and cruel misanthropy or man-hating? This is his apish imitation of divinity, and those rites prescribed for trial in case of jealousy, Num. 5. In Guinea like trial is made by salt, and also by the Fetisseroes pot. In Benomotapa, by a water also: in the Moramba trial before, and Motamba trial by hot iron in Angola; the plough-shares in old times with us: and the trial of witches still in the east parts by water, &c. were not unlike in deceivable superstition.
181. Plenty of wild fowl.
182. The right pelican.
1831. The zevera or zebra
184. The hippopotamus or river horse.
185. A present remedy for the flux.
186. The port wars in Congo.
187. The general of the black camp.
188. Their fishing on the coast.
189. A strange kind of fishing with mats.
190. Four sorts of corn in Longo.
191. Two sorts of peas: how they grow.
192. Their honey.
193. I added this that follows out of his own reports to myself. Other like things you may find from his relation scattered in my Pilgrimage.
194. The Juzanda.
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