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Volume 4133
By Rick Johnson
This paper was inspired by a theory proposed by
Den Valdron

Following the clues of the Jurassic Park incident of 1990 involves a twisted trail of deliberate deception and so is difficult to reconstruct.  This is because of the multiple lawsuits against the company involved which quickly filed bankruptcy and sold off its assets, thus further confusing the trail.

For those living in a cave, in the mid to  late 1980’s, InGen, a genetics research facility, announced the cloning of Dinosaurs from DNA recovered from mosquitoes trapped in Amber that had been found in the Dominican Republic.

John Hammond, owner and founder of InGen built a theme-park Zoo on the Costa Rican island of Isla Nebular, as an attraction for living dinosaurs.  Due to a series of accidents and deliberate sabotage by an InGen employee who was selling Dino-DNA to the competition, a number of people were killed by the dinosaurs.  Between the lawsuits and bad publicity, InGen was forced into bankruptcy and the island was shutdown and the dinosaurs destroyed by the Costa Rica Air Force.

Some five years later, it was discovered that InGen had a second island, Isla Sorna, were they actually created the dinosaurs which were still roaming free on Isla Sorna.

What people forget is that during these years, a number of similar incidents involving cloned dinosaurs were happening in England and the American Southwest, all overshadowed by the InGen incident.  Raptor 2001 describes cloned dinosaurs that escape their facility before being destroyed by the US Army.

Carnosaur 1984 and 1993 describe a similar incident in England and the SW.  As all three of these incidents are related by time and theme, we may presume that they are related and upon investigation, the links suggest related activities.  Although this paper is conjecture, it is based on the incidents which are so closely similar, that only the most cynical person would deny causality.


Carnosaur 1985-  A British Lord, Darren Penward, in Cambridgeshire, England is convinced that the world will destroy itself through thermo-nuclear wear.  Mourning the loss of humanity, he uses fossil DNA implanted into chicken eggs to create a number of dinosaurs which he hopes to  release into the environment after WWIII destroys humanity.  These dinos escape and are eventually killed by the British Army.

Carnosaur 1993-  Doctor Diane Ladd, a psychotic scientist who hates mankind, set up a lab in the South-Western United States to create a number of cloned dinosaurs which she plans to release into the wild to replace humanity after she exterminates mankind with a new virus.  These also escape and are killed.

Jurassic Park 1990 & 1993-  John Hammond, owner of InGen recreates dinosaurs from DNA found in fossil amber as an amusement park which he plans to open to the world at a low entrance fee.  The dinos escape, kill a number of people, and are destroyed by the Costa Rica Air Force and InGen collapses into bankruptcy.

The Lost World 1995 & 1997-  It is discovered that InGen had a secret lab on Isla Sorna where the dinos actually were created.  These were released into the wild and remain alive.

Carnosaur 2 1995-  Major Tom McQuade uses chickens to clone dinosaurs to destroy humanity.  When they escape, he leads a military team to exterminate the dinos before he is implicated.

Carnosaur 3 1996-  Continues from Carnosaur 2 as the last dinos are captured and then escape while being transported to a secure location.

Raptor 2001-  In the mid 1980’s, the US Army creates “Project Jurassic Storm” which was an attempt to clone Dinosaurs for military use. In 1989, the Army sold their interest to the Eunice Corporation, based in the South-Western US which, under Dr Hyde, continued to create the dinos.  For some reason Pakistan assisted in this funding, the dinos escape and are killed by the US Army.

The Eden Formula 2006-  Calgorin Industries, based in Los Angeles, clones dinos for an unknown reason.  One escapes and kills a number of people before it is destroyed.

See the similarities?  Incidents that resemble each other in time, location and actions are generally related in more ways than the superficial.

Although the reasons for cloning dinosaurs range from the altruistic to the psychotic, a pattern emerges.  Looking this over, we see an interesting pattern of similarities.  Back in the 1980’s, Ingen begins to clone dinosaurs from fossil amber.  At the same time, Darren Penward in England and the US Army with the Eunice Corporation to do the same.   Three separate groups at the same time attempting to clone Dinosaurs using fossil DNA which is combined with bird, lizard and amphibian DNA.   All resemble dinosaurs and all go disastrously wrong.  These experiments are continued in the mid-1990’s through the early 2000’s. again with disastrous results.

Does anyone else see a pattern here?

In the scientific community, almost nothing happens in a vacuum.  Discoveries are made, papers published, correspondence is initiated, patents are filed and bought and sold, people hired away from companies, industrial espionage is initiated and the information is passed around.  And yet,  in this area, everyone involved makes the same fundamentalist mistakes.

DNA degrades very quickly!
Frogs are NOT dinosaurs!
Dominican Amber is far too young to house Dinosaur DNA!
And all the dinos all seem to be the same species!

So how the [bleep] could InGen collect fossil DNA from mosquitoes that were buried in Amber that was laid down 60 million years AFTER the dinosaurs became extinct?   And why would they add frog DNA to their mix?  Den Valdron suggests that this was a deliberate lie!  In the world of today, any discovery you make will be bought or stolen quickly so to keep your edge, you must do drastic things.  Mr. Valdron suggests that InGen deliberately released false information to put the competition on the wrong track, forcing them to spend millions of dollars and years of work along a dead end.  By the time the competition realizes their mistake, InGen is so far ahead that they will have cornered the market.

But here is the problem.  John Hammond wants to create a theme park for all the world’s children to see living dinosaurs!  Altruistic, yes.  Profitable, no.  Zoos lose money.  The entrance fees barely feed the animals and without public tax support, they would all close.   Now when you consider how much it costs to feed an 8 ton elephant, multiply that by a hundred ton brachiosaur and a 20 ton t-rex and you soon realize that unless you were charging a thousand dollars a ticket AND keeping the lines around the block, Hammond’s Jurassic Park will be a black hole sucking InGen’s profits down the drain.  Hammond may not care but the stockholders will. But he owns the company so can screw it over as he wishes.

But somewhere there are corporate people who are concerned with their business.  They are in the business to make money. Sure, curing cancer is all well and good, but someone has to pay the electric bills and the paychecks cannot bounce or the scientists are going to leave for a company that makes bio-weapons where they can be certain of being able to feed their families.   So somehow Hammond's money-pit must be covered.

So I am presuming that some of the big-wigs at InGen are selling the info to that really rich Lord Penward in England.  Others are creating a store-front lab by the name of  Eunice Corporation to market dinosaur bio-weapons to the US Army to get DoD financing.  Calgorin Industries is another buyer.  Maybe an occasional animal park that will allow you to hunt a triceratops for a couple million dollars.  Basically, if you have the bucks, someone at InGen will sell you the DNA.  Who cares if it doesn't really work, the fine print separates you from liability.

But what you now have are all these labs trying to clone Dinosaurs from fossil DNA and it isn't working.

Well, the test-tubes of frozen dino-ovum they were sold are popping out dinosaurs, but the paper data is useless.  It took InGen a dozen Croy super-computers to handle the DNA pattern for the dinos they created and Eunice and Calgorin and the rest are quickly discovering that there aren't any more Croy left to rent. InGen has them all tied up.  And without that computer-power, they simply cannot duplicate InGen's results.  All they did was to buy a few ovum that are best used to raise prey for a few really rich hunters!  No wonder the US Army backed out and sold their share of the research to Eunice!  All those companies that thought that they could benefit from InGen's clone research without putting out the research bucks are in the same position as everyone else.

Then the lawsuits start to roll in.  The families of the people killed on Isla Nebular are driving InGen into bankruptcy.  The families of those killed in the US are driving Eunice and Calgorin into bankruptcy.  That Army General is patting himself on the back for dumping Project Jurassic Storm in time.  All that is left is for the courts to sell off the equipment and remaining ovum in these companies to pay some of the bills.

And the cloning project ends for now save the occasional lab that thinks that it can buy some dino-ovum and research materials really cheap and open their own theme park or hunting preserve.  Until they learn that dinosaurs survived 135 million years because they were very good at what they did…  survive and eat mammals.  And to a T-Rex, there is no difference between eating a tree-shrew 68 million years ago and eating a human today.  Both are, to him, just rats.

OK, let's rethink this.  In the calm of hindsight, we realize today what the companies were too rushed to realize decades ago.  Dominican amber is too young to contain dino amber!  So where did it come from?  Baltic Amber?  and InGen diverted attention away from their source?  BUT, DNA degrades quickly, over years, or decades.  The Dodo became extinct in 1662 and to date no one has been able to collect enough viable DNA from the hundreds of feathers, bones and skins to recreate a single bird!  So how the [bleep] can InGen collect enough viable DNA from a few mosquitoes to clone the dozen or so dinosaurs they produced?  Obviously the mosquito-in-amber was a false trail.

Whatever DNA InGen had was incomplete.  They admitted that they had to add to the store with DNA from birds, frogs and lizards… except…  Dinosaurs are NOT frogs!  Nor are they lizards.  Dinosaurs are birds!  Dinosaurs fall into two groups, Bird-hipped and lizard-hipped creatures but both were warm-blooded creatures with as much relation to frogs and lizards as do people.  Adding frog DNA to the batch is like cloning a person by adding frog DNA.  I don't know what you will get but it won't look like a man!   Yet these dinos were dinosaurs!  InGen lied about that too.  Somehow InGen must have had a sample of complete or almost complete DNA in order to clone their dinos.  How?

Since all of the Dinosaur rampages of the 80’s and 90’s were the same species, they can easily be traced to one place, InGen selling dino ovum.  But where did the original DNA come from?

And why would Hammond build his Theme Park so far from nowhere?  Isla Nebular, the original Jurassic Park Zoo is 120 miles from Costa Rica.  Isla Sorna, Site B where the Dinos were created is 207 miles from Costa Rica.  If Hammond wanted to build a park for the children of the world, why not on an island closer to the US where the parents were rich enough to afford a plane fare to California and a boat ride to the park?  Why so far away where you’d have to deal with passports and visas and all that stuff?  Every American goes to Disneyland California or Disneyland Florida. No one goes to Disneyland Europe!  And why build your multi-million lab so far away when you already have a dozen better labs in the US?

Den Valdron gave me the clue!  When I marked all the tunnels that I believe lead to Pellucidar, he noted that they all seem to be on or near volcanic regions.  Journey to the Center/Interior of the Earth by Jules Verne is set in Iceland and Sicily, both volcanic regions.   Baronoff Island (Jonathan Brock, Journey to the Center of the Earth 2008) and Valley of the Gwangi 1969 and Beast from Hollow Mountain 1956 are both in Mexico along the Rocky Mountains.  And Isla Sorna is right next to the volcanic region of the Rockies.  Isla Sorna must be the terminus of a migration route from Pellucidar!  InGen didn't find fossil DNA in amber-covered mosquitoes, they found living or recently dead dinosaurs that had managed to reach the surface via a migration tunnel that led from Pellucidar to Isla Sorna!

I suspect that this is what happened.  A recent earthquake opened a tunnel to a mega-cavern beneath the Pacific Ocean that was inhabited by Dinosaurs from Pellucidar.  Maybe it is the same one that leads to the Valley of the Gwangi?  They are only a few hundred miles apart.  And then a few dinos managed to reach the surface before another quake collapsed the opening.

Someone reported living dinos on Sorna and InGen bought the info, leased the island and decided to take advantage of the situation.  But if they announced that they had found living dinosaurs, Costa Rica and the UN would have kicked them off instantly, proclaimed the island a national park and taken over.  So InGen invented the fossil-DNA story to divert everyone until they could figure out how to exploit the dinos.  Lacking any historical records of dinosaurs or dragons or monsters on those islands, InGen knew that they were a recent arrival.  But from where?  So they allowed Hammond to build his park on nearby Nebular so they could investigate the origins of their ‘creations’.   But they never found the tunnel.  They probably never looked for one because their scientists insisted that the Earth was solid so why look for that which they knew was impossible? No, I think InGen was looking for a time portal and that prevented them from discovering the truth.

Until things went wrong.

Today, the dinos on Sorna are nearing extinction again.  There is simply too little land to support any herd. Jurassic Park advertised that they had to import tons of feed every day to feed the few dinos on Nebular.  So all those dinos that they released on Nebular when they gave up searching for the ‘time-portal’ are simply dying off.  The carnosaurs are eating all the plant eaters and the plant-eaters are eating off the vegetation faster than it can grow.  Remember, an 8 ton elephant must eat 680 pounds of vegetation a day!  How much will a herd of hadrosaurs or sauropods eat?  It takes ten zebra to feed a single lion. How many hadrosaurs will it take to feed one T-rex?  How long before the plant-eaters denude the island and fall prey to the carnosaurs?

No, if the Migration Route is closed, those dinos on Sorna are gone, or nearly gone.  If it is open, then there will be the occasional visitor but for the most part, Sorna is dead, a dinosaur graveyard of starving creatures.

At least one thing is certain, when Doctor Alan Grant cried out in Jurassic Park III that real dinosaurs are extinct and the ones at Isla Sorna were but recreated jokes of the past, he did not know how wrong he was.  Had he stopped to think this through, he would have rushed back to seek that Tunnel to the Inner World and found the Living Dinosaurs about which he dreams!

Carnosaur novel, 1985 by Henry Knight
Jurassic Park novel, 1990 by Michael Crichton
Carnosaur film, 1993
Jurassic Park film, 1993
The Lost World novel, 1995 by Michael Crichton
The Lost World film, 1997
Jurassic Park III film, 2001
Raptor film, 2001
ERBzine Refs
Rick Johnson Feature Articles and Fiction in ERBzine

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