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Volume 1153

ERB References for the
The War Chief ~ The Apache Devil

Source: The ERB Personal Library Collection

Paul Stahr: War Chief - title page anonymous artist -  no FPStudley Burroughs: Apache Devil - 5 b/w interiors

Young ERB's first artistic effortsYoung ERB's first artistic efforts
Some of the first sketches done by a very young Eddie Burroughs
Indian with headdress on an elephant ~ Cavalry Officer on a horse

Burroughs drew upon his personal experiences from when he served as a trooper
with the U.S. 7th Cavalry at Fort Grant, Arizona.

He also cited the following books and periodicals 
as being among the reference materials he used:

Part I: ERBzine 1153 (below)

The Marvellous Country: Three Years in Arizona and New Mexico, the Apache's Home by Samuel Woodworth Cozzens 1873
Thrilling Days in Army Life by General. George. A. Forthsyth 1900
Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs by Norman B. Wood
The Frontier Trail by Colonel Homer W. Wheeler
The Land of Poco Tiempo by Charles. F. Lummis

PART II: ERBzine 1154 (next page)

Geronimo's Story of His Life by S.M. Barrett, 1907
Trailing Geronimo: The Outbreak of the White Mountain Apaches, 1881 - 1886  by Anton Mazzanovich
Life Among the Apaches by John Carey Cremony
Apache Medicine-Men by John G. Bourke
More ERB Apache References in ERBzine

Ref: ERB Bio TimeLine in ERBzine: Chapter 1875-1899
May 13, 1896: Ed travels to Detroit to enlist in the army. Three and a half  months shy of 21 he was caught lying about this age... but his father followed up with a letter of permission. 

May 24: The new recruit arrives at Fort Grant, Arizona Territory to join Troop B, 7th U.S. Cavalry. The "Bloody Seventh" had seen action at the Little Bighorn, Wounded Knee and the Chicago Pullman strike. This was the start of many adventures, including a search for the Apache Kid,  separated by long periods of  boredom. He had expected to spend most of his time chasing Apaches but much of his time is spent on guard duty and digging ditches. He passes much of his time sketching and soaking up knowledge about the geography and history of the area. 

August: Ed, disillusioned with the life of an enlisted man at Fort Grant, starts sending letters imploring his father to help him buy his way out of the service. Worried about the hardships he is going through, his mother secretly sends him food and money. 

August 29: After being hospitalized for two weeks and still suffering from dysentery and having been diagnosed with a "tobacco heart" condition, he rides out with Troop B in pursuit of the Apache Kid and other renegade Apaches. 

September 1: Ed, on his 21st birthday at Duncan Arizona, receives a picture from Emma who is vacationing in Coldwater, Michigan. 

Fall: Due to his lingering dysentery and his knowledge of horses he is assigned the softer job of running the headquarters' stable. 

March 11, 1897: Prompted by Ed's desperate, pleading letters, Major Burroughs convinces influential Chicago businessmen to write letters to Secretary of War Alger, requesting that young Burroughs be discharged for a variety of good reasons. 

March 19: Ed's father informs him via telegram that he has obtained a discharge through Secretary of War Alger. Ed's having lied about his age and a diagnosed weak heart were possible reasons for the discharge. 

March 23: Official discharge issued. He had served only ten months of a three-year enlistment. His commanding officer rates his character as "excellent." 

Spring: Ed joins brother Harry and Lew Sweetser at Nogales, Arizona to help in the moving of a herd of starving Mexican Texas Longhorn cattle to Kansas City via overcrowded boxcars. 

Web Refs for the U.S. 7th Cavalry
Regimental History with "The Girl I Left Behind Me" audio clip (turn on your speakers)
7th Cavalry Bugle Calls
Trooper's Uniform and Equipment

Samuel Woodworth Cozzens April 14, 1834 Marblehead, Mass - Thomaston, GA Nov. 4, 1878
The Marvelous Country: Three Years in Arizona and New Mexioc, the Apache's Home ~ 1873   Shepard and Gill, Boston. 548 pages. Cited by ERB as reference material for his Apache novels

Contains near-death experiences. ERB cites this as one of the reference books he used in the writing of his Apache novels. An authentic history of this wonderful country and its ancient civilization ... together with a full and complete history of the Apache tribe of Indians.

Illustrated by more than one hundred engravings.
Excerpted version recently released in French: 
Travel to the Country of Apaches
Online eText Edition

The Young Silver Seekers or Hal and Ned in the Marvelous Country: Completing the Young Trail Hunters' Series ~ 1882 ~ Boston: Lee And Shepard
Explorations ? adventures in Arizona ? New Mexico ~ 532 pages
The Young Trail Riders
Online eText Edition:
Alternate Text on Gutenberg:
From my youth up, no book ever fascinated me like one of travel and adventure in Indian lands, where danger attends every step; and, believing that the hair-breadth escapes of my young friends, Hal and Ned, in crossing with me, the great plains of the South-West, a few years since, will prove entertaining, as well as instructive, I have taken great pleasure in recounting them. The delineation of the habits, characteristics, and barbarous customs of the savages, who, for centuries, have roamed over those vast plains, is the result of my personal observation among these, now fast vanishing, Indian tribes. If this narrative proves a sufficient inducement for you to follow "THE TRAIL HUNTERS," to the end, a future volume to be entitled "CROSSING THE QUICKSANDS, OR HAL AND NED ON THE PACIFIC SLOPE," will acquaint you with some of the startling adventures befalling my young friends, after reaching their homes in the far west. Hoping to merit your hearty commendation, I have the honor to subscribe myself, THE AUTHOR. 

Samuel Cozzens author, born in Marblehead, Massachusetts, 14 April, 1834; died in Thomaston, Georgia, 4 November, 1878. He was a lawyer, and for a time United States district judge of Arizona. His published works include" The Marvellous Country" (Boston, 1876); "The Young Trail-Hunters Series," comprising "The Young Trail-Hunters," "Crossing the Quicksands," and "The Young Silver-Seekers" (1876 et seq.); and "Nobody's Husband" (1878). ~
Cozzens visited New Mexico and Arizona barely in time to see new US Territories acquired in the Mexican War as they'd never be again. The Apache was more-or-less at peace with the white men. The Texas Confederates hadn't yet campaigned up the Rio Grande, causing Arizona to become a major conduit for men and materials. Gold hadn't yet been discovered in either of the two territories.Cozzens visited Tuscon, Tubac, Sacaton, Mesilla, Acoma, Laguna and Zuni at a time when they were still new from the US perspective. His descriptions of the people, the places and the times are well worth reading again and again. A grizzly bear attacks their mule in the Zuni Mountains. It must have been one of the last opportunities a mule had in New Mexico for such an experience. The book is loaded with that sort of thing. ~

General George A. Forsyth   November 7, 1837 - September 12, 1915
Thrilling Days in Army Life ~ 1900 ~ Describes one of the classic encounters between Indians and the frontier army known to history as the Battle of Beecher Island.  ~ Cited by ERB as reference material for his Apache novels

Later Edition ~ Bison Books
A Frontier Fight ~ Harpers Magazine (1895)
The Story of the Soldier (1900)
Thrilling Days of Army Life (1902). 

General George A. Forsyth 
Thrilling Days in Army Life describes one of the classic encounters between Indians and the frontier army. In the summer of 1868 George A. Forsyth led fifty scouts to search out Cheyennes who were raiding Kansas. In this book, he relates the six-day siege in september that pitted his small force against 750 Cheyennes and Sioux. Because the battle occurred in a dry bed of the Arickaree Fork of the Republican River in western Colorado and claimed the life of Forsyth's brave lieutenant, Frederick Beecher, it would be known to history as the Battle of Beecher Island. Forsyth, who was breveted brigadier general for the 1868 battle, had an action-packed career. In 1882, as commander of the Fourth Cavalry in New Mexico, he pursued the Chiricahua Apaches across the border into Mexico. It was a raid full of dangerous traps, but he lived to tell about it. Originally published in 1900, Thrilling Days in Army Life will be of interest to both frontier and Civil War buffs. Forsyth was an aid to Major General Philip H. Sheridan in 1864 and accompanied him on the dramatic ride to the rescue of Union troops at Cedar Creek. That episode is presented in a rush of detail. Forsyth ends with an eyewitness account of the surrender of the Confederacy at Appomattox Court House. Of special interest to readers will be the many drawings by Rufus Zogbaum, a leading military artist of his day. Introducing this Bison Book edition of Thrilling Days in Army Life is David Dixon, an assistant professor of history at Slippery Rock University and the author of Hero of Beecher Island: The Life and Military Career of George A. Forsyth, also available from the University of Nebraska Press. 

Forsyth was born November 7, 1837 at Muncy, Pennsylvania, he enlisted as a Private in the Chicago Dragoons in April 1861 and in September was appointed First Lieutenant in the 8th Illinois Volunteer Cavalry. Throughout the Civil War, he served with the Army of West Virginia, the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Shenandoah. He was advanced to Captain in February 1862, Major in September 1863, Brevet Colonel, October 1864, for gallantry at Opequon and Winchester and Brevet Brigadier General for services in the Army in March 1865. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in March 1865.  In July 1865 he was appointed Major of the 9th U.S. Cavalry. In 1867 he received brevets in the regular service to Lieutenant Colonel and Colonel for actions in the Civil War at Dinwiddie Court House and Five Forks. From 1866 he was continuously on Frontier duty. 

In the Summer of 1868 he was ordered by General Philip Henry Sheridan, commander of the Department of the Missouri, to recruit a party of "fifty first-class hardy frontiersmen" to scout the Indians of Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado regions. He took to the field in August. On September 16 he made camp on the Arickaree Fork of the Republican River, near the present-day Wray, Colorado. At dawn the next day the scouts were attacked by nearly 1,000 Cheyenne, Sioux and Arapaho Indians led by Chief Roman Nose. He and his men retreated to a sandy island in the bed of the river and dug in. They stood off repeated charges by the Indians, during the first of which Roman Nose and Forsyth's second-in-command, Lieutenant Frederick H. Beecher, were killed and Forsyth wounded three times. The scout's horses were killed and but for them there was no food. Four more men died in subsequent skirmishes, and the siege was maintained for nine days before relief came, just in time, in the form of a Company of black troopers of the 10th U.S. Cavalry from Fort Wallace, Kansas. The engagement became known as the Battle of Beecher's Island, honoring Lieutenant Beecher. He was breveted Brigadier General, U.S. Army, for that fight, and later transferred to the the 4th U.S. Cavalry in the Southwest and took part in the Apache Wars. In 1869-73 he was Military Secretary to General Sheridan and in 1878-1881 Sheridan's Aide-de-Camp. He retired from the Army in March 1890 and was promoted to Colonel on the Retired List in April 1904.  He died at Rockport, Massachusetts, on September 12, 1915 and was buried in Section 1 (Grave 188) of Arlington National Cemetery among other family members. His private memorial says: "Intrepid Soldier and Christian Gentleman."

Norman B. Wood
Lives of Famous Indian Chiefs ~ 1906 Aurora, IL: American Indian Historical Publishing Co. 
Cited by ERB as a resource used in his writing of the Apache novels
Excerpt: Red Jacket vs. Christianity

Rev. Norman B. Wood

Colonel Homer W. Wheeler
The Frontier Trail: A Personal Narrative by Col. Homer W. Wheeler: Famous Frontiersman ~ 1923 ~ Los Angeles Times-Mirror Press  ~ 334 pages ~ An Authentic Narrative of 43 Years in the Old West as Cattleman, Indiand Fighter ? Army Officer/Introduction by Major General James Harbord, Ass. Chief of Staff ~ Illus. with 15 plates, most from photographs, 1 from painting by Charles M. Russell, 1 from painting by E.W. Deming
Cited by ERB as reference material for his Apache novels
Buffalo Days: The Personal Narrative of a Cattleman, Indian Fighter ? Army Officer ~ reprinted by Nebraska University Press
According to Colonel Homer W. Wheeler, an officer who fought with the United States' Fifth and Eleventh Cavalry for 35 years and who lived to write about his expeditions out West, "Millions of Buffalo were slaughtered for the hides and meat, principally for the hide. Some of the expert hunters made considerable money at that occupation. . . . "Buffalo hunting was dangerous sport. Although at times it looked like murder, if you took a buffalo in his native element he had plenty of courage and would fight tenaciously for His life if given an opportunity. Like all other animals, the buffalo scented danger at a distance and tried to escape by running away, but if he did not escape he would make a stand and fight to the last, for which every one must respect him. Some of the habits of the Buffalo herds are clearly fixed in my memory. The bulls were always found on the outer edge, supposedly acting as protectors to the cows and calves. For ten to twenty miles one would often see solid herds of the animals. Until the hunters commenced to kill them off, their only enemies were the wolves and coyotes. A medium-sized herd, at that time, dotted the prairie for hundreds of miles, and to guess at the number in a herd was like trying to compute the grains of wheat in a granary. "The stupidity of the buffalo was remarkable. When one of their number was killed the rest of the herd, smelling the blood, would become excited, but instead of stampeding would gather around the dead buffalo, pawing, bellowing and hooking it viciously. Taking advantage of this well-known habit of the creature, the hunter would kill one animal and then wipe out almost the entire herd." (Buffalo Days, pp 80-82.)

Charles Fletcher Lummis
The Land of Poco Tiempo ~ New Mexico ~ 1893 ~ NY: Charles Scribner's Sons ~ 310 pages ~ 38 illustrations, including some of the earliest photographs ever recorded of Penitente ceremonies. 
Charles F. Lummis's The Land of Poco Tiempo is the story of New Mexico as Lummis found it when he moved to the territory in 1888 to recover his health. As Lummis translates the Spanish title, “poco tiempo” means “pretty soon” the phrase expresses the lack of haste in the lives of the area's inhabitants. Lummis, who had suffered a stroke because of his high-pressure job in Los Angeles, appreciated this attitude. Lummis's account ranges from Indian ruins in chapters such as “Cities That Were Forgotten” and “The Wanderings of Cochiti,” to contemporary Native Americans in “The Apache Warrior” and “The City in the Sky” (the latter treating Acoma Pueblo), and, most controversially, to “The Penitent Brothers”. This chapter tells of the author's visit to the tiny village of San Mateo, New Mexico, during Holy Week of 1891, where he witnessed and photographed a re-enactment of Christ's crucifixion by a local religious group, Los Hermanos Penitentes , or “the Penitent Brothers”. The Protestant author sensationalized the self-flagellation and the mock crucifixion which he witnessed, and the chapter offended many local readers. Lummis was a pioneer photographer, employing a heavy view camera which used glass plates. His photographs, which tell the literal truth about the 1890s more closely than his words, illustrate this book perfectly. 
Some Strange Corners of Our Country: The Wonderland of the Southwest
Letters from the Southwest
Man Who Married the Moon and Other Pueblo Indian Folk Tales
Delight Makers: A Novel of Prehistoric Pueblo Indians
My Friend Will
A Tramp Across the Continent ~ 1892 ~ reprinted by the University of Nebraska Press
Charles F. Lummis's A Tramp Across the Continent is the story of the author's walk from Cleveland, Ohio, to Los Angeles, California, between September 1884 and February 1885. Originally published as a series of weekly columns in the Los Angeles Daily Times , the account was revised into book form in 1891-1892 while the author recovered from a serious illness. While the book covers the entire walk, most of its pages are devoted to southern Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Lummis conveys to his audience his own sense of wonder at encountering for the first time the wonders of the American Southwest--prehistoric Indian ruins, contemporary Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and the flora, fauna, and spectacular landscape of a region that was little known to readers of his day. But the book is more than a simple guidebook. Lummis, a Harvard-educated New Englander, shows the prejudices he had to overcome. In doing so, he hoped to create a sympathetic attitude toward cultures and customs other than their own in his Anglo-American readers. 
Mesa, Canyon and Pueblo  ~ 1925
Mesa, Canyon and Pueblo is considered the finest work of southwestern writer and photographer Charles F. Lummis. A thorough revision of his earlier study of New Mexico, Arizona, and southern California, Some Strange Corners of Our Country (1892), Mesa, Canyon and Pueblo examines the geography, history, and population of the region with an eye to their picturesque details. Geographical features such as the Grand Canyon and the Petrified Forest are treated both from the viewpoint of science and for their effect on the human imagination. Lummis traces mankind's relationship with the Grand Canyon from the earliest Indian settlements, evident in prehistoric ruins, through exploration by Spanish missionaries and the scientific expeditions of John Wesley Powell. He also writes of natural wonders that are significant mainly because of the history and legends of the region's inhabitants, places such as Inscription Rock in western New Mexico, which bears etchings from prehistoric petroglyphs to notations by early American military expeditions. In two chapters on Acoma Pueblo, the “City in the Sky,” Lummis tells the history of the pueblo as it has been recorded by both Indian oral accounts and early Spanish histories. He also describes the modern pueblo of the 1920s with the care of a professional ethnographer. Lummis then retells and attempts to document with scientific evidence the legend of the Acoma tribe's earlier settlement of a nearby mesa, a geological twin to the mesa that is their current home. This involved climbing, examining, and photographing the supposedly unclimbable mesa. Lummis was a sympathetic interpreter of the early inhabitants of the Southwest. At a time when Geronimo was viewed as the scourge of the area, Lummis wrote admiringly of Apache warriors. He defended the ancient civilizations of the pueblo Indians by contrasting them with the early New England settlements, and he defended the Mexican American population from charges that it was ignorant and shiftless. As an introduction to the American Southwest, Mesa, Canyon and Pueblo must still be considered a key book by one of its most perceptive interpreters. 

Ref Links and Online eText Sources for Lummis articles and poems
"Glints of Nahant," The Atlantic Monthly,  Aug. 1883
"5.59," Scribner's Magazine, Oct. 1890
"In Camp," Scribner's Magazine, June 1891
 "The Land Of Poco Tempo," Scribner's Magazine, Dec. 1891
"The Indian Who Is Not Poor," Scribner's Magazine, Sept. 1892
"The Wanderings Of Cochiti," Scribner's Magazine, Jan. 1893
"The Cities That Were Forgotten," Scribner's Magazine, May 1893
"Down the West Coast," Harper's New Monthly Magazine,  Feb. 1895
"The Awakening of a Nation, Part I," Harper's Magazine, Feb. 1897
"The Awakening of a Nation, Part II," Harper's Magazine, March  1897
"The Awakening of a Nation, Part III," Harper's Magazine, April 1897
WestWeb: A large collection of resources about the study of  the American West.
Multicultural American West: Resources related to a multicultural and intercultural perspective on the American West.
American Indian History Resources
Indian Education Policy The Use of Off-Reservation Schools, 1870-1933
Carlisle Indian School
Lummis's 'Tramp Across the Continent'
From the Charles Lummis Website:
As a reporter for the Los Angeles Times, Lummis came close to meeting Geronimo. But the Apache warrior eluded capture during the couple of months that Lummis was on the scene covering the Apache War. This is his paean to the famous warrior -- and the vanished frontier.  Lummis finished the poem, 32 stanzas in all,  in the final months of his life. Here are excerpts.

Man-Who-Yawns (1928) ~ Geronimo
The Desert's mighty Silence;
no fuss of man can spill
A hundred Indians whoop and sing,
And still the Land is still;
But on the city drunk with sound
the whisper is a shout --
'Apaches on the war-path!
Geronimo is out!'

Brave rode our wiry troopers --
they rode without avail;
Their chase he tweaked it by the nose,
and twisted by the tail;
Around them and around he rode --
A pack-train putters slow,
And 'horse and man of ours must eat' --
'Ahnh!' said Geronimo.

They never say a hair of him,
but ever and oft they felt --
Each rock and cactus spitting lead
from an Apache belt,
Where never sign of man there was,
nor flicker of a gun --
You cannot fight an empty hill;
you run -- if left to run!

A prophet of his people, he,
no War-Chief, but their Priest,
And strong he made his Medicine,
and deep the mark he creased --
The most consummate Warrior
since warfare first began,
The deadliest Fighting Handful
in the calendar of Man.

The Desert Empire that he rode
his trail of blood and fire,
Is pythoned, springs and valleys, with
the strangle-snake of wire.
The Fence has killed the Range and all
for which its freedom stood –
Though countless footsore cowboys mill
in mimic Hollywood.

A Tragedy? What wholesale words
we use in petty ways –
For murder, broken hearts of banks,
and disappointed days!
But here an Epoch petered out,
An Era ended flat;
The Apache was the Last Frontier –
The Tragedy is that!

The Lummis / Harrison Gray Otis / Burroughs Connection

Harrison Gray OtisHarrison Gray Otis, legendary editor and publisher of the Los Angeles Times hired Lummis to work as a reporter for the Times on the day he completed his 3,507-mile walk from Cincinnati to Los Angeles. Interestingly, it was the Otis estate in the San Fernando Valley that Ed Burroughs would purchase and rename Tarzana Ranch in 1919.  Otis was widely regarded as a tyrannical bully who often used underhanded tactics and the pages of his newspaper to unfairly attack and undermine his opponents. In fact, Theodore Roosevelt, is quoted as saying that Otis "is a consistent enemy of men in California who have dared resolutely to stand against corruption and in favor of honesty." It is not surprising then that Lummis was given the assignment of defending and whitewashing the character and public service record of the city's corrupt police chief, Edward McCarthy, in the pages of the Times. Despite the great waves of antagonism toward Otis, he and his popular new journalist were a strong voice in preaching tolerance of Chinese immigrants and black laborers. The Times was also a powerful influence in the taming and civilizing the "wild west" city of Los Angeles in the late 19th century. 
Charles Fletcher Lummis, in 1884, he walked from Ohio to California in a pair of knickerbockers and street shoes  to take a job as a reporter for the Los Angeles Times.  He gained a national following with weekly letters about his escapades along the way.  A New England Yankee by birth, he gained a deep appreciation for both the natural beauty and cultural diversity of the Southwest, where he remained for the rest of his life.  Lummis almost always attired in his trademark well-worn, dark green, Spanish-style corduroy suit, soiled sombrero and red Navajo sash, went on to become one of the most famous and colorful personalities of his day as a book author, magazine editor, archaeologist, preserver of Spanish missions, advisor to President Theodore Roosevelt and a crusader for civil rights for American Indians, Hispanics and other minority groups.   He was open and accepting of all people, flamboyent, bombastic and an asset to the development of Los Angeles, its library, the Southwest Museum and the peaceful relocation of the native Americans to reservations. (He had been appointed to that task by his Harvard classmate, Teddy Roosevelt.) A  new biography of Lummis, American Character, was published in the spring of 2001.   Publisher's Weekly called it  "a compulsively engaging and spirited biography of a man as colorful as he was influential." 

Charles F. Lummis brought the American Southwest (New Mexico, Arizona, and California) to the attention of the reading public during the last decade of the nineteenth century and the first three decades of the twentieth century. Folklorist, journalist, editor, and photographer, Lummis sought to popularize travel in the region and to bring to his readers an appeciation of the varied ethnic cultures of the area. After growing up in Massachusetts and attending Harvard, which he left without taking a degree, Lummis moved to Ohio, where he edited a weekly newspaper. In 1884 he accepted the post of city editor of the Los Angeles, California Daily Times . He began his duties for that paper by recording his 3500-mile walking trip from Ohio to California in a series of weekly columns for the newspaper. These became the basis for one of his best-known books, A Tramp Across the Continent . In 1887 Lummis suffered a stroke and became partially paralyzed. He moved to New Mexico and lived the vigorous life propounded by his Harvard classmate, Theodore Roosevelt. He traveled throughout the territory on horseback, joined archeological expeditions, and began to work as a free-lance writer. It was during this time that he revised his columns into A Tramp Across the Continent (1892) and wrote The Land of Poco Tiempo (1893) and Some Strange Corners of Our Country (1892). The latter book, much revised and enlarged, would become Lummis's masterpiece, Mesa, Canyon and Pueblo (1925). Eventually he regained the use of his left arm and returned to southern California. While he published fiction ( The Gold Fish of Gran Chimu ) and poetry ( A Bronco Pegasus ), Lummis's main contributions were his accurate portraits of the land he loved. He befriended Mexican Americans and Native Americans and interpreted their ways to a nation that had seen these peoples as mere obstacles in the way of the doctrine of Manifest Destiny. As he summed up his own career, “My pen is very little good without my legs. I must run and see or I've got nothing to write about.”

Apostle of the Southwest  From the Obituary that appeared in the New York Times, November 1928: 
"Charles Lummis was one of the first ‘discoverers’ of the southwest. Many a person had traveled through Arizona and New Mexico before he did. A few had written of it glowingly. But Mr. Lummis combined the skill and instinct of a journalist with a deep love of the country."

Web Ref: The Charles Lummis Website

ERBzine 3482
Captain Bourke's Influence
On the Border with Crook
ERBzine 3483
Text and Illustrations
ERB References
ERBzine 3484
Scrapbook: Art and Photos 
Indian Wars and Apaches
ERBzine 3484a
Apache 3-D Photos
28 Stereoviews
For more background information on the Apache Novels in ERBzine see:
Robert "Tarak" Woodley Discusses The War Chief (an ERBapa reprint)
ERB Time Line Bio

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