Erbzine.com Homepage
Official Edgar Rice Burroughs Tribute and Weekly Webzine Site
Since 1996 ~ Over 10,000 Web Pages in Archive
Volume 5157
PO MADOWEH BARSOOMI
On Barsoomian Names
By
John Grey Calvert and Talo Thoran

As a welcome by-product of the resumption of communication
between Earth and Barsoom via the modified Gridley Wave,
and with the valued assistance of Talo Thoran
(one of the few comparative linguists on a planet where nearly every sentient creature is fluent in the same language),
work on the long-awaited Barsoomian/English Dictionary and Grammar proceeds apace,
with some 3500 Barsoomian words currently on file.
Among the first fruits of our collaboration has been the translation of
the two hundred proper names and eighty-odd place names originally
recorded by Captain Carter.
These may be found below after a brief explanatory note.
With but a few exceptions, Barsoomian names are derived from the Common Tongue employed by the majority of thinking beings on the planet. 

Every red Barsoomian possesses a rahakmado, or true name, known only to himself and those closest to him, which he receives shortly after he breaks the shell.  The name by which he is known publicly, the kamomado, is constructed as more of a nickname, an appellation that is sometimes chosen by himself, but more often bestowed upon him by those who have observed him during his early years—though a significant alteration of status or appearance will occasionally lead to a corresponding change in one’s public name at any stage of life.  As such, Barsoomian public names can run the gamut from the flatly descriptive (i.e. Bar Comas = Eight Scars; Floran = Herdsman) to the laudatory (Tara = Beautiful One; Ptor Fak = Generous Host), the mockingly ironic (Anatok  = Fearless; Jal Had = Righteous), and the openly contemptuous (Rapas = Sneaky). While there are no specific rules for public naming within families, blood relationships are traditionally recognized by an echoing of the names of one or both parents in those of the child, with the repeated phonemes commonly alternating placement in the name from one generation to the next.  Thus we have Kantos Kan (Steadfast Friend) and his son, Djor Kantos (Sword of Loyalty); Sanoma Tora (Treasure of the Hills) and her sire, Tor Hatan (Family Man); and Sab Than (Wedded to Battle), the son of Than Kosis (Bellicose).

Mated couples often address each other by their true names when in private, as well as by their public names, or by the traditional terms of endearment, at-jejra (“my princess”) and at-moran (“my chieftain”).  Offspring typically address their parents by their kamomadoweh, or by the affectionate diminutives tera (from at-hera, or “my mother”) and tekka (from at-hekka, “my father”).

The rahakmado is not casually disclosed nor often alluded to in red Barsoomian society.  It is considered a grave breach of etiquette for anyone other than a mate or close family member to attempt to learn another’s true name.

The yellow men of the ice-clad North, the white therns of the far South, and even the marsupial Goolis deep within the Great Toonolian Marsh, adhere to the same naming practices as the red men—though it is worth noting that many of the ancient Orovars favored a somewhat more poetic tripartite construction (e.g., Hor Kai Lan = Source of Laughter and Patience).

The First Born craft their public names using the Common Tongue of Barsoom, but their secret names are purportedly derived from the still mysterious original language of the black race.

Given the communal nature of their society, it is not surprising that members of the green race employ but one appellation for both public and private purposes (a practice also in evidence among the burrows of the nonhuman Kaldanes of Bantoom).  Without exception, names among the green nations are bestowed by those of superior rank upon those beneath them.  Children, considered by age-old custom to be the property of an entire horde, are often given a succession of temporary, single-word nicknames as they age, until they distinguish themselves in some lasting fashion from their fellows.  This can be accomplished either by a significant contribution to the community, or by the development of some physical characteristic or personality trait that provokes a strong reaction (positive or otherwise) from someone of higher standing.  In addition, when a young green warrior makes his first kill, he appropriates the initial portion of his victim’s name and appends it to his own.  Until this time the one-named youth is described as an o-mad (literally “air-man”), i.e., one who is all talk and no substance. 

[Note: Captain Carter, considered for all practical purposes to be nameless when he first appeared among the Tharks, was originally referred to as shamad ni orak (“the pale prisoner”) or sakan eetu (“little jumper”).  Within a relatively short period of time, however, he had dispatched two Thark warriors to their ancestors, thus becoming first Dotar, or “Tracker,” upon the death of Dotar Pnox (“Stealthy Tracker”), and then Dotar Sojat (“Tracks and Attacks”), following his defeat of Sojat Yam (“I Attack Again”).]

.
 
 


A New Map of Barsoom by Oberon Zell
www.erbzine.com/mag39/3937.html

.
 


MADEH NI BARSOOMI ~ HELTAN KAMOMADOWEH
The People of Barsoom ~ Two Hundred Public Names
Anatok    Cowardly Jed of the Goolis (marsupial man)
Fearless    (anatok=without fear)

Astok     Prince of Dusar (red man)
Sure of Himself   (astok=without doubt)

Atkayneh ni    The black race of Barsoom
The First Born   (atk=hatching + ay=first + -an=person)

Ay-mad    Synthetic man (hormad) created by Ras Thavas
Number One Man  (ay=one + mad=man)

Bal Tab    Green man imprisoned in Amhor
Conspirator    (bal=helping + tab=planning)

Bal Zak    Toonolian aircraft captain (red man)
Honors His Debts  (bal=helping + zak=paying)

Ban Tor    First Born warrior of Kamtol (black man)
Troublemaker   (ban=quarreling + tor=valuing)

Bar Comas    Green Jeddak of Warhoon
Eight Scars    (bar=eight + coma=scar) 

Carthoris    Son of John Carter and Dejah Thoris
Forever Beloved   (car=continuing + thoris=loved by)

Cluros    Farther moon personified
     1. Sleeper        (cluro=sleep)
     2. Snorer         (humorous alternative meaning, derived
                                   from clurros=snoring)

Dak Kova    Green Jed of Warhoon
Trophy Collector   (dak=gathering + kova=trophy)

Dar Tarus    Phundahlian (red man)
Changed for the Better  (dar=changing + tarus=to beautify) 

Dejah Thoris    Princess of Helium (red woman)
Beloved of the Gods  (dejah=gods + thoris=loved by)

Djon Carater   aka John Carter of Earth
Immortal Swordsman  (djon=swordsman + carat=I persist + er=alive)

     [Note: Unlike his countryman Ulysses Paxton, whose name was deemed “meaningless and impractical” to the Barsoomian ear, John Carter was blessed by fortune with an Earthly appellation the component sounds of which could easily be assigned meaning in the tongue of his adopted world.]

Djor Kantos    Son of Kantos Kan (red man)
Sword of Loyalty   (djora=sword + kanto=loyalty)

Dotar Sojat    aka John Carter as Thark warrior
Tracks and Attacks  (dotar=tracker + sojat=I strike)

Doxus    First Born Jeddak of Kamtol (black man)
Slasher    (doxus=to slash) 

Dur Ajmad    Amhorian noble (red man)
Full of Questions   (dur=carrying* + aja=question + mad=man)
     [*This name contains a small pun, owing to the secondary meaning of dur: one million.]

Dur-dan    Hormad of Morbus
One Million Three  (dur=one million + dan=three)

Em-Tar    Warrior of Kobol (red man)
Eye for Beauty   (em=admiring + taro=beauty)

Fal Sivas    Zodangan scientist (red man)
Amazing Builder   (fal=amazing + sivus=to build)

Floran    Gatholian (red man)
Herdsman    (floran=herder)

Fo-nar    Panthan from Jahar (red man)
Quick on his Feet   (fo=adapting + nar=ready)

Gahan    Jed of Gathol (red man)
Victor    (gahan=victor)

Gan Had    Toonolian (red man)
Do-gooder    (gan=able + had=good)

Gan-ho    Panarian (red man)
Volunteer    (gan=able + ho=offering)

Gan Hor    Gatholian warrior (red man)
Craftsman    (gan=able + hor=making)

Gantun Gur    (aka Tun-gan) Amhorian assassin (red man)
Eager to Crush   (gan=able + tun=crushing + gur=eager)

Gar Nal    Zodangan inventor (red man)
Inspired Inventor   (gar=stretching + nala=machine)

Ghek     Kaldane of Bantoom
Nimble    (ghek=agile, nimble)

Ghron    Jed of Ghasta (notably hirsute red man)
Smoothest    (ghron=smoothest)

Gor-don    Pankorian warrior (red man)
Hard to Kill    (gorus=to kill + don=difficult)

Gor Hajus    Assassin of Toonol (red man)
Bloodthirsty   (gor=killing + hajus=to want)

Gozava    Secret mother of Sola (green woman)
Waits in Silence   (go=silent + zav=waiting)

Gur Tus    Warrior of Helium (red man)
Valiant    (gur=eager + tus=defending)

Had Urtur    Odwar of Hastor (red man)
By His Bootstraps  (had=good + urtur=of humble origin)

Haja     Enslaved Gatholian princess (red woman)
Desired    (hajak=desired)

Haj Alt    Prince of Tjanath (red man)
Takes What He Wants  (haj=desiring + alt=forcing)

Haj Osis    Jed of Tjanath (red man)
Moved by Desire   (haj=desiring + osis=blown by)

Hal Vas    Dusarian warrior (red man)
Trustworthy   (halo=trust + vas=suggesting)

Hamas    Zodangan major-domo (red man)
Managing    (hamus=to manage, direct)

Hin Abtol    Jeddak of Panar (red man)
Polar Crown    (hin [panak]=[north] pole + abtola=crown) 

Ho Ran Kim   Ancient Orovar (white man)
Offering of Preservation 
     and Safety     (ho=offering + ran=preserving + kim=safe)

Hor Kai Lan   Ancient Orovar (white man)
Source of Laughter 
     and Patience     (horo=source + kai=laughing  + lan=patient)

Hora San    Phundalian High Priest (red man)
Carved from the Hills  (hora=manmade object + sana=hill)

Hor Vastus    Heliumetic officer (red man)
Adviser     (horo=source + vastus=to advise)

Hortan Gur    Torquasian Jeddak (green man)
Scourge    (hortan=punisher + gur=eager)

Hovan Du    Ptarthian man’s brain in Great White Ape
Divided Nature   (hovak=shared, divided + duo=nature, essence)

Il-dur-en    Hormad of Morbus
Five Million Nine   (il=five +dur=million + en=nine)

Issus     First Born woman worshipped as goddess
Radiant Mystery   (isso=mystery + suss=radiant)

Jad-han    Amhorian (red man)
Deserving    (jad=needing + han=rewarding)

Jal Had    Cruel Amhorian Jed (red man)
Righteous    (jal=craving + had=good)

Janai     Amhorian (red woman)
Embracing Wonder  (ja=marveling + nai=accepting)

Jat Or     Heliumetic warrior (red man)
Wakes Up Curious  (jat=questioning + or=dawn)

Jav     Lotharian (white man)
Skeptic    (jav=skeptical)

Kab Kadja    Green Jeddak of Warhoon
Friend to Torture   (ka=friendly + -ab=it + kadj=torturing)

Kal Tavan    Enslaved nobleman of Tjanath
Truth  Rewarded   (kalo=prize + tavan=honest one)

Kaldayneh ni   (aka “Kaldanes”) nonhuman sentients of Bantoom 
The First Masters   (kaldo=control + ay=first + an=person)

Kam Han Tor   Ancient Orovar shipbuilder (white man)
Success of Rewards
       and Values (kam=successful + han=rewarding + tor=valuing)

Kandus    Warrior of Invak (red man)
Upstanding    (kandus=to stand upright)

Kantos Kan    Heliumetic officer (red man)
Steadfast Friend   (kanto=loyalty + kana=friend)

Kara Vasa    Red woman of Phundahl
Trusting Smile   (karo=smile + vas=trusting)

Kar Komak    Lotharian bowman (white man)
Wide Smile    (kar=smiling + komak=widened)

Komal    Lotharian “god” (banth)
Gaping Maw   (kom=wide + alo=red)

Kor-an    Gatholian warrior (red man)
Strongman    (kor=strong + an=person)

Kor San    Jeddak of Duhor (red man)
Strong as the Hills  (kor=strong + san=hill)

Kulan Tith    Jeddak of Kaol (red man)
Pardoner    (kulan=forgiver + tith=merciful)

Lakor   Thern (white man)
Compliant    (lak=obedient + kor=strong)

Lan Sohn Wen   Ancient Orovar (white man)
Dignity of Patience 
      and Sympathy  (lan=patient + sohn=sympathetic + wen=dignified)

Larok     Dusarian artisan (red man)
Locksmith    (lara=lock + -ok=without)

Lee Um Lo    Ancient Orovar (white man)
Steeped in Virtue   (lee=swimming + um=virtuous + lo=all)

Llana     Gatholian princess (red woman)
Joyful One    (llano=joy + -a=perceptible)

Lorkwas Ptomel   (aka “Lorquas”) Green Jed of the Tharks
Silver Sovereign   (lorkwas=high throne + ptomel=silver bracelet)

Lum Tar O    Ancient Orovar (cannibalistic white man)
Feasts on Evanescent
     Beauty   (lum=devouring + taro=beauty + o=air) 

Luud     Kaldane of Bantoom
Abstemious    (lu=abstaining + -ud=you)

Man-lat    Kamtolian under-officer (black man)
Gambler    (man=gaming + lat=wagering)
Hinwarak ni           "The South Pole"
The South Pole      (hina=pole + warak=southern)

Matai Shang   Thern leader (white man)
Son of the Tree   (matai=tree + shanga=seed)

Moak     Kaldane of Bantoom
Contemplative   (moak=pondering)

Mors Kajak    Jed of Lesser Helium (red man)
Leading Bravely   (mor=leading + kajak=with bravery)

Motus    Contemptible nobleman of Invak (red man)
Honorable    (motus=to act honorably)

Multis Par    Prince of Zor (red man)
Cloaked in Shadows  (multis=cloaked by + para=shadow)

Mu Tel    Prince of Toonol (red man)
Dispassionate   (mu=lacking + telo=emotion)

Myr-lo    Scientist of Kamtol (black man)
Sees All    (myr=in front of + lo+all)

Nastor    Prince of Kamtol (black man)
Avaricious     (nast=coveting + tora=treasure)

Nolat     Prince of Kamtol (black man)
Indebted    (nolat=I owe)

Nolatj    (aka “Nolach”) Kaldane of Bantoom
Superior Breeder   (no=superior + latj=producing eggs)

Notan    Zodangan telepathy expert (red man)
Delver    (notan=digger, miner)

Nur An    Jaharian nobleman (red man)
Lucky One    (nur=lucky + -an=one who)

Nutus    Jeddak of Dusar (red man)
Strategist    (nutus=to strategize)

Olvia Marthis   Hastorian noble (red woman)
Honored by Gifts   (olvio=gift + marthis=honored by)

Orm-O    Duhorian animal feeder (red man)
Nourishment   (ormo=nourishment)
[Manatorian-style slave name, literally “Feeding of the House of Air”]

Pan Dan Tji   (aka “Pan Dan Chee”) Orovar (white man)
Innocent Seeker   (pandan=searching + tji=pure)

Pandar    Phundahlian (red man)
Broadened by Travel  (panus=to roam + dar=changing)

Parthak    Zodangan (red man)
Courier    (partho=message + -ak=with)

Phaidor    Thern noble (white woman)
Blessed Flower   (phai=flower + dor=blessed)

Phao     Jaharian (red woman)
Opal     (phao=opal)

Phor San    Panarian Odwar (red man)
Aiming Upward   (phor=aiming, aspiring + san=rising)

Phor Tak    Scientist of Jahar (red man)
Endless Aspirations  (phor=aspiring + tak=100,000)

Phystal    Zodangan slavemaster (red man)
Sarcastic    (phys=sharp + tal=talking)

Pnoxus    Prince of Invak (red man)
Creeper    (pnoxus=to creep, be stealthy)

Povak    Zodangan assassin (red man)
Nothing to Lose   (povak=desperate)

Ptang     Warrior of Kamlot (black man)
Fierce    (ptang=fierce, scowling)

Ptantus    Jeddak of Invak (red man)
Stern     (ptantus=to frown)

Ptor Fak    Zodangan official (red man)
Generous Host   (ptor=hospitable + fak=generous)

Rab-zov    Pankorian guard (red man)
Burning Suspicions  (rab=it burns + zov=suspicious)

Rapas    Zodangan petty assassin (red man)
Sneaky    (rapus=to prowl, sneak)

Ras Thavas    Surgeon of Toonol (red man)
Perfect Understanding  (ras=perfect + thavus=to understand)

Rojas     Red woman of Invak 
Alluring    (rojus=to attract, entice)

Ro Tan Bim   Ancient Orovar (white man)
Bounty of Hope 
     And Tenderness    (ro=bounty + tano=hope + bim=tender)

Sab Than    Jed of Zodanga (red man)
Wedded to Battle   (sabus=to wed + thano=battle)

Sag Or    Noble of Phundahl (red man)
Youthful    (sag=mimicking + or=dawn)

Salensus Oll   Jeddak of Okar (yellow man)
Cold Calculations   (salensus=to calculate + oll=cold)

Sanoma Tora   Noble of Helium (red woman)
Treasure of the Hills  (sanoma=mountain + tora=treasure)

San Tothis    Gatholian airship captain (red man)
Raised Up by Fate  (san=rising + tothis=by destiny)

Saran Tal    Heliumetic major-domo (red man)
Highly Skilled*    (saran=walker + tal=talking)
     [*humorous idiom; literally "walks and talks"]

Sarkoja    Cruel Thark (green woman)
Anger Walking   (sar=walking + kojo=anger)

Sator Throg    Holy Thern (white man)
Broad Shoulders   (sator=shoulder + throg=wide)

Sept     Kaldane of Bantoom
Industrious  (sept=busy, industrious)

Sharu     Red woman of Ghasta
Dancer    (shar=dancing)

Sil Vagis    Heliumetic warrior (red man)
Acquisitive    (sil=buying + vagis=comforted by)

Sola     Thark (green woman)
Inquisitive One   (solo=curiosity + -a=perceptible)

Solan     Okarian (yellow man)
Busybody    (solan=curious person)

Sorav     Okarian commander (yellow man)
Strategic Response  (sor=responding + avo=strategy)

Sovan     Prince of Ptarth (red man)
Hunter    (sovan=hunter)

Susstos    The Sun personified
        1. Radiant Hero  (suss=radiant + tos=daring)
        2. Sweaty Glow  (humorous alternative meaning, derived from susso=glow + to=perspiring)

Sytor     Dusarian (red man)
Vain     (syo=reflection + tor=cherishing)

Tal Hajus    Lustful Jeddak of Thark (green man)
Naked Desire   (tal=communicating + hajus=to desire)

Talu     Prince of Marentina (yellow man)
Man of Few Words  (tal=communicating + lu=abstaining)

Tan Gama    Warrior of Warhoon (green man)
Thinks Ahead   (tan=hoping + gama=destination)

Tan Hadron   Warrior of Hastor (red man)
Best Hope    (tan=hoping + hadron=best)

Tanus    Gatholian air crewman (red man)
Hopeful    (tanus=to hope)

Tara     Princess of Helium (red woman)
Beautiful One   (taro=beauty + -a=perceptible)

Tardos Mors   Jeddak of Helium (red man)
Justice Above All   (tardo=justice + morus=to lead)

Tario     Jeddak of Lothar (white man)
Dreams of Beauty   (tar=beautiful + rio=dream)

Tars Tarkas    Jeddak of Thark (green man)
Swift Avenger   (tars=avenging + tark=swift)

Tasor     Noble of Gathol (red man)
Attentive    (ta=listening + soro=answer)

Tavia     Princess of Tjanath (red woman)
Song of Truth   (tav=truthful + via=song)

Teeaytan-ov   Hormad of Morbus
Eleven hundred seven  (teeay=eleven + tan=one hundred + ov=seven)

Thabis     First Born (black man)
Butcher    (thabus=to butcher)

Than Kosis    Jeddak of Zodanga (red man)
Bellicose    (than=battling + kosis=cheered by)

Thar Ban    Green Jed of Torquas
Ranter    (thar=flushed + ban=quarreling)

Thuria    Nearer moon personified
1. Escapes in Dreams (thu=fleeing + rio=dream)
2. Mocking Gesture (humorous alternative meaning, derived from thur=mocking + iyo=sign)

Thurid    Prince of the First Born (black man)
Mocks His Enemies  (thur=mocking + ridan=enemy)

Thuvan Dihn   Jeddak of Ptarth (red man)
Long Memory   (dihn=holding + thuvan=rememberer)

Thuvia    Princess of Ptarth (red woman)
Song of Memory   (thuv=remembering + via=song)

Tor-dur-bar    Hormad of Morbus
Four Million Eight  (tor=four + dur=one million + bar=eight)

Tor Hatan    Noble of Helium (red man)
Family Man   (tor=cherishing + hatan=relative)

Torith    First Born prince (black man)
Painstaking    (to=sweating + rith=meticulous)

Torkar Bar    Kaolian warrior (red man)
Pious     (torkar=celebrating + bar=ancestor)

Tul Axtar    Bellicose Jeddak of Jahar (red man)
Bringer of War    (tulo=harmony + axtus=to shatter)

Tun-gan    (aka Gantun Gur) Amtorian red man
Crusher     (tun=crushing + gan=capable)

Tur     Phundahlian diety
Humble    (tur=humble)

Turan    (alias of Gahan of Gathol) red panthan
Common Man   (tur=humble + -an=person)

Turjun    (alias of Carthoris of Helium) red panthan
Surprising Humility  (tur=humble +jun[var]=surprising)

U Dan    Warrior of Zor (red man)
Devoted    (dano=devotion)
[Manatorian-style name, literally “Devoted of the House of Water”]

Uldak    Zodangan assassin (red man)
Drinker    (uldak=thirsty)

Ul-to     Panarian guard (red man)
Hard Working   (ul=excessive + to=perspiring)

Ur Jan    Head Assassin of Zodanga (red man)
Versatile    (ur=different + jan=attempting)

Ur Raj    Hastorian (red man)
Discerning    (ur=different + raj=judging)

Uthia     Heliumetic slave (red woman)
Contented    (uthiak=satisfied, contented)

Vad Varo    aka Ulysses Paxton of Earth
Journeys to Wisdom  (vad=journeying + varo=knowledge)

Vaja     Royal woman of Zor (red woman)
Gracious One     (vaj=respectful, gracious + -a=perceptible)

Val Dor    Warrior of Helium (red man)
Blessed Thought   (valo=thought + dor=blessed)

Valla Dia    Princess of Duhor (red woman)
Brings Thoughts 
     of Home     (val=thinking + la=causing + dio=homeland)

Vandor    (alias of John Carter in Zodanga)
Thrice Blessed   (van=many + doro=blessing)

Van-tija    Mate of Jeddak of Kamlot (black woman)
Fruitful    (van=many + tija=egg)

Vanuma    Mate of Jeddak of Amhor (red woman)
Virtuous One   (van=many + umo=virtue + -a=perceptible)

Vas Kor    Noble of Dusar (red man)
Dependable    (vaso=trust + kor=strong)

Vobis Kan    Jeddak of Toonol (red man)
Fine Fellow    (vobis=praised by + kano=friend)

Vor Daj    Heliumetic warrior (red man)
Close-mouthed   (voro=secret + daj=keeping)

Wolak    Zodangan slave (red man)
Tempted    (wolak=tempted)

Woola    Beloved calot of John Carter
Faithful One (“Fido”)  (woolo=fidelity + -a=perceptible)

Xaxa     Jeddara of Phundahl (red woman)
Reverent One   (xax=reverent + -a=perceptible)

Xaxak    First Born prince (black man)
Venerated    (xaxak=venerated)

Xodar    First Born prince (black man)
Open-minded   (xo=opinion + dar=changing)

Yamdor    Toonolian (red man—formerly woman?)
Blessed Rebirth   (yamdo=renewal + dor=blessed)

Yersted    First Born officer (black man)
Submariner    (yerst=diving + stedo=surface)

Yo Seno    Well-fed guard of Tjanath (red man)
Gourmand    (yo=much + seno=food)

Zad     Thark warrior (green man)
Ambitious    (zad=ambitious)

Zanda    Zodangan slave (red woman)
Keeps Her Head   (zand=composed, level-headed)

Zat Arrras    Jed of Zodanga (red man)
Bound for Greatness  (zat=aiming + arrras=pinnacle)

Zithad    First Born prince (black man)
Tenacious    (zithad=strong-jawed animal of the southern polar regions)

Zuki     Cowardly Goolian (marsupial man)
Hides his Tears   (zuk=weeping + kio=dryness)

Zu Tith    Jed of Zor (red man)
Wellspring of Mercy  (zuo=wellspring + tith=merciful)

CONTINUED IN PART II
.

BackForward

BILL HILLMAN
Visit our thousands of other sites at:
BILL AND SUE-ON HILLMAN ECLECTIC STUDIO
All ERB Images© and Tarzan® are Copyright ERB, Inc.- All Rights Reserved.
All Original Work © 1996-2014 by Bill Hillman and/or Contributing Authors/Owners
No part of this web site may be reproduced without permission from the respective owners.