First and Only Weekly Online Fanzine Devoted to the Life & Works of Edgar Rice Burroughs
Since 1996 ~ Over 10,000 Web Pages in Archive
Volume 2004

FROM 1943
An Addendum to the ERB Library Project

Found by George McWhorter 
among the Porges Papers 
during his inventory of the collection

"A few of the books I read from Aug 1943
Moth proof room
ERB Personal Reading"

Cover, Photo, Illustration, Bio, Content, Trivia, and Publishing Research
by Bill Hillman.
Autobiography of Bata Kindai Amgoza Ibn LoBagola, a Negro.
Knopf ~1933
The autobiography of Bata Kindai Amgoza Ibn Lobagola a Black Jew, descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel, a Savage who came out of the African Bush into Modern Civilization and thenceforth found himself an alien among his own people and a stranger in the Twentieth Century World.
"He says he learned to lie after coming to civilization. He seems to have been an apt pupil."
From The Archives
Thus was a new “exhibit”at the Museum announced on January 28, 1911, in Press, a Philadelphia newspaper. On display was Bata Kindai Amgoza ibn LoBagola, seemingly a native of West Africa. Dressed only in a sheepskin skirt, with a large brass ring piercing his nose, LoBagola had been invited by Frank G. Speck, Assistant Curator of General Ethnology at the Museum (and later founder of Penn’s Anthropology Department), to perform dances and other rituals for Museum visitors. Although not an expert in African cultures, Speck had a strong interest in ethnology, or comparative cultural anthropology. Speck interviewed LoBagola at length and recorded him singing songs on wax cylinders, excerpts of which were transcribed and published in the Museum Journal (II (2):54). What attracted the attention of the public, however, was the sight of LoBagola dressed in a skirt, necklaces, and a headdress, parading through the Museum’s galleries. 

According to the newspaper, LoBagola was “by far the best exhibit at the Museum.” But who was he? When Speck invited him to the Museum, LoBagola claimed to have been born in Dahomey (modern Benin in West Africa), a Black Jew descended from the Lost Tribes of Israel, who at a young age had been rescued at sea and taken to Scotland, where he attended boarding school and learned of  "civilization." After returning to his homeland, he made his way back to Europe many times and eventually to the United States. A popular entertainer, he performed and lectured to large audiences about his culture and customs. In reality, however, LoBagola was Joseph Howard Lee,born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1887. His creation of the persona of LoBagola was a daring and successful attempt to escape the life handed to him as a son of former slaves in a country where segregation and discrimination were rampant. By claiming an African—as opposed to African-American — origin he used his great talent for showmanship and manipulation to gain more appreciation and mobility in society and the world than was possible to most African-Americans at the time. 

Although Frank Speck was not the only person he fooled, LoBagola did make a point of apologizing for misleading the Museum’s scholars in his 1929 autobiography, LoBagola: An AfricanSavage’s Own Story (New York: A. A.Knopf): These men asked me to give information about the social organizationof the people of Dahomey…. I supplied them with what I knew of that country, but I was not certain whether what I said was accurate or not, because there is as much difference between a Dahomeyan and one of my people as there is between a flea and an elephant. At that time I was not asked questions about my own people. I took it for granted that I was to talk about what the questioners wanted to know about. They did not know how to question me…. I told them what I knew and added anything I could think of. I did not imagine that the men wished anything but entertainment…. I suppose the good gentlemen of the University of Pennsylvania discussed me, and I am sure that it must have dawned on them that they were in error in the way they sought information. (pp. 332–33) 

LoBagola never did acknowledge the full extent of his fraud — leaving it to others to identify him as Joseph Howard Lee from Baltimore. He admitted only to being an entertainer.

Hanson W. Baldwin
The Caissons Roll: "A Military Survey of Europe" ~ NY, Alfred A. Knopf. 1938  323pp
Interesting study of the state and strength of the European nations and Russia just prior to WW II
Baldwin was Military and Naval Correspondent of the New York "Times" 

Some Strategic Aspects of the War in 1940

Excerpt from TIME Magazine Archive ~ Monday, Nov. 09, 1942 
The Expert Speaks
Last week the New York Times concluded the best series of reports yet written on the Pacific war. The reporter: 39-year-old Hanson W. Baldwin, who may well turn out to be the outstanding U.S. example of the commentator who serves his country and the armed services by directing intelligent criticism where it will do the most good. 

Making of an Expert. Before September 1939, Hanson Baldwin had accumulated a solid reputation for sound reporting of naval affairs. Then he included the Army in his field. He wrote books (United We Stand, Strategy for Victory, The Caissons Roll, Admiral Death, What the Citizen Should Know About the Navy). After Dec. 7, he wrote a column of signed comment. His reputation grew. 

Day after day, week after week, he sat in his cramped, cluttered office in New York and wrote about the Navy, the Army and the war. Occasionally he had a week or so at Army posts, or on a warship, living the life he knew when he was at Annapolis and a junior officer in the Navy (1924-27). But he was restless. He wanted to see the war. 

Last August he set off on a tour of Hawaii, Palmyra, the Fijis, the New Hebrides, New Caledonia, the Solomons. When he returned, he wrote eight analytical reports. By last week, when the Times published the final installment, Hanson Baldwin's stature as a military reporter and critic had enormously increased. 

Disaster at Savo. Reporter Baldwin gave the blackest account yet printed of the naval disaster Aug. 9, in which three U.S. cruisers and one Australian cruiser were sunk (TIME, Oct. 19). "The Astoria, Quincy, Vincennes and Canberra . . . were surprised like sitting ducks; none of them had a chance to get off more than a few ineffectual salvos . . . despite the fact that one of our planes [had reported] the approach of the Japanese cruisers the afternoon prior to the night action. . . . They [the U.S. cruisers] had assumed a defensive position, patrolling over a fixed course in narrow waters and awaiting the enemy instead of going out to attack him. . . . Their dispositions enabled the enemy to approach almost within gun range without detection. . . . Only a small part of their crews were at battle stations. . . . The admiral in command of the northern cruiser screen had left the scene in his flagship. . . . The loss was . .. unnecessary." 

Baldwin's account suggested that the blame for these and other losses did not belong exclusively to Vice Admiral Robert L. Ghormley, the area commander whom the Navy relieved last fortnight. Baldwin named no names, but he implied that inept, overtimid, task-force commanders may have been at least partly to blame. His major conclusion: "The Solomons have clearly shown deficiencies—which stem from overcaution and the defensive complex—that must be remedied. If mistakes continue, we can defeat ourselves." More>>>

Obituary: New York Times Archive: November 14, 1991
Hanson W. Baldwin, retired military-affairs editor of The New York Times and the author of more than a dozen books on military and naval history and policy, died yesterday at his home in Roxbury, Conn. He was 88 years old. Mr. Baldwin died of heart failure, his family said. 

A graduate of the United States Naval Academy, Mr. Baldwin joined The Times in 1929 and won a Pulitzer Prize in 1943 for his World War II reporting from the Pacific. He was one of the nation's leading authorities on military and naval affairs during the postwar transition from conventional warfare to the nuclear age. A tall, slender, courtly man, Mr. Baldwin had a quiet manner that belied his forceful opinions. 

In addition to the European and Pacific battles of World War II, Mr. Baldwin covered the strategy, tactics and weapons of war in Korea, Vietnam, the Middle East and other theaters before retiring from The Times in 1968. His articles, many marked "military analysis," were often more than reportorial, blending his own opinions and those of the nation's military chiefs into the news of specific military situations, so that what emerged was a broader view of strategic considerations and their national and international political implications. Advocate of Nuclear Superiority 

Mr. Baldwin was often aligned with Pentagon military chiefs on major strategic issues and budgetary matters. He frequently opposed the "gradualism" of political leaders whose restraints, he felt, stood in the way of battlefield victories or military superiority for the United States. He contended that the United States was engaged in a "struggle for the world" with an aggressively expansionist Communism, and he was an outspoken advocate of nuclear superiority over the Soviet Union. 

At various times, he also advocated the intensification of the Vietnam War to achieve a military victory, and friendship with Spain under Franco and with white-dominated Governments in South Africa and in Rhodesia, now Zimbabwe, because of what he regarded as their strategic positions. Generals, admirals, Presidents and members of Congress read his articles, sometimes with respect and sometimes with exasperation. His views occasionally became the focus of news, as they did in 1966 when Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara called a news conference to dispute his contention that the Vietnam War had overextended the armed forces. Opinions Angered Moscow 

The Times itself occasionally disagreed with his opinions. In 1965, for example, he argued in an article in The New York Times Magazine for a stepped-up American military commitment in Vietnam, including one million soldiers and saturation bombing of North Vietnam, to stop the "Communist strategy of creeping aggression" before it swallowed up all of Asia. In an editorial, The Times said such a policy would be "a surer road to global holocaust than to a 'victory' arms can never win for either side." 

Mr. Baldwin's opinions sometimes drew the wrath of the Soviet Union. Pravda once referred to him as a "cannibal in an American tunic," and Krokodil, a Soviet satirical magazine, published a cartoon depicting him as a fat little man in an admiral's hat seated in a puddle of ink and surveying the world through the wrong end of a telescope. 

After his retirement, Mr. Baldwin continued to write articles on military affairs for the news columns of The Times and its Op-Ed page. He also continued to write books and many magazine articles on strategic issues and intelligence matters, and served as president of the Naval Academy Alumni Association. 

Father an Editor Hanson 
Weightman Baldwin was born in Baltimore on March 22, 1903, the son of Oliver Perry Baldwin Jr., who for many years was managing editor of The Baltimore Sun, and Caroline Sutton Baldwin. He attended Boys Latin School in Baltimore and graduated from the Naval Academy in 1924. 

After three years of Navy service, much of it at sea aboard a destroyer and a battleship, Mr. Baldwin resigned his commission and began his newspaper career in 1927 as a reporter with The Baltimore Sun. Shifting to The New York Times two years later, he covered general assignments for eight years and became the paper's military analyst in 1937. That year, he spent four months in Europe, traveling in Germany, France, Britain and Poland to report on military preparedness for what was viewed as the coming war. When he returned, he reported extensively on the ill-prepared state of the American military establishment. 

After the outbreak of war, his dispatches from Guadalcanal and the Western Pacific won a Pulitzer Prize in 1943. Later, he covered the Allied invasion of North Africa and the D-day landings on the beaches of Normandy. 

A Prolific Writer 
In the postwar years, Mr. Baldwin reported on the sweeping changes in military affairs, including the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and other international security groups, the new roles of sea and air power, the development of atomic weapons, the age of jets and missiles, the strategic arms race and questions ranging from mess hall complaints to global military strategies. 

In 1959 he broke the news of high-altitude atomic bomb tests by the United States, known as Project Argus, after holding it for seven months because of what Washington contended were national security considerations. Besides his articles for The Times, Mr. Baldwin kept a heavy lecture schedule and wrote regularly for magazines, scholarly quarterlies and a variety of professional military publications. His family said his papers would be given to the Yale Library. 

His early books included "The Caissons Roll," a military survey of Europe (Knopf, 1938); "United We Stand" (McGraw-Hill, 1941); "Strategy for Victory" (Norton, 1942); "The Navy at War" (William Morrow, 1943); "The Price of Power" (The Council on Foreign Relations and Harper, 1947); "Great Mistakes of the War" (Harper, 1949); "Sea Fights and Shipwrecks" (Hanover House, Doubleday, 1955), and "The Great Arms Race" (Praeger, 1958). 

His later books included "World War I: An Outline History" (Harper & Row, 1962); "The New Navy" (Dutton, 1964); "Battles Lost and Won: Great Campaigns of World War II" (Harper & Row, 1966); "Strategy for Tomorrow" (Harper & Row, 1970); "The Crucial Years, 1939-1941" (Harper & Row, 1976), and "Tiger Jack" (Old Army Press, 1979). 

"Strategy for Tomorrow" advocated an "oceanic" strategy in which United States ground forces in Europe and Asia would be reduced and naval forces strengthened to deploy nuclear weapons and to make intervention in world trouble spots easier. 

Besides the Pulitzer Prize, Mr. Baldwin received many awards and prizes, including the Distinguished Service Medal from Syracuse University in 1944. He received honorary degrees from Drake University and the Clarkson Institute of Technology. 

Mr. Baldwin is survived by his wife, the former Helen Bruce, whom he married in 1931; two daughters, Barbara Potter of Woodbury, Conn., and Elizabeth Crabtree of Ridgewood, N.J.; seven grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. Funeral services will be private. 

Harold Lloyd (1893-1971) with Wesley Winans Stout
American Comedy ~ 1928
"Harold Lloyd's autobiography. Swell."
Full name, Harold Clayton Lloyd; born April 20, 1893, in Burchard, NE; died of prostate cancer, March 8, 1971, in Beverly Hills, CA; son of J. Darsie and Elizabeth (Fraser) Lloyd; married Mildred Davis (an actress), February 10, 1923 (died August 18, 1969); children: Gloria, Marjorie Elizabeth, Harold Jr. (an actor).
Harold Lloyd has been called the cinema’s “first man in space.” He was a product of the film industry. His comedy wasn’t imported from Vaudeville or the British Music Hall like his contemporaries, Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton. Harold learned to use the camera the way other comics used a bowler hat or a funny walk. In 1917 he shed the comedic clown personas prevalent in comedy for hundreds of years and pioneered romantic comedy by putting the ordinary guy up on the screen –- a guy with faults, and fears, “the boy next door.” With his young man in horned-rimmed glasses, he created classic films. More >>> Bio Ref: 

IMDB Filmography
RetroGalaxy Bio

Lorrin A. Thurston (1857–1931)
The Foreign Language Schools ~ Nov 8 1920

Lorrin A. Thurston, publisher of the Honolulu Advertiser, 
and the "Father of Hawaii National Park." 
Principally through his efforts, the Land of Pele was brought
into the select family of the National Park System
Lorrin Andrews Thurston (1857–1931), was a lawyer born and raised in the Kingdom of Hawai'i who published the Pacific Commercial Advertiser (forerunner of the present-day Honolulu Advertiser). The child of missionaries to Hawai'i, Thurston played a prominent role in the revolution that transformed Hawai'i from a monarchy into a sovereign constitutional republic.

The Provisional Government of Hawai'i was proclaimed on January 17, 1893 by the 13 member Committee of Safety under the leadership of Lorrin A. Thurston and Sanford B. Dole. It governed the Kingdom of Hawai'i after the overthrow of Queen Lili'uokalani until the Republic of Hawai'i was established on July 4, 1894.

Following the overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy and the establishment of the Provisional Government in Hawai'i, Lorrin A. Thurston actively lobbied for annexation to the United States, negotiating a treaty with President Benjamin Harrison that was sent to the Senate for approval. At the same time Princess Victoria Ka'iulani was in Washington D.C. to state that the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy was illegal.

President Grover Cleveland opposed the idea of annexation, being an anti-imperialist himself, and withdrew the treaty negotiated by President Benjamin Harrison upon taking office. After commissioning the secret Blount Report, he stated that the U.S. had inappropriately used military force and called for the reinstatement of Queen Lili'uokalani. The matter was referred by Cleveland to Congress after Sanford Dole refused Cleveland's demands, and the U.S. Senate held a further investigation, culminating in the Morgan Report, which completely exonerated the U.S. from any involvement in the overthrow. After the findings of this committee were submitted, Cleveland reversed his position, and accepted the Provisional Government as legitimate, and rebuffed further requests from the queen to interfere in the matter.
More in
Bio Info in Wikipedia

Entrance to Thurston Lava TubeLava tubes are a common feature of the volcanic landscape in Hawaii. When a lava-flow travels down the side of a mountain the surface of it cools but the lava keeps on flowing underground through a self-made tube of volcanic rock. The lava travels for longer than it would have done because the tube's roof insulates the molten lava, keeping it fluid for longer. When the eruption stops, lava drains out of the tube leaving a long, thin cave. The most famous lava tube bears the name of its discoverer, Lorrin Andrews Thurston. 

Mr. Thurston drafted the constitution for the provisional Hawaiian government, put himself on the stamps, and headed the commission to Washington that negotiated for annexation. But he was also interested in preserving the remarkable geography of Hawaii. Most of the big island of Hawaii, for instance, is made up of a huge volcano called Mauna Loa. It's the biggest volcano in the world. Thurston campaigned for ten years to have the area on the Big Island with the active volcanos made into a national park... It became the USA's 13th national park in 1916.


Kenneth Gandar Dower
The Spotted Lion ~ Little, Brown & Co., Boston ~ 1937 ~ 331pp ~ photos & 1 fold-out map

A Marozi Skin. This is 1 of the 2 specimens killed by Michael Trent in 1931.
From The Spotted Lion
Kenneth Gandar Dower was a well-to-do adventurer who wished to see Africa's wildlife with his own eyes: 
"Mine was not a promising situation when I found myself stranded in Nairobi. My only assets were a love of Rider Haggard and a vague half-knowledge of what I wished to do. I wanted to see big game in their natural surroundings, to take their photographs, and, once that was done, to fit myself to go alone into the great forests. I wanted to discover and to explore. Yet I could not speak Swahili. I had no fiends in Kenya. I had scarcely taken a still photograph (that had come out) or fired a rifle (except upon a range). My riding was limited to ten lessons, taken seventeen years previously when I was nine, on a horse which would barely canter. My shy suggestions of the possibilities of new animals brought only rather scornful jokes about the Naivasha Sea Serpent and the Nandi Bear." 
Dower teamed up with a farmer/guide/ unter named Raymond Hook, who became vital in the eventual search for the spotted lion. Dower's expeditions are described in The Spotted Lion. He touches on during his exploration and expeditions such items as the Nandi Bear, discovered species, black lynxes as well as the marozi. Three months after arriving in Africa Dower set off in search of the legendary animal he had heard of, and that his now friend Raymond Hook had said was "Rubbish":
"This opportunity, given so undeservedly to a novice, who three months ago had never been to Africa or really ridden a horse or fired a rifle at a living thing, was almost too great a responsibility to bear. I felt small. Even with Raymond's help, how could I hope to find this rare animal, the very existence of which had for so long been unsuspected, in 2000 square miles of wilderness, through which we could hardly travel, to find it and track it down, and shoot it, or photograph it and capture it alive?" 
The expedition had failed in finding conclusive proof of the marozi, but the effect of the search did not fail. Dower is the single person to push the marozi to the attention of the world through the publication of articles in The Field and through his book, as well as the collection of anecdotal accountings from the natives. 

From his writings Dower's spotted lion became well known and for years after the first article in 1935 sporadic accounts where published in The Field.  Hook later reported that he believed in the possibility that there could be a spotted variety of lion, but that the evidence was not sufficient to prove it although there were many reports of sightings before and after Dower's expeditions.

Theories as to the origin have been mixed. The main ones have been that the marozi is a natural crossbreed of a leopard and a lion, that the animals seen where abhorrent specimens of lion, that the natives made up the stories to please the explorers, and that the animals seen are spotted due to tricks of light. It is possible that some of the explanations can account for some of the sightings and reports, but it is doubtful that they can explain all sightings away. 

Biologically speaking the hybrid theory also is flawed. Although crossbreeds to occur, they are in captivity and the offspring are traditionally sterile. In the wild a crossbreeding between species would be especially rare and unlikely, although genetically possible. The fact remains that species are isolated, and remain so due to behavioral differences and varied geographies that act as barriers to inhibit crossbreeding. There are cases of leopons (lion and leopard mix) and other feline mixes, like ligers (lion and tiger mix). And these leopons do express the characteristics of the marozi, especially the intermediate size and spotting. But, thus far this phenomenon has only occurred in controlled environments and not in the wild. The other possibility, aside from a separate species of lion, is that of abhorrent specimens of lion.

But the evidence is not all anecdotal. The skin of one of Michael Trent's lions shot in 1931 still exists along with a possible skull at the Natural History Museum in London. 

John Buchan
Book of Escapes and Hurried Journeys
Houghton Mifflin Company, Cambridge University OR London: Thomas Nelson And Sons. 1922/1927

John Buchan (1875-1940)- First Baron Tweedsmuir of Enfield  was a Scottish diplomat, barrister, journalist, historian, poet, and novelist, whose most famous thriller was THE THIRTY-NINE STEPS (1915), his 27th book, which has been filmed three times. Alfred Hitchcock's film version of the story, made in 1935, is ranked as one of the director's best works. Buchan published nearly 30 novels and seven collections of short stories. "Public life is regarded as the crown of a career, and to young men it is the worthiest ambition. Politics is still the greatest and the most honorable adventure." 
Buchan served as the 15th Governor General of Canada. In office November 2, 1935 – 11 February 1940 

John Buchan Biography excerpts from
John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir (August 26, 1875 - February 11, 1940), was a Scottish novelist and politician who served as Governor General of Canada. Born in Perth, Scotland, he was educated at Glasgow University and Brasenose College, Oxford, winning the Newdigate prize for poetry while a student at the latter. Buchan at first entered into a career in law in 1901, but almost immediately moved into politics, becoming private secretary to Alfred Milner, who was high commissioner of South Africa - hence Buchan gained an acquaintance with the country that was to feature prominently in his writing. Buchan married Susan Charlotte Grosvenor, cousin of the Duke of Westminster, on July 15, 1907. Together they had four children, two of whom would spend most of their lives in Canada.

During World War I, he was a correspondent for the Times in France before becoming Director of Information under Lord Beaverbrook in 1917. After the war he began to write on historical subjects, and became president of the Scottish Historical Society. He was twice High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland and in 1927 was elected a Member of Parliament. In 1935 he became Governor General of Canada and was created Baron Tweedsmuir. 
Life in Canada
His career as a novelist was by then a thriving one, and he had produced his best-known works, including Prester John (1910), The Thirty-Nine Steps (1915), and Greenmantle (1916). He moved on to write biographies of Sir Walter Scott, Caesar Augustus, Oliver Cromwell and James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose. His autobiography, Memory Hold-the-Door, was also written while he was Governor General. The Thirty-Nine Steps later became famous when Alfred Hitchcock made it into a movie. Lady Tweedsmuir wrote many books and plays under the name of Susan Buchan.

While he pursued his own writing career, he also promoted the development of a distinctly Canadian culture. In 1936, encouraged by Lady Tweedsmuir, he founded the Governor General's Awards for many years Canada's premier literary awards. Lady Tweedsmuir was active in promoting literacy in Canada. She used Rideau Hall as a distribution centre for 40,000 books, which were sent out to readers in remote areas of the west. Her program was known as the "Lady Tweedsmuir Prairie Library Scheme". Together, Lord and Lady Tweedsmuir established the first proper library at Rideau Hall. Lord Tweedsmuir took his responsibilities in Canada seriously and tried to make the office of Governor General relevant to the lives of ordinary Canadians. In his own words, "a Governor General is in a unique position for it is his duty to know the whole of Canada and all the various types of her people".

Lord Tweedsmuir travelled throughout Canada, including the Arctic Circle. He took every opportunity to speak to Canadians and to encourage them to develop their own distinct identity. He wanted to build national unity by diminishing the religious and linguistic barriers that divided the country. Lord Tweedsmuir was aware of the suffering experienced by many Canadians due to the Depression and often wrote with compassion about their difficulties. When His Majesty King George V died in 1936, the front of Rideau Hall was covered in black crepe and Lord Tweedsmuir cancelled all entertaining during the period of mourning. Like many people of his time, the experience of the First World War convinced Lord Tweedsmuir of the horrors of armed conflict and he worked with both United States President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Mackenzie King in trying to avert the ever-growing threat of another world war.

While shaving on February 6, 1940, Lord Tweedsmuir had a stroke and injured his head badly in the fall. This was the first time a Governor General had died during his term of office since Confederation. After the lying-in-state in the Senate Chamber, a State funeral for Lord Tweedsmuir was held at St. Andrews Presbyterian Church in Ottawa. His ashes were returned to England on the warship H.M.S. Orion for final burial at Elsfield, where he had bought the Manor in 1920. In recent years, Buchan's reputation has been tarnished by the lack of political correctness perceived, with hindsight, in his novels. However, in many other ways, his work stands the test of time, and he is currently undergoing a resurgence in popularity.
John Buchan Biography
Wikipedia Entry
Filmography at IMDB

I HAVE never yet seen an adequate definition of  Romance, and I am not going to attempt one.  But I take it that it means in the widest sense that which affects the mind with a sense of wonder  the surprises of life, fights against odds, weak things confounding strong, beauty and courage flowering in unlikely places. In this book we are concerned with only a little plot of a great province, the efforts of men to cover a certain space within a certain limited time under an urgent compulsion, which strains to the uttermost body and spirit. 

Why is there such an eternal fascination about tales of hurried journeys ? In the great romances of literature they provide many of the chief dramatic moments, and, since the theme is common to Homer and the penny reciter, it must appeal to a very ancient instinct in human nature. The truth seems to be that we live our lives under the twin categories of time and space, and that when the two come into conflict we get the great moment. Whether failure or success is the result, life is sharpened, intensified, idealized. A long journey eveti with the most lofty purpose may be a dull thing to read of, if it is made at leisure ; but a hundred yards may be a breathless business if only a few seconds are granted to complete it. For then it becomes a " sporting event," a race ; and the interest which makes millions read of the Derby is the same in a grosser form as that with which we follow an expedition straining to relieve a beleaguered fort, or a man fleeing to sanctuary with the avenger behind him. 

I have included " escapes " in my title, for the conflict of space and time is of the essence of all escapes, since the escaper is either pursued or in instant danger of pursuit. But, as a matter of fact, many escapes are slow affairs and their interest lies rather in ingenuity than in speed. Such in fiction is the escape of Dantes in Monte Cristo from the dungeons of Chateau d'lf, and in history the laborious tunnelling erformances of some of the prisoners in the American Civil War. The escapes I have chosen are, therefore, of a special type the hustled kind, where there has been no time to spare, and the pursuer has either been hot-foot on the trail or the fugitive has moved throughout in an atmosphere of imminent peril. 

It is, of course, in the operations of war t that one looks for the greater examples. The most famous hurried journeys have been made by soldiers by Alexander, Hannibal, and Julius Csesar; by Marlborough in his dash to Blenheim; by Napoleon many times ; by Sir John Moore in his retreat to Corunna; by a dozen commanders in the Indian Mutiny ; by Stonewall Jackson and Jeb Stuart in their whirlwind rides ; by the fruit- less expedition to relieve Gordon* But the operations of war are a little beside my purpose. In them the movement is, as a rule, only swift when compared with the normal pace of armies, and the cumbrousness and elaboration of the military machine lessen the feeling of personal adventure. I have included only one march of an army Montrose's, because his army was such a little one, its speed so amazing and its purpose so audacious, that its swoop upon Inverlochy may be said to belong to the class of personal exploits. For a different reason I have included none of the marvellous escapes of the Great War. These are in a world of their own, and some day I may make a book of them. 

I have retold the stories, which are all strictly true, using the best evidence I could find and, in the case of the older ones, often comparing a dozen authorities. For the account of Prince Charlie's wanderings I have to thank my friend Professor Rait of Glasgow, the Historiographer Royal for Scotland. My aim has been to include the widest varieties of fateful and hasty journey, extending from the hundred yards or so of Lord Nithsdale's walk to the Tower Gate to the 4,000 miles of Lieutenants Parer and M'Intosh, from the ride of the obscure Dick King to the flights of princes, from the midsummer tragedy of Marie Antoinette to the winter comedy of Princess Clementina. 
J. B. 

Online Edition in e-Text
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Field-Marshal Viscount Wolseley
Story of a Soldier's Life (Vol. 1) 
New York: Scribner's, 1903. 2 vols. Two volumes. Photogravure portrait frontispiece to each, one folding map, a full-page plan and one illustration to the text.  398pp. OR Archibald Constable & Co. Ltd., 1903
An account of his career down to the close of the Ashanti War.
Punch 1882
Wolseley (of Wolseley), Garnet Joseph Wolseley, 1st Viscount, Baron Wolseley of Cairo and of Wolseley. Born June 4, 1833 , Golden Bridge, County Dublin, Ireland. Died March 26, 1913 , Mentone, France. British field marshal who saw service in battles throughout the world and was instrumental in modernizing the British army. 

The son of an army major, Wolseley entered the army as second lieutenant in 1852 and fought with distinction in the Second Anglo-Burmese War, the Crimean War, and the Indian Mutiny. Surviving many wounds, which cost him the sight of one eye, Wolseley became at 25 the youngest lieutenant colonel in the British army. As a staff officer under Sir James Hope Grant, he sailed to China in 1860. His planning and deeds are described in his Narrative of the War with China in 1860 (1862). 

Late in 1861 the U.S. seizure of two Confederate agents on the British ship Trent created a temporary crisis. Wolseley was then sent to Canada to improve that colony's defenses in case of war with the United States. In 1870 he led the Red River expedition through 600 miles (950 km) of wilderness to suppress the rebel Louis Riel, who had proclaimed a republic in Manitoba. Success in the field and dedication to improvement of the service, as revealed in his Soldier's Pocket-book for Field Service (1869), led to his appointment (May 1871) as assistant adjutant general at the War Office. 

A highly efficient commander with an admiring public, Wolseley was employed by successive governments as chief troubleshooter of the British Empire. In 1873 he was sent to West Africa to lead a punitive expedition against the Ashanti kingdom, resulting in the destruction of its capital at Kumasi. Two years later he was sent to Natal in southern Africa to induce the colonists to surrender some of their political rights to promote federation in South Africa. When calamity struck the British forces battling the Zulus in 1879, Wolseley was given command in South Africa. After restoring order in Zululand, he moved on to the Transvaal, where he discouraged rebellion among the Boers. 

Returning to the War Office, first as quartermaster general (1880) and then as adjutant general (1882), he devoted himself to reform until interrupted by a nationalist uprising in Egypt under Arabi Pasha. In his most brilliant campaign, Wolseley swiftly seized the Suez Canal and, after a night march, surprised and defeated Arabi at Tall al-Kabir (Sept. 13, 1882). Prime Minister William Gladstone rewarded him with a barony. Back in Egypt in 1884, he organized and headed an expedition to the Nile to rescue his friend General Charles “Chinese” Gordon, besieged at Khartoum in the Sudan. An advance party arrived on Jan. 28, 1885, two days after the city had fallen and Gordon had been killed. For his efforts, Wolseley was elevated to viscount. (The title devolved on his only daughter upon his death.) 

After serving as commander of the troops in Ireland (1890–94), he became a field marshal and commander in chief of all Britain's forces (1895–1901). In that office his greatest contribution was in mobilizing the army with characteristic thoroughness for the South African War (1899–1902).

More Biographical Information
Wolseley Barracks, at London, Ontario, is a Canadian military base established in 1886. The site of Wolseley Hall, the first building constructed by a Canadian Government specifically to house an element of the newly created (in 1883) Permanant Force. Wolseley Barracks has been continuously occupied by the Canadian Army since its creation, and has always housed some element of The Royal Canadian Regiment. At present, Wolseley Hall is occupied by The Royal Canadian Regiment Museum and the Regiment's 4th Battalion, among other tenants. Wolseley is a Senior Boys house at the Duke of York's Royal Military School, where, like Welbeck college all houses are named after prominent military figures. Wolseley Avenue is a street in Montreal West, a part of Montreal that was laid out in the early years of the twentieth century.

Dictionary of Canadian Biography
History of the Boer War
For a varied campaigning life Sir Garnet Wolseley cannot be beaten. He is 'The Modern Major General' in Gilbert and Sullivan's 'The Pirates of Penzance.' He was one of the most important figures in British Army history and he began his military career by being badly wounded in the Burma War. He was twice wounded in the Crimea (losing an eye on one occasion). He fought in India during the Mutiny, then served in China during the War of 1860. He then went to Canada and put down The Red River Rebellion. Then he went to Africa where he first fought the Ashantis and then the Zulus (he captured Cetewayo). In Egypt he beat Arabi Pasha at Tel-el-Kebir and then in the Sudan he arrived at Khartoum just too late to rescue Gordon. He also found time to visit America and witness for himself the new age of modern warfare during The American Civil War. During his visit he met General Lee and 'Stonewall' Jackson.
1913 Obituary

Clifford Johnson
Pirate Junk Five Months Captivity with Manchurian Bandits
Intro: Peter Fleming. ~ New York, NY Charles Scribner's Sons 1934 ~ 8 B/W Photos, 1 Map ~ 238pp
There is a 32-line note on the front end-paper by Arthur Calder-Marshall describing how he ghosted the book. Flemming was unaware of this. Recounts the story of four British officers kidnapped by Chinese pirates in 1933.
REVIEW: TIME Magazine Archives ~ Monday, July 16, 1934
PIRATE JUNK—Clifford Johnson—Scribner ($2.50)
In China little boys still have the chance of growing up to be pirates. Bias Bay, No. 1 Pirate Centre of the world, is today as unsafe for peaceful merchantmen as the Spanish Main or the Barbary Coast ever were. Because Chinese pirates often disguise themselves as passengers, ships plying in those dangerous waters are fitted with "anti-piracy grilles" that screen off the deck-passengers from the rest of the vessel, prevent surprise attacks. Until last year, piracy was unknown along China's northern coast. Then one March morning pirate junks attacked the British-owned coasting steamer Nanchang, waiting for a pilot off the mouth of the Liao River. Contrary to all rules, four British officers were captured, three of them held for ransom for five and a half dreary months. To while away the time and keep track of the days, one of them kept a diary. Enthusiastically introduced by Peter Fleming (Brazilian Adventure}, Pirate Junk is a first-rate addition to what he calls "the literary photography of experience."

The attack was practically over before the ship's company could recover from their surprise. Cornered in their cabins, where they had run for their guns, the four officers were bundled over the side and into the tiny glory hole of one of the junks. Three days after their capture, when the junk was anchored in a muddy tidal creek, they made their first attempt at escape. After floundering all night in oozy mud they were glad to get back to their prison. Soon one of them was sent off with a note demanding ransom. The other three settled down to wait for rescue. When searching planes came over, the pirates hid themselves and their prisoners in the reeds or shifted their anchorage. One night there was a terrific shindy; next morning the prisoners learned their captors had been hijacked by bandits. The change made little difference to them. As they picked up more of the language they heard many a bloodthirsty threat. Aside from cramped quarters, boredom, vermin, bad food, the hardest thing they had to endure was hair-pulling, nose-and- ear-tweaking. The bandits delighted in calling them names. When asked what was the English for an obscene Chinese epithet, Author Johnson replied: "Parlez vous français?" "They were delighted and they spend their time saying Parlez vous français to us. Sometimes when they are very annoyed, they say it to one another."

Meantime devious negotiations were going on for their release, each side trying to out-Orientalize the other. At one point Manchukuoan troops attacked the bandit lair, and in the confusion the captives made their second break for freedom. But they were all caught before they had gone far. As the chase grew hotter the bandits took to land, dragged their prisoners with them on nightly forced marches. Finally, five and a half months after their capture, the ransom was paid and the three Britons were released.

Not simply because it recounts an experience few men would care to have, but because its skeleton narrative is covered with the flesh & blood of homely detail, Pirate Junk deserves a high place in the true-story library. When Author Johnson read part of his diary to his companions, they grumbled that he had left out everything important and put in irrelevancies. Plain readers will not agree with them.

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