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Edgar Rice Burroughs
Volume 0390
BarsoomSasoomJasoom - Tarzana - Africa - PellucidarVanah - LunaAmtor - Cosoom
The Many Worlds of
Edgar Rice Burroughs Signature
"The master of imaginative fantasy adventure...
...the creator of Tarzan and...
...the 'grandfather of science-fiction'"
Compiled by George McWhorter
Revised by Duane Adams for ERBzine in 1999
Moon Maid T-Shirt by Duane Adams
ECOF Moon Maid logo by Jeff Doten
Moon Maid by Dave Hoover
“adds to the prosperity of the community”
-- A Kalkar phase which means ‘what do you do to support the Kalkars?’
The phrase is meaningless because there is no prosperity. [MMa]
Admiral of the Air --  Military rank of the Air Corps.  Julian 3rd rank at the start of  The Moon Maid. [MMa]

Air Corps  --  Branch of the military that Julian 3rd was a part of during the Great War.  [MMa]

Air School  --  Naval training school for pilots.  Julian 3rd and 5th graduated from there as well as all of the crew members of The Barsoom.   [MMa]

Armistice Day -- The day of cessation of hostilities (with reference to WWI.  After 1954 it became “Veteran’s Day”)   [MMa]

Arctic  --  Northern section of the Earth’s surface above arctic circle to the North Pole;  where ERB is polar bear hunting at the beginning of The Moon Men.   [MMa]

Arctic Ocean  --  An ocean of North America, Asia, and the Arctic Circle;  where ERB floats marooned on an ice flow before being rescued by Captain Drake at the beginning of The Moon Men.  [MMa]

 Barsoom -- The name of the planet Mars used by it’s inhabitants. (Mars is also called Barsoom in all eleven John Carter of Mars books.) [MMa]

“Barsoom, The” --  Rocket ship, created in Part I of The Moon Maid, to attempt to fly to Mars.  It was made to carry a crew of five and supplies for fifteen years.  It cruises at twelve thousand      miles an hour.   It has three motors:  1. to propel it through air;  2.  to propel it through ether; and 3. an exhaust separator that isolates the Eighth Ray.  It also has an auxiliary engine for emergencies.  Its generator draws oxygen from ether and regulates the pressure and temperature within the ship.  It was sabotaged by Orthis and was forced to land in the moon. [MMa]

Barsoomian Ray -- 8th Ray, which supplies buoyancy to aircraft instead of momentum for propulsion.  The knowledge of the ray is freely given to Earth by the Barsoomians which makes interplanetary travel possible.  This knowledge helps Lt. Com. Orthis isolate the Eighth Ray of the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, and Jupiter. (The Eighth Ray is also mentioned throughout the John Carter books.)   [MMa]

Bear Lake --  Body of water so called by the slaves (q.v.);  It is  a landmark along the route of the Exodus of the desert clans of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th, in their final attempt to push the Kalkar invaders into the sea... in the Spring of 2430 A.D.   [MMa]

Bethelda --  Beautiful daughter of the true Or-tis (q.v.). She has large green-gray eyes with heavy lashes. She has a cheerful continence.  The Red Hawk, Julian 20th, falls in love with her;  they marry thereby ending the 500 year old family feud.  [MMa]

Blue Room --  Meeting room aboard the transoceanic liner Harding where ERB meets Julian 3rd. [MMa]

Borda  --  Volcano on the surface of the moon mentioned by Julian 5th when The Barsoom passes close to the surface;  named after Jean Charles Borda, French Major-General and astronomer (1704-1747),  who contributed to the nomenclature of lunar volcanoes.  [MMa]

Brother -- Common term used by the Kalkars;   i.e., Brother Or-tis;  used in the sense that ‘all men are brothers’ which translates as ‘good citizens and loyal to the Jemadar.’  (probably meant to be satirical of the Russian communist using the word ‘comrade’ before a surname.)  [MMa]

Brother Julian -- Term of address by Commander Or-tis as applied to Julian 9th during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  (Compare Aldous Huxley’s 1932 novel, Brave New World.) [MMa]

Bunker Hill --  Ancient American battle in which Julian 8th ancestors fought bravely.  He recalls this as he is frustrated over his own submission to the Kalkar rule.  [MMa]

Burroughs, Edgar Rice --  The author appears frequently as a character, or as narrator in the prologues and opening chapter of many of his books.  Examples: PM, AEC, EL, TA, MMa, LTF, TLJ, MMM, CM, TI, etc.

Bureau of Communications --  Governmental body which dealt with communications for war and commerce during the Great War and with world trade after the Great War. The storyteller is head of the bureau at the start of Part II.  [MMa]

Butcher, the --  Term for the Kalkar “executioner” during the occupation of Earth; with the loss of  knowledge of manufacturing arms and ammunition, the executions were no longer carried out by a firing squad ... the condemned had their throats cut.  This was referred as “going to the butcher.”  Also used uncapitalized with the same meaning.  [MMa]

Cajon Pass --   “The pass of the ancients...”, successfully held by the Kalkars for one hundred years, which the Wolf and a thousand of his fighting men attack in a diversionary effort to lure the Kalkar warriors in their direction while the Red Hawk strikes with his main force at the enemy’s stronghold.  [MMa]

Capitol, The --  The last and principle camp of the Kalkar invaders in the year 2430 A.D.  [MMa]

Carter, John  --  The deathless Virginian who transport to Mars in 1866 “ every school child of the twenty-first century knows.”  He helps make the first communication between Earth and Barsoom possible.  (He is the hero of eleven Mars novels by ERB.)   [MMa]

chair/throne --   Red Hawk describes it as a bench with a high back and arms.  (It demonstrates  how far Red Hawk’s people are from what we take for granted.)  [MMa]

Chateau Thierry  --  Ancient American battle in which Julian 8th ancestors fought bravely.  He recalls this as he is frustrated over his own submission to the Kalkar rule.  [MMa]

Chicago --   A teivos, geographical district of the Kalkars.  Julian 9th was born in the Chicago teivos.  The Kalkars kept many of the Earthly names for their teivos.  [MMa]

Chief of Chiefs --   A title of highest respect among the desert tribes of Julian 20th, inherited from his father, Julian 19th:  “I was twenty on that day my father fell before the lance of an Or-tis in the Great Feud and I became the Chief of Chiefs.”  [MMa]

City No. 337  --  a Kalkar city.  Built around a rim of crater.  The buildings are a uniform two story   structures that terrace back from the rim up hundreds of feet.  One house is built on top of   another so that there are no windows for the houses underneath.  Fruit trees and shrubs grow from the top of the houses.  They have areas for breeding of Va-gas which feed on plants.  Occasionally there are slender towers which vary from fifteen to thirty feet high from roof tops.  The city in which Julian 5th and Moh-goh, the Laythean Paladar, were held prisoners.  [MMa]

Colby, Orrin -- Blacksmith who is head of the secret church to which Julian 9th takes Juana St. John.  He later performs the illegal marriage ceremony for them.  He is the great-grandson of a Methodist minister in this futuristic tale.  [MMa]

Corrigan, Dennis --  Neighbor of Julian 9th who “had been sent to the mines for ten years because he had been caught trading at night” during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  [MMa]

Council Ring --  A great circular table around which the men of the desert clans of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th gather to eat and talk.  [MMa]

coup d’ etat  --   A sudden and decisive change in government illegally or by force;  Term used by Julian 5th when asking Ko-tah’s spies about the plot against Sagroth.   [MMa]

Coyote, the --   A war chief of the clans of Julian 20th, the Red Hawk.  [MMa]

cul-de-sac --  Dead-end;  as in the chamber of the Kalkars in the lunar crater followed by Julian 5th and Nah-ee-lah in their search for the city of Laythe.  [MMa]

Desplaines River  --  River just west of Oak Park and part of the Chicago teivos of Juana St. John, beloved  of Julian 9th.   [MMa]

Dieu et mon droit  --  “God and my right,” motto of the Divine Right of Kings; message carved above the door to the secret church of Julian 9th, embellished with a carved image of a  shepherd’s crook.  [MMa]

Drake, Captain --  Captain of the ship that rescues ERB off of the ice flow at the start of The Moon Men.   [MMa]

Earth Man --  Moh-goh’s name for Julian 5th in the craters of the moon.  [MMa]

electronic rifle --  A weapon invented by the first Orthis on Va-nah.  It generates radioactivity at the same vibratory rate of a substance.  When it is directed at that  same substance, it causes it to dissipate into it’s elemental state --  vanish.  (Julian 5th speculates that it turns into ether.)  Could be calibrated to any substance even human bones.  Range - limited.  Orthis used it   to defeat the International Peace Fleet and thus conquer Earth.  [MMa]

Eskimos  --  Native inhabitants of the Arctic and part of the polar bear hunting party with ERB at the start of The Moon Men.   [MMa]

Flag, the  --  A forbidden relic, the stars and strips banner of the ancient United States of America, used to rally the troops and the populist during the revolution started by Julian 5th.  By Red Hawk’s time, it has become like a deity as they bow down to it.  Also referred to as the ‘Flag of Argon.’  (see also Old Glory)  [MMa]

Flag of Argon  --  (see Flag)

flying toads  --  one of the few creatures mentioned as being indigenous to Va-nah, the inner moon.  The creature has bat like wings, gives plaintive cries, and is poisonous as food.  [MMa]

Gapth --  The name of a Kalkar warrior who captures Julian 5th in the lunar caves of Va-nah, the inner moon.  [MMa]

Ga-va-go  --  The name of the chief of the  No-vans, a tribe of the Va-gas (the quadruped creature of the inner moon)  by whom Julian and Orthis are captured.  [MMa]

Gettysburg  --  Ancient American battle in which Julian 8th ancestors fought bravely.  He recalls this as he is frustrated over his own submission to the Kalkar rule.  [MMa]

Great Feud  --  The bloody hostilities between the house of Julian and the house of Orthis (Or-tis) which last “for fifteen generations.”   [MMa]

Great War  --  Earth war that lasted from 1914-1967 resulting in the United States and Great Britain ruling a peaceful, unarmed world.   [MMa]

Grim Reaper --  Death personified, usually as a man holding a scythe;  The evening before taking Juana St. John to the secret church, Julian 9th imagines that  “... hand in hand we would face the Grim Reaper for the sake of the greatest cause on earth.”   [MMa]

gu-e-ho  --   An unidentified word in the “operatic” language of Va-nah, the inner moon, for which there are 27 possible meanings.  Their language is sung to a five-note scale, each pitch carrying a different meaning to the word or syllable intoned.  No words are longer than three syllables. [MMa]

Harding  --  Transoceanic liner in the prologue of The Moon Maid where the narrator (ERB) meets Julian 3rd.  It travels overnight between Chicago and Paris, cruising at one thousand feet.  It’s engines are motivated wirelessly from power plants one thousand miles away.  [MMa]

Helium, Barsoom  --  Capitol city of a tribe of red men of Mars, ruled by John Carter and the incomparable Deja Thoris.  Earth received it’s first message from Mars on June 10, 1967.  It was broadcast from Helium.    [MMa]

Hellhounds --   The packs of wild dogs, that have strains of Collie and Airedale, which roamed freely on Earth under the rule of the Kalkars during the lifetime of Julian 9th.  They are cunning and ferocious whose pack mentality makes them a formidable foe.  They are also a concern for the people of Red Hawk’s time.  (Capitalized in The Moon Men chapter heading, lower case in the text.)  [MMa]

Herschel Island  --  Island in the Arctic;  ERB is polar bear hunting “...some fifty mile southeast of  Herschel Island...” at the start of The Moon Men.   [MMa]

Himalayas  --   Tibetan range of mountains which “would seem like foothills by comparison to the titanic mountains surrounding the lunar crater of Laythe.”  [MMa]  Again:  [SP] The Himalayas are a great 1500 mile Asian range whose main axis was formed between 25 and 70 million years ago.  It contains the world’s highest peak (Mount Everest).  Himalaya is a Sanskrit word meaning “Abode of snow.”   [SP]

History -  The history of the moon is surrounded by myths that are millions of years old.  The myths state that once they populated the exterior side of the their world.  There, they possessed knowledge of the existence of other worlds (planets) and had great ships that navigated the air.  Some long forgotten condition forced them to the interior.  The fact that they live in the center of a enormous globe is more like a myth to them than reality.  Few inhabitants actually believe these stories.  The more recent history of Va-nah is one of a singular race of people.  All of Va-nah was populated, and they had ships on all three of it’s oceans.  They also had ships of land (trains) which were electrically driven and connected all of the cities.  In addition, great carriers flew through the air from city to city.  Communication was by means of electrical energy.  Va-nah was divided into ten great divisions each controlled by a Jemadar.  It was  basically a communistic state.  Then came a popular saying of “no learning is better than a little.”  From this developed a secret society known as “The Thinkers.”  The Thinkers, or Kalkars, overthrew the Jemadars killing everyone of nobility.  A few of  the noble classes escaped to the mountains founding cities like Laythe.  The Kalkars lacked any intellectual powers which resulted in a barbarism where there was no more learning or repairing of anything.  The Va-gas, which had been bred like cattle, revolted and formed their own social groups. The U-gas are superior intellectually but are out numbered by the Kalkars by one thousand to one.

Hoffmeyer  --  Shifty neighbor of Julian 9th who complains of increased cost of coal during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  He is a renegade who curries favor with the oppressors in return for economic security.  Julian buys a beautiful bay stallion from him.  (see: Red Lightning)    [MMa]

Hoos  --  Openings in the lunar craters which lead from Va-nah, the inner moon,  to the outer lunar world. Means “hole” in the tongue of the Va-gas.   [MMa]

hounds --  Shaggy unspecified breed of pack dogs used by the clans of Red Hawk;  used to guard their herds against coyotes, wolves, lions, and hellhounds.  They will join other clans hounds in times of great danger, but if one wanders into a neighboring pack, it will be torn to pieces.  [MMa]

Imperial Guard  --  Name of the Jemadar of Laythe’s personal and palace guards.  They are fiercely loyal to the Jemadar.  They number “scare a thousand men.”  Imperial Guards  have a circle of imperial design over their left breast.  [MMa]

International Peace Fleet   --  Police force which patrolled the Earth after the fifty year Great War.  Its goal was “to prevent the preparation for war.”   [MMa]

James, Elizabeth  --  Mate of Julian 8th, and mother of Julian 9th.  Marriages became illegal before the 21st century.  [MMa]

Jarth, Jemadar  --  A Kalkar who is Emperor of the United Teivos of America.  He rules from Washington, DC  He appoints a new tax collector to the Oak Park ‘teivos,’ and confiscates the St. John house for the headquarters for that area.  (ERB lived in three homes in  Oak Park before moving to California, and J. Allen St. John of Chicago was the foremost illustrator of ERB first editions... so this story has interesting associations.)   [MMa]

Javadar  --  Title for “prince” among the lunar races.  Julian 5th was known in Laythe as “Ju-lan Javadar.”   [MMa]

Jay, Lt.  --  Crew member aboard The Barsoom under the command of Julian 5th.  He was an Air School classmate of Lt. West.   [MMa]

Jemadar  --  The term has a number of meanings like: King; Chieftain; Emperor; and ruler of a great city. Used by both the U-gas and the Kalkars.  (Analogous to the “Jeddak” of Barsoom.)   [MMa]

Jemadar of America  --  Title given to Julian 20th, the Red Hawk, when the desert tribes and the coast tribes of the ancestral Americans, the Julians and the Or-tis, join forces against the Kalkars, 2430 A.D.   [MMa]

Jemadar of Jemadars  --  Literally:  Emperor of Emperors.  Title Orthis bestows upon himself as he attempts to bring Va-nah, the inner moon, under his control.   [MMa]

Jemadav  --  “Empress” in the language of the lunar races.  [MMa]

Johansen, Peter  --  “A long, lanky man who smiled with his mouth; but never with his eyes.”  He is the farmer-villain who informs against Julian 8th and his family for owning a forbidden relic, the American flag.  He also is responsible for turning in Old Samuels for being at the illegal church.  He has always desired Julian 9th’s mother, Elizabeth James.  Julian 9th eventually kills him.  He is a central character to move the plot line forward and create tension.  [MMa]

Joliet  --  An ancient district abandoned after a plague, through which Julian 9th travels to reach the mines where his father is imprisoned.  [MMa]  (Site of Illinois penitentiary where Billy Byrne, the Mucker, is sentenced to life imprisonment for a murder he did not commit.)   [M]

Judge Advocate General of the Navy  --  Controls the laws and courts of the military.  Julian 5th hopes that Orthis will be tried before this body, court-martialed, and executed for his sabotage of The Barsoom.    [MMa]

Ju-lan-fit  --  Name by which Julian 5th in known in the lunar city of Laythe.  The Laytheans pronounce 5th as “fit,” and they  believe that ‘fit’ is a title.  Julian leads them to believe that title is “prince.” The Laytheans also call him ‘Ju-lan Javadar’ (q.v..) and ‘Earth Man’ (q.v..)   [MMa]

Ju-lan Javadar  --  Name by which Julian 5th in known in the lunar city of Laythe.  (see:  Javadar)  [MMa]

Julian 1st  --  Born in 1896; graduated from West Point;  married 1916; “... major at 22, was killed in France on Armistice Day.”  [MMa]

Julian 2nd  --  Born in 1917; killed in battle in Turkey in 1938.  [MMa]

Julian 3rd  --  Born in 1937; killed  in the line of duty in 1992; Admiral of the Air and Commander of the International Peace Fleet.  He tells the story of Julian 5th in The Moon Maid as if he is Julian 5th.  And he tells the story of Julian 9th in The Moon Men as if he is Julian 9th.   (Remember -- “there is no such thing as Time.” )  [MMa]

Julian 4th  --  Born in 1970; killed in the line of duty with the International Peace Fleet.  [MMa]

Julian 5th  --  Born in 2000 A.D.;  graduated from the Air School at 16 and assigned to the International Peace Fleet; Captain of the ill-fated The Barsoom and narrator of The Moon Maid.  He has blonde hair.  MMa]

Orthis convinces the Kalkars that he can help them conquer all of Va-nah.  He calls himself Jemadar of Jemadars.  Orthis manufactures weapons for them, and they successfully take over cities like Laythe with the use of mortars and hand grenades.  After ten years Orthis had totally convinced the Twentyfour, as well as all of the Kalkars, of his plan to attack Earth.  It took another fourteen years for the Kalkars, under the direction of Orthis, to build a fleet of ships to actually carry out the mission.  In 2050 a Kalkar fleet of one thousand great ships carrying one hundred thousand Kalkars and a thousand Va-gas arrived on Earth.  Earth’s pitifully armed troops were no match for Orthis’ electronic rifle.  The planet is quickly subdued.  Orthis and Julian 5th are killed when Orthis blows up his own ship.  Many of Earth’s political and labor factions throw in with the Kalkars.  They use the air ships to transport more Kalkars to Earth at the rate of seven million a year.   However, without the intelligence of Orthis, the Kalkars have no idea how to repair their ships as they break down nor do they have any concept how to build new ones.  Soon all the air ships were lost or abandoned.

Julian 8th  --  Consort of Elizabeth James and father of Julian 9th, hero of Part II of the story.   [MMa]

Julian 9th   --  Great-great-grandson of Julian 5th and his wife, Princess Nah-ee-lah of Va-nah;  born on January 1, 2100 in the Chicago teivos;  starts the revolution to end Kalkar rule;  and killed in 2122 by the Kalkar butcher.  Narrator of The Moon Men.   [MMa]

The Kalkars continue to be unintelligent and oppressive rulers.  The infrastructure of the country is in disrepair with no knowledge how to rebuild or repair anything.  Executions by firing squad were common at first but with the loss of  knowledge of manufacturing arms and ammunition, the executions were no longer carried out by a firing squad.  The condemned had their throats cut by an executioner known as the Butcher.  Further evidence of the demise of munitions is: once Julian 9th’s life was saved when a Kalkar’s rifle misfired.  Money is not used; instead, the barter system is used in all transactions.  They have an arbitrary taxation system which causes undue hardship on the conquered people, who are starving in some of the teivos.  The Kalkars don’t seem to realize that with less and less people growing food that there will be less for all.  The Kalkars fear that ‘night trading’ will cheat them out of taxes so the punishment for such an offense is ten years in the coal mines.  They are governed by The Twenty Four, a derivation of The Twentyfour.  The name comes to stand for power, government, and tyranny.  Jemadar Jarth, a Kalkar, is Emperor of the United Teivos of America.  He rules from Washington, DC.  The Kalkars own all the land and one must receive permission from the Teivos to work a piece of property.  When a person dies their land and all of their personal property reverts to the control of the Teivos.  The Twentyfour have outlawed all marriages.  The Kalkars will sometimes take Earth females as their “women,” who they continually abuse.  The abuse of Yank females has become so horrific that many couples often kill their new born baby girls so they will not have to go through the terrors that the Kalkars meet out to them.  They do adhere to the law that if a person (Kalkar or Yank) asks a female to be his woman, she has thirty days to pick a mate of her own choosing or be bound to that individual.  Religion has also been banned.  The Kalkar police force is known as the Kash Guard.

Julian 15th  --  Ancestor chieftain of Julian 20th “who had driven the Kalkars across the valley below just one hundred years before I was born...”  (The western edge of the continental United States is the last stronghold of the Kalkars as the third part of the trilogy opens.)   [MMa]

Julian 18th  --  Grandfather of the Red Hawk who “rode alone almost to the sea” in 2408;  where he discovered rich lands for his desert people.  He died of wounds received from a Kalkar invasion.  [MMa]

Julian 20th  --  The Red Hawk, Chief of Chiefs, and leader of fifty clans; hero and the narrator of the last part of the trilogy, The Red Hawk.  He ends the rule of the Kalkars and unites the feuding houses of Julian and Or-tis when he marries a true Or-tis, Bethelda.  He becomes the first Jemadar of America.   [MMa]

The Kalkars, by now, are a half-caste race some almost full-blooded Yank.  They vary from six to eight feet  in height.    Many sport black whiskers and mustaches.  They use armor consisting of iron helmets and chest coverings.  They wear white shirts, cotton breeches, and long woolen red cloaks.  The cloaks have collars that vary in color and design which designates the rank of the Kalkar wearing it.  Kalkar women marry by the age of fifteen and are scorned by age twenty if they are childless.  By the of age thirty they will be killed unless they are good workers.  In any case, they are killed at age fifty as their usefulness to the State is over.  The remaining Kalkars have been pushed to the extreme western edge of the continent at this time.  They number in the millions and are as vicious and cruel as ever.  They are ruled by an Or-tis, a pure Yank, who is a direct descendant of Lt. Com. Orthis.  There is no mention of the Twenty Four or of any Teivos at this point in time.

Julian 21st  --   Son of Red Hawk and Bethelda, the Or-tis; destined to become the second Jemadar of America and the first to have sprung from the union of the two houses at war for more than 400 years.  [MMa]

Kalkars --  A lunar race of warriors, primitive in looks and thoughts, at constant war with Laythe, the city of Nah-ee-lah, the Moon Maid.  They are governed by the Twenty four (q.v.)  Their name derives from a corruption of a  word meaning “The Thinkers.”  (This is ironic because they are anything but thinkers.)  With the help of Orthis they invade and occupy Earth for nearly 400 years.  In Red Hawk’s time they are a half-caste race some almost full-blooded Yank (q.v.)  and vary from six to eight feet in height.   [MMa]

The popular saying of “no learning is better than a little” developed a secret society known as “The Thinkers.”  The name Kalkar is derived from a corruption of a word meaning “The Thinkers.”  The Thinkers, or Kalkars, overthrew the Jemadars killing everyone of nobility.   The Kalkars lacked any intellectual powers which resulted in barbarism on Va-nah.  They have close set eyes which are watery, fishy, and vary from blue to brown.  They have hooked shaped noses.  Above their low foreheads is flaxen hair that varies from light blonde to black.  They walk with a noticeable stoop, and their large feet gives them an awkward gait.  Their clothing is a tunic made of leather which “scarce comes to the knees.”  On their feet they wear soft leather sandals.  They carry knives in a scabbard from a shoulder belt. Their weapons of choice are swords and slender lances.  They do bathe but do not care for it. The Kalkars seem to have only two fears:  Zo-al and falling into a crater’s abyss.  They believe there is no reincarnation for individuals falling into a Hoos.   They are governed by the Twentyfour, whose jurisdiction is extended to Earth during the lunar conquests.  The Twentyfour govern all aspects of Kalkar life down to slave ownership.  Slaves are branded for identification purposes.

Kamadar  --  Roughly analogous to an English Duke.  Title of Ko-vo, a commander of the guard among the U-gas of Va-nah.   [MMa]

Kash Guard  --  Kalkar police force of the lunar conquerors of Earth, stationed at the Great Lakes near the ruins of Chicago during the time of Julian 9th.  It could mean one or ten thousand men. “Kash Guard”  became an  idiomatic phrase to explain or describe any general condition or situation on Earth.  (Analogous to “That’s life.”)   [MMa]

keld  --  A lunar year, equal to 272 days of Earth time.  (see: ula)   [MMa]

Kolrado  --  Colorado;  introduced as an ancient America territory which is mined for metals used in the manufacture of swords, knives, and lance tips by the deserts clans of the Red Hawk.   [MMa]

Kolrados --  The Americans dwelling in the ancient territory of Kolrado.  They visit the clans of Red Hawk, Julian 20th, once every two years to trade metal for implements of war.  Their language is slightly different from Red Hawk’s clans. Communication is made through a combination of common sounding words and sign language.   [MMa]

Ko-tah  --  A Javadar, prince, of Laythe who aspires to the throne and wishes to marry Nah-ee-lah, beautiful daughter of Sagroth, Jemadar of this lunar city.  He has Sagroth assassinated.  However, before he can take over the city, he is killed by Julian 5th.   [MMa]

Ko-vo  --  A Kamadar, duke, and commander of the guard of Laythe, the crater city of Nah-ee-lah, the Moon Maid.  He meets Julian and Moh-goh upon their escape from the Kalkars’ City No. 337  (q.v.)   [MMa]

Lacus Somniorum  --  Moon crater alluded to by Julian 5th as The Barsoom passed close to the moon on the way to Mars.  (see also: Mare Crisium)   [MMa]

Laythe  --   City of Va-nah, the inner moon.  The U-ga city of Nah-ee-lah, the Moon Maid, ruled by her father Sagroth.   [MMa]

 Its location is hidden to protect the U-gas from the Kalkars.  It is built on the outside of a cone shaped mountain which is one mile high --  an old volcano who’s top has blown off.  The crater site is on a broad plateau surrounded by mountains taller than the Himalayans.  The base of the mountain is six miles in diameter.  The city is built in layers up the side.  The Kalkars build their cities similar, but the U-ga’s cities are more elaborate in architecture and carvings.  The city terraces up the side of the mountain so that there are many levels.  The terraces are broad, well cultivated, and is where they breed Va-gas.  The terraces also contain many pools and waterfalls which contain public baths, much like ancient Roman baths.  The baths are continuously fed by icy mountain waters.  It is here the U-gas socialize and participate in swimming and diving -- their national sport.

Ko-toh’s dwelling spreads out for a quarter of a mile along a terrace.  It is two stories high with numerous towers and minarets.  The facade is elaborate and has beautifully carved decorations of the lives of Ko-toh’s ancestors.

 Sagroth’s palace completely encompasses the summit of the crater.  The terrace below contains statues of all the rulers of Laythe.  It has three paths with three staircases that lead up to the palace itself.  The palace has a huge gate of stone at it’s entrance who’s carvings look like lacework from a distance.  The gate is protected by fifty Imperial Guards who have a circle of imperial design over their left breast.  Sagroth’s Throne Room has a dais at the far end with three thrones upon it.  The center throne is for the Jemadar and the other two are for the Jemadav and the Nonovar.

Levy, Nellie  --  Neighbor of Julian 9th who was “taken” by the Kash Guards during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  [MMa]

Lonay  --  Name of the old but wise pack leader of Red Hawk’s tribal hounds.  Remarkably, he would tell the pack where they were to guard or attack with a series of barks and little human intervention.      [MMa]

Luna  --  Latinized name for the “moon.”    [MMa]   (Again: Tarzan and the Valley of Luna was the title  for All-Story’s 1920 publication containing chapters 14-24 of the story we know as Tarzan the  Untamed.   [TU]

Lunar 8th Ray  --  Buoyancy element stored in the tanks of The Barsoom on it’s ill-fated voyage in 2026.  [MMa]

Lu-thans  --  Powerful Va-gas tribe of quadruped creatures of Va-nah, the inner lunar world.  They are defeated by the No-van tribe in a terrific battle.  [MMa]

Mare Crisium  --   Crater of the moon described by Julian 5th as The Barsoom passed close to the moon on the way to Mars.   [MMa]

Mars Day  --  June 10, 1967; the day on which radio communication was established between Earth and Mars.   [MMa]

Mik-do  --  The honorable ancestor or Mikado of the pygmy race of “Nipons” who live in the canyons above Santa Monica in 2430;  The Nipons call him the first Nipon.  He is a giant from a island in the middle of the sea.  When they die, the Nipons believed they will join Mik-do on that island.  The Nipons consider their Mik-do eternal.  (This is ERB’s projected image of the West Coast Japanese in a futuristic society.)   [MMa]

mines, the   --  Kalkar punishment for night trading is to be sent to work in the coal mines south of Joliet. The usual term is ten years for night trading.  No one ever returns from the mines.  There are many escapes from the poorly guarded mines, but the escapees are always informed upon by the area farmers because the farmers are killed by the Kalkars if the prisoner is not recaptured.   [MMa]

Moh-goh  --  Name of the Laythean Paladar, a Count, who is a prisoner of the Kalkars and accompanies Julian 5th in the escape to Laythe.   [MMa]

Montana goats  --  Long-haired goats, Angoras, raised by Julian 8th’s family.   [MMa]

Moon Maid, the --  Another named used for Nah-ee-lah, daughter of Sagroth, Jemadar of Laythe.  She is of the U-ga race.  When the Kalkars overrun Laythe she leaves Va-nah for Earth with Julian 5th.  Also the title of Part I of the trilogy; also used in reference to all three parts of the trilogy.    [MMa]

Nah-ee-lah  --  The Moon Maid, daughter of Sagroth, Jemadar of Laythe, of Va-nah, the inner lunar world. She is of the U-ga race.  She is about eighteen years old with a marble whiteness to her skin. She has hair of raven glossy blackness, black eyebrows in pencil arches, black eyes, and cheeks of deep cream.  She wears a sleeveless tunic that scare comes to the knees.When the Kalkars overrun Laythe she leaves Va-nah for Earth with  Julian 5th.   They marry and have a son, Julian 6th.   [MMa]

Nallah  --  Sister of Julian 20th, the Red Hawk, in 2430.   [MMa]

Neeta  --  Sister of Julian 20th, the Red Hawk, in 2430.   [MMa]

Nipons  --   Race of Japanese pygmies encountered by the Red Hawk in the canyons above the Santa  Monica coastal regions.  “Saku” is their leader. They are three feet tall and go naked.  They are slant-eyed.  They are a happy free people that believed they will join Mik-do on a island when they die.  They are independent from Kalkar rule. They will fight the Kalkars when necessary but prefer to avoid direct confrontation.  The Kalkars pretty much leave them alone.  They live in teepees which are lashed together at the top and are covered with a patchwork of sewn animal skins.  Their principal weapons are bows and arrows.  They have dogs and tiny woolly horses. The horses are half normal size with huge bellies, uncouth heads, and enormous ears. They look like they are part sheep, part horse, and part long eared desert rabbit.  (see also:  Saku and Mik-do)   [MMa]

Nonovar  --  “Princess” in the language of the U-gas of Va-nah, land of the inner moon.  [MMa]

Norton, Ens.  --  Seventeen year old ensign aboard The Barsoom under the command of Julian 5th.  He graduated top in his class.  The knowledge he gained from his association with Orthis allows him to successfully repair The Barsoom so they can return to Earth.  [MMa]

No-vans  --  A tribe of Va-gas, quadruped creatures of Va-nah, by whom Julian 5th and Orthis are captured. They later also capture Nah-ee-lah, the Moon Maid.  The No-vans are ruled by a chieftain named Ga-va-go (q.v.).   [MMa]

Oak Park  --  Part of the Chicago teivos of Juana St. John’s father:  “Our house was one of the few that remained from ancient times.  It was of solid concrete and stood upon the corner of two roads...”  (Note:  ERB, along with Ernst Hemingway and Frank Lloyd Wright, were famous Oak Parkers who are currently celebrated in tourist brochures from the Frank Lloyd Wright foundation of Oak Park.)   [MMa]

Oceanus Procellarum  --  Crater of the moon described by Julian 5th as The Barsoom passed close to the moon on the way to Mars.   [MMa]

Okonnor  --  American warrior of pure blooded descent, who as one of Raban, the giant’s, men.  He helps capture the Red Hawk and then helps to free him.   [MMa]  (Note:  This is one of ERB’s variations of Verner’s Law to suit a futuristic society.)

ola  --  A lunar time period equal to six hours and thirty-two minutes of Earth time. (See: ula)   [MMa]

Old Bridge, The  --  Ruined bridge near the farm of Julian 8th and family; a local landmark of 22nd century Chicago.   [MMa]

Old Glory  --  A forbidden relic of the 22nd century Earth; the American flag of his forefathers, saved by Julian 8th to hand down to his posterity as a means of keeping their racial heritage alive.  It had been carried to the Argonne (Flag of Argon) during the Great War.   (See also: Flag) [MMa]

On to Chicago!  --  Slogan of the prisoners of the Kalkar coal mines after they killed all of the guards.   [MMa]

“Onward Christian Soldiers”  --  Title of a Christian hymn written by Martin Luther, a 16th monk, whose writings caused a great religious movement called the Reformation,  the object of which was to reform the Roman Catholic Church, which led to the establishment of Protestant churches.  The song was sung at the illegal church service attended by Julian 5th and Juana St. John.   [MMa]

Opollonius  --  Volcano on the surface of the moon mentioned by Julian 5th when The Barsoom passes close to the surface.   Possibly a typo for “Apollonius,” greatest of the Greek mathematicians  (flourished 247-205 BC) who introduced the standard terms used in modern study of celestial mechanics such as; ellipse and parabola.  Apollonius did research in Lunar Theory, and one of the volcanic craters of the moon is named for him.   [MMa]

opsidian  --   Stone indigenous to the inner moon.  Described as a lava glass with which Julian 5th and Nah-ee-lah use to cut a tree and fashion a pole in order to gain entrance to the tunnel that they  think leads to Laythe.   [MMa]

Orthis, Lt. Commander  --  Air School classmate and rival of Julian 5th;  the brilliant villain of The Moon Maid.  His descendants are at war with the descendants of Julian for fifteen generations until Julian 20th , the Red Hawk marries Bethelda, an Or-tis descendant.   (See also:  Or-tis)   [MMa]

Or-tis  --   Lunar name for the arch-fiend Orthis, Jemadar of Jemadars of Va-nah;  also the name of his  descendants;  in the history of Julian 9th, Or-tis appears as a commander of the Kash Guard, Brother General Or-tis.  In the Red Hawk’s time the Jemadars are from the house of Or-tis.  All the Or-tis families are of pure American blood until a villainous uncle, with Kalkar blood, has the    true Or-tis assassinated and becomes a false Or-tis.  (see also:  Orthis, Lt. Commander)  [MMa]

Paladar  --  Roughly analogous to “Count”;  title of Moh-goh the Laythean.   [MMa]

Pandora’s Box --  In Greek mythology, a woman given a box by Zeus from which all human ills escaped when she opens it.  In The Moon Maid  Julian 5th describes their close passing of the   moon as “a veritable Pandora’s box of thrills...”   [MMa]

Pasadena  --  Kalkar camp near the banks of a once mighty river, on an ancient American site fifty miles west of the battlefield where Julian 20th  was captured.  (It relates to the Southern California city of Los Angles County, at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains.)   [MMa]

Providence  --  A manifestation of divine care or direction;  At the start of Julian 5th’s history he states: “But it seems Providence never intended that the world should be without calamities.”  [MMa]   (An observation:  In Part I Providence is the only mention of God -- In Part II God is freely mentioned by the pure Americans -- In Part III God seemed to have been replace by the Flag. - DJA)

Pthar  --  The name of a “coal baron” in the days of the Kalkar occupation of Earth;  he was a Kalkar who  marries and mistreats a “renegade Yank” and whose little girl is saved from a mad bull by Julian  9th.   [MMa]

Quaker  --  Cited as a religious sect of ancient times from which Juana St. John’s parents were descended. (Quakers, of the Religious Society of Friends, originated in the middle of the 17th century under  George Fox, who taught that “ministers” were an unnecessary intermediary between the human soul and God.)   [MMa]

Raban  --  A nine foot tall Kalkar giant who “rides a great horse and covers himself with iron.”  He is a great robber and the hereditary enemy of the Nipons.  He perpetuates the belief that he is a cannibal.  He claims to eat the hearts of brave warriors.  He was born in The Capital and killed his mother when he was ten.  He has almost no forehead as his hair meets his shaggy eyebrows.  He has small close set eyes and a coarse nose.  His whiskers, as his hair, grows in all different directions.  He has a bestial countenance.  He abducts Bethelda and is killed by Julian 20th, the Red Hawk, in 2430 A.D.   [MMa]

radar  --  Writing in 1919, ERB gives a prediction concerning the development of radar:  “About 1940 had  come the perfection of an instrument which accurately indicated direction and the distance of the   focus of any radioactivity with which it might be attuned.”  (Observation supplied by Forrest J. Ackerman.)   [MMa]

radium  --  A very rare and precious element that gives off radiations that are useful in medicine and the physical sciences.  Discovered in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie.  Julian 5th describes radium as lighting the tunnels that lead to the cities inside the craters of Va-nah.  (Note:  Light probably the same as the light giving off by the old radium watch dials.)   [MMa]

Rain Cloud  --  Sixteen year old brother of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th, who was courageous but disliked bloodshed:  “I consider Rain Cloud braver than I, for I knew that he would do well the thing he hated, while I would be only doing well the thing I loved.”   His intellectual questioning of commonly held knowledge, like the ‘flat Earth belief’ of the clans, gives hope that  mankind will return to the advancement of civilization when the Great Feud is over.  [MMa]

Rattlesnake, the  --  A war chief among the clans of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th, in 2430 A.D.   [MMa]

Red Hawk  --  War chief of the 25th century A.D.  Chief of Chiefs over fifty clans.  It is the name of Julian 20th.  He wears the single feather of the red-tailed hawk, symbol of his clan.  He has black hair and wears a buckskin thong headband.  He has a  mother, two brothers, and two sisters. He is born in the year 2414 A.D., tracing his direct line of ancestry back 514 years to Julian 1st, born 1869. The Red Hawk was the original title of Part III of the Moon Maid trilogy.  It was first published in All-Story Weekly in three installment, September, 1925.   [MMa]

Red Hawk’s People --  They are a desert people numbering one hundred clans.  Their skin is bronzed, and they are beardless.  They wear painted insignias of their clan on the foreheads, cheeks, and breast.  The signs are painted in colors which include orche, blue, white, and scarlet.  They eat well on beef, mutton, venison, bear, fish, potatoes, beans, corn, figs, dried grapes, and dried plums.  They wear buck deer breeches wide about the hips and are skin tight above the knees.  Their boots are soft and tied at the calf of the leg.  They wear sleeveless vests which are decorated with stone or metal -- some in definite designs.  A symbol of the clan hangs from the  headband of the chiefs and warriors.  The warriors are armed with a light lance, about eight feet in length; a knife; a straight two edged sword; a short bow found under the right stirrup; and a quiver with arrows at the saddlebow.  Oval shields which cover from the neck to the kidneys are carried on their backs .  The shields are decorated with a picture of the clan sign and have parts of that symbol decorating it’s edges.  They use hounds to protect their herds of pigs, cattle, sheep and horses.  They have but one goal in their lives - to drive the Kalkars into the sea.  Unlike Julian 9th people who could see the ruins of civilization like trains and planes, Red Hawk’s people don’t believe the stories the slaves tell of iron horses which pulled tents of iron and of men flying through the air.  They believe the world is flat, and that if you sailed far enough into the great sea, you would fall off the edge.  They bow down to the Flag.  Their religion is that of the Flag.

Red Lightning  --  Beautiful bay stallion bought from Hoffmeyer (q.v.) and trained by Julian 9th.  When the    horse’s reputation as a killer endangers Hoffmeyer’s life, Julian trades one goat for him. The name Red Lightning is perpetuated, and we find Julian 20th, Red Hawk, also riding a black maned  bay stallion of this name -- the 30th direct descendant of Julian 9th’s horse. The Great Chiefs blanket is carried behind the saddle.  (Note:  ERB was a great horse trainer and relates in his unpublished autobiography a similar case in which he conquered    a killer-horse with love thus transforming him into the envy of the stables.  His fictional heroes frequently catch and tame wild horses, as in the case of  “Ace” in Caspak.)    [MMa]

Red Plant  --  The planet Mars also known as Barsoom.   [MMa]

Rock, the  --  A war chief of the clans of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th.  Other chiefs included the Wolf, the Coyote, and the Rattlesnake.    [MMa]

Rustic Canyon  --  Ancient American site above Santa Monica Canyon by the Pacific where the Red Hawk,  Julian 20th, rides on his bay stallion, Red Lightning, in his escape from the Kalkar Capitol, in 2430 A.D.   [MMa]

rympth  --  A five foot long snake with four legs, found on Va-nah, the inner lunar world;  it has a flat head with a single eye in the center of it’s forehead.  It is poisonous as food.  The inhabitants of Va-nah use the term in derision when applied to another human being, much as “jalok” is used in Pellucidar and “calot” on Barsoom.   [MMa]

Sagroth  --  Name of the U-ga chieftain, Jemadar of Laythe, and the father of Nah-ee-lah of Va-nah, the inner world.     [MMa]

Saku  --  Name of the Chief of the Nipons, a pygmy race of Japanese ancestry living in the West Coast canyons near Santa Monica, California in 2430 A.D.   He is three feet tall with wrinkled brown  skin.  He is slant-eyed and has stiff hair that goes in all directions.   [MMa]

Salt Creek  --  Location of a tax collection station and market place southwest of the Oak Park teivos  (q.v.) into which Juana St. John was born.    [MMa]

slaves  --  In Part I, The Moon Maid, they are old retainers who stay with the U-gas even in exile after the Kalkar uprising.  In Part III, The Red Hawk, they are so-called by the Kalkars, or what the ancients called “In-juns.”  They have tribal names which they use only amongst themselves. Names like Hopi, Navaho, Mojave, Apache, and Yaqui.  They tell stories of iron horses which pull   tents of iron and of men flying through the air. Red Hawk’s people do not believe these stories. Amongst the clans of Red Hawk the slaves, native American Indians, are weavers, potters, and farm workers.  One of them predicts to Red Hawk that, like the mountains, they will still be there after all the Yanks and Kalkars are dead and forgotten.   [MMa]

Samuels, Moses --  Name of the kindly Jewish tanner of the earth commune and neighbor of Juana St. John and Julian 9th.  He is tortured to death by the Kalkars for information about the secret church.  His death is avenged many time over by his friends during the revolution.  Also known as “Old Samuels” or  “Samuels the Jew” or  simply “Moses” to his friends.     [MMa]

San Juan  --  Ancient American battle in which Julian 8th ancestors fought bravely.  He recalls this as he is frustrated over his own submission to the Kalkar rule.  [MMa]

Santa Monica Canyon  --  Ancient Pacific site visited by Red Hawk, Julian 20th, in 2430 A.D. during his escape from the Kalkars,  invaders of the Earth.   [MMa]

Secchi  --  Volcano on the surface of the moon mentioned by Julian 5th when The Barsoom passes close to the surface.  Named after Angelo Secchi,  Italian astronomer (1818-1878), a pioneer in identifying the volcanoes of the moon.  [MMa]

Secretary of Commerce White --  Name of Earth government official.  At the start of The Moon Men he has just died and the President has asked the storyteller, ERB, to replace him.   [MMa]

Secretary of Peace  --  Earth official of the International Peace Force to whom Julian 5th attempts to report the sabotage of Orthis aboard The Barsoom only to find that Orthis has also sabotaged the radio transmission device.   [MMa]

Sheehan, Molly  --  The name of the ‘woman’ (marriages are illegal) of Jim Thompson, best friends and neighbors of  Julian 9th family. She plays the violin at the secret church.   [MMa]

Sinius Roris --  Crater of the moon described by Julian 5th as The Barsoom passed close to the moon on the way to Mars.   [MMa]

Soor  --  Name of the cowardly Kalkar tax collector of the conquered races of Earth during the time of  Julian 9th.  He is a small man with massive red hair.  He has thin nose and small close set eyes. He causes Julian to be arrested and brought before Brother General Or-tis.   [MMa]

St. John, Juana  --  pronounced ‘Whanna.’  Name of the chosen mate of Julian 9th during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  She wears a tunic, breeches and boots.  She has a wide headband with numerous tiny shells forming a pattern.She survives his death, carrying his child in her womb.   [MMa]

Tav  --   Name of the cowardly Kalkar warrior in the service of the giant Raban.  He, along with Okonnor, capture the Red Hawk for Raban (q.v.).   [MMa]

teivos  --  A geographical district or locale (usually a city) of the Kalkars;  Julian 9th relates:  “I was born in the teivos of Chicago, January 1st, 2100.”  A second meaning is the administrative body of The  Twentyfour (q.v.).  Also used capitalized.   [MMa]

Thinkers, The  --  Name for the revolutionaries who overthrow the central government of the dominant lunar race of Va-nah and drive the nobility into exile, destroying learning and initiates a dark age of barbarism.  The word Kalkar derives from the Luna word for thinkers.    [MMa]

Thompson, Jim  --  Name of a farm neighbor and best friend of Julian 9th and his family.  His “woman” is Molly Sheehan -- marriage having been declared illegal by the Kalkar conquerors in the 22nd century A.D.   [MMa]

tor-ho  --  Savage reptilian carnivore of Va-nah with a cat-like face and head;  it is about two feet high with sharp curved fangs, four legs, no hair, poisonous talons, and poisonous bite.  Bloodthirsty, it will attack anything but mainly feeds upon rympth and flying toads. Also spelled “tor-hos.”  [MMa]

Twentyfour, The  --  Governing body of the Kalkars of Va-nah whose jurisdiction was extended to Earth during the lunar conquests.   [MMa]

Twenty Four, The  --  Derivation of The Twentyfour (q.v.);  in The Moon Men it becomes a name that stands for power, government, and tyranny.   [MMa]

Tycho  --  Volcano on the surface of the moon mentioned by Julian 5th when The Barsoom passes close to the surface.  Named after Tycho Brahe, Danish astronomer (1546-1601), who helped identify the craters of the moon.  [MMa]

U-ga  --  The dominant human race of Va-nah, the lunar inner world.  They are mountain dwellers who measure time by the periods of light or dark coming through the Hoos (q.v.).   [MMa]

(See ula in the glossary for a detailed explanation of time periods.)  The U-gas in the city of Laythe are ruled by Sagroth, the father of Nah-ee-lah, the moon maid.  Gentlemen of this race carry, as their custom, a short lance or javelin, a dagger, and a sword.  Many U-ga hunters carry a coil of rope around their bodies underneath their clothing.  The rope is used for emergencies such as to gain entrance to tunnels below the crater’s edge.  Many U-gas are also quite adept in the use of wings and gas bags for flying.  Their national sport is swimming and diving.  The U-gas are attended to by servants who are descendants of their old faithful servitors.  The U-gas also fear Zo-al.

ula  --  Lunar time period of Va-nah equal to a sidereal month and measured by the period during which the lunar craters (Hoos) are illuminated.  Each ula is divided into a hundred sub-divisions called “ola” (which lasts about six hours and thirty-two minutes Earth time).  Ten ula constitute a lunar year or “keld” (equal to 272 days of Earth time).   [MMa]

Utaws  --  Desert race which trades metal goods to the clans of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th.  Their metal is used chiefly for the shoeing of horses, since the quality of the metal to the clan’s of Red Hawk is inferior to that of the Kolrados (q.v.).  [MMa]

United Teivos of America  --  Kalkar term for the United States of America during their occupation.  Jarth is the Jemadar, emperor, during the time of Julian 9th.   [MMa]

Va-gas  --  Warlike cannibal race of quadruped creatures on Va-nah, the inner moon;  they are a three toed quadruped with no tail or ears and human-like faces.  They have been seen “...clearing spaces of one hundred feet in a single bound...”  Living on their own in the lowlands they are fierce and nomadic tribes.  They use weapons and have a rudimentary social structure.  The U-ga and the Kalkars breed them in captivity as fat, content, and stupid livestock.  [MMa]

Their profile is much like the North American Indian.  They have a lavender hue skin which is almost purple in some cases.  They avoid water and bathe only out of necessity.  Their main diet is “flesh” which can be U-ga or Kalkar, but most often is the flesh of the Va-gas themselves, either from their own tribe or from enemy tribes  --  they are cannibals.  Va-gas meat that can not be used immediately is wrapped and buried as it will stay fresh almost indefinitely.  They supplement their diet with fruits, herbs, and nuts.  They can survive only on these supplements when no flesh is available;  although, they get very testy when deprived of flesh for any length of time.

 Two tribes are known by name:  the No-vans who captured Julian 5th, Orthis, and Nah-ee-lah;  and the  Lu-thans, a powerful tribe who is defeated by the No-vans.

 The Va-gas have clothing over their bodies that ends just above the knees and has a geometric design on the end of each leg.  The females clothing is less ornate and the young go naked.  The males are fierce warriors with harnesses and breaching straps crossing each side which ends at a collar.  A circular ornament covers where the straps cross.  From the right side hangs a knife in a sheath, and from the left is a short spear that is carried in a boot.  The spear is about six feet in length with a crescent shaped hook-arm backwards on one side and a short sharp point at right angles opposite of the crescent on the other side.  They are very adroit with spears and will thrown them backwards using the hook-arm to pin an enemy to the ground.

 The males are fierce warriors weighing from 250 to 300 pounds.  They raise up on their hind legs to fight and use weapons in both fore-paws.  They can  run at great speeds even with weapons in both fore-paws.  They have been seen “...clearing spaces of one hundred feet in a single bound...”  They  follow the orders of a chief, who is the strongest and most brutal of the group, but he must also be intelligent enough to find food for the tribe and protect them from enemies and storms.  When the tribe gets to be large and successful, they also tend to become different about security making them vulnerable to attack from other tribes.

 The females are smaller than the male.  They have udders with four to six teats; having litters up to six.  The females make up 5/6 of the adult population because the males are constantly being killed in battles.    The females are prized as breeders so they are never eaten as food.  The three main causes of death in females are:  1. killed by other tribes in a battle;  2.  jealously; and 3.  child birth.  The gestation period varies greatly upon the climate of the time as well as the availability of flesh as food.

 The children  mature very quickly and are nursed for a short time.  Once their molars appear, they become meat eaters.  About 2/3rds of the children born are male.  The males quickly adopt vicious games and play activities.  This training is necessary to become a ruthless fighter because a wounded warrior will have his throat cut immediately and become food for the tribe.  They don’t even wait until the battle is over to dispose of their fellow creatures.

   Their language (indeed, seems to be the only language on Va-nah) is described as a song, almost operatic.  Their language is sung to a five-note scale (A; B; C; D; and E), each pitch carrying a different meaning to the word or syllable intoned.  Using the word gu-e-ho, an unidentified word, as an example:  ‘Gu’ sung in A means something different than sung in E;  ‘Gu’ sung in A followed by ‘e’ sung in G means something different other than ‘Gu’ sung in D followed by ‘e’ sung in A.  Thus, there are 27 possible meanings to a three syllable word depending how it is sung and in what order.  No words are longer than three syllables with most of them being two syllables in length.

 Living on their own in the lowlands they are fierce and nomadic tribes.  They live in rectangular huts.   The huts’ high peaked roofs are shingled with broad round leaves.  There is but a single opening into the hut covered by a hanging.  The interior walls are decorated with weapons, skulls of enemies, and bones.

 They seem to have little, if any, religious beliefs.  One common belief in Va-nah is in Zo-al.  Zo-al  is mythological.  He is considered to be a “great beast” who lives in the depths of the lunar craters and when angry;  “Makes the air run away ...” --wind;  “... water to fall where there is no water...” -- rain;  “... great noise...”  --  thunder;  and “... light that devours...”  --  great balls of fire that travel across the land destroying everything in it’s path.  A storm could last for days with lower areas like gullies and valleys completely filling with flood waters.  Zo-al is a deification of lunar electrical storms.  All inhabitants of Va-nah are terrified by Zo-al.

 In captivity, the U-ga and the Kalkars breed the Va-gas as sleek, fat, content, stupid, and unimaginative livestock .

Va-nah  --  Name for the inner world of the moon used by it’s inhabitants.   [MMa]

Va-nah is lit by a soft defused light which comes from the radium content of the soil and rocks, and  from the sunlight coming through the Hoos.  The interior has no horizon line as if you are in the bottom of a great bowl (much like that of Pellucidar).  No shadows are cast on the ground, and there is no night time.  Because the plant life is in all stages of development from seedling to withering, it is impossible to tell a particular season or time a day.  The middle areas are at a constant eighty degrees Fahrenheit with a few degrees difference from summer to winter;  however, there is a great temperature difference between the mountain areas and the valleys.  The mountains, with five mile drops, are covered with verdure and are snow and ice capped.  The clouds are fleecy, but there are frequent wind storms due to the unequal crater openings and an unequal absorption of heat from the sun.  These storms are quite violent and cause fear amongst the inhabitants who personify the storm with the name Zo-al.  Centrifugal force and gravity keep the atmosphere’s visibility to about fifty miles.  Va-nah contains strange forests with strange trees, some of which carry fruit of different sizes, forms and colors.    The smaller plant life is in pale hues of lavenders, violets, pinks, and yellows.  The grasses are pink which turn flesh color at maturity.  Flowers are complex forms and are of pale and delicate shades.  Low shrubs bear fruit which are berry like and are of an unknown nutritional value.  There are three oceans of undetermined size.  The water from streams and rivers is fit for human consumption.  There is a singular race of people who have two basic groups of peoples:  the U-gas and the Kalkars.  The Va-gas are considered to be animals by the people of Va-nah; however,  they are capable of speech and form social groups on their own.  Three other life forms identified are reptilian in nature: the tor-ho, the rympth, and the flying toads.

 There are many tunnels through the craters which lead to cities.  They are located below the rims of the craters which makes access to them hazardous.  The tunnels are spherical in shape being formed by bubbles in the lava.  They generally lead upward.  They are well ventilated with the walls and ceilings lit by radium in the rocks.  One of the tunnels which leads to the Kalkar City No. 337 cul-de-sacs in a circular chamber.  The chamber contains a rostrum with a desk and a chair which is carved with unearthly breasts and reptiles.  Furthermore, it is filled with chairs in a rows and has a center aisle.  The purpose of this chamber is unknown.

Victor’s Day  --  Celebration of peace by the Anglo-Saxon race, following over fifty years of war beginning 1914 and ending 1967.   [MMa]

Vonbulen  --  Name of the villain who tries to steal Julian 9th “hereditary pen” (corral) in the Kalkar market place. He moved his pigs and grain into the stall.  He has a large mustache like the tusks of a boar.  He is bodily evicted by Julian.   [MMa]

Vulture, the  --  The eighteen year old younger brother of the Red Hawk, Julian 20th, and a valiant warrior among the desert tribes of 2430 A.D.    [MMa]

West, Lieutenant  --  Air School classmate of Lt. Jay and crew member aboard The Barsoom under the command of Julian 5th.   [MMa]

West Point  --  United States Military Academy;  located at West Point, New York;  it is commonly referred to as “West Point”.   Julian 1st graduated from there as well as numerous important American military leaders dating back to 1802.     [MMa]

wether  --  Sheep -- strictly speaking -- a wether is a male sheep castrated before sexual maturity.  Livestock taken to market by Julian 9th in the days of the Kalkar occupation of Earth.   [MMa]   (Tarzan and his party at Athne are served drugged wether stew for breakfast.)    [TMag]

Wolf, the --  A chieftain of the clans of Red hawk, Julian 20th, described as a “sinewy well built man of fifty, with piercing gray-blue eyes beneath straight brows.”  Kalkar scalps hang from his blanket. Each chief wears the clan’s symbol from their headbands;  thus, a wolf’s tail hangs from the headband of the Wolf.  He played a key role in the battle of Canjon Pass (q.v.) which is the beginning of the end for Kalkar rule.    [MMa]

Worth, Betty  --  Dennis Corrigan’s “woman” and member of the illegal underground church of Julian 9th. (Marriage vows have been forbidden by the Kalkar conquerors of the Earth.  ERB uses the same formula for his Venus series.)   [MMa]

Wright, Andrew  --  Name of a neighbor of Julian 9th and Juana St. John in the days of the Kalkar oppression.   [MMa]

Yank  --   Although the exact derivation of the word is still unknown, the most widely accepted theory is that it comes from the North American Indian word “Yengees” meaning “English”.  A term of derision applied to the descendants of Julian 5th during the Kalkar occupation of Earth.  To be found as a “Yank” by the Kalkars was to be branded a traitor and possession of a Yankee flag was   punishable by death.  By Red Hawk’s time the term has become meaningless but thought of be a term of honor.  [MMa]

Zo-al  --  Mythological god of the people of Va-nah, the inner moon;  considered to be a “great beast” who  lives in the depths of lunar craters and when angry, “Makes the air run away and the water to fall,” and great balls of fire travel across the land destroying all in their path.  He is deification of lunar  electrical storms.   [MMa]

“no learning is better than a little”

--   Popular saying of the Kalkars that is the basis of their philosophy. It becomes the reason they overthrew the Jemadars and why they  live in such a barbaric state.  [MMa]

The Moon Maid Text and 
ERBzine Bibliographic Entry:
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